thermodynamic arrow of time

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Laser, Universe and Arrow of Time

Laser, Universe and Arrow of Time

DOI: 10.4236/opj.2019.98012 131 Optics and Photonics Journal time, the direction in which entropy increases. Entropy increases with time be- cause we define the direction of time to be that in which entropy increases [9]. What was the connection between the cosmological arrow of time and others? Hawking put forth the controversial conjecture that although the three arrows all point in the same direction during the current expanding phase of the un- iverse, he believed that the no boundary proposal (which utilised closed universe doomed to eventually collapse in on themselves) would predict that when the universe began to contract, the thermodynamic arrow of time (and so by the previous arguments the psychological arrow of time as well) would reverse. He proposed that entropy would decrease rather than increase, meaning that things could became more ordered rather than random. Hawking’s proposal would also mean that people will grow younger rather than older. We would remember the future and have no knowledge of the past. However Hawking finally admitted that he had been wrong about the reversal of the thermo-dynamical and psy- chological arrow of time in a contracting universe. Hawking and Collins [10] connected the fact that the overall distribution of matter in the universe is re- markably similar in all direction we observe (isotropic) to the density perturba- tions in the early universe (which led to the creation of galaxies) and found that the balance to be highly unlikely. They came to the conclusion that we have ob- served the universe to be isotropic is therefore only a consequence of our own existence. If it were otherwise galaxies would not exist. With these concepts in mind Hawking pondered the problem of the three arrows of time and came to the conclusion that although the psychological and thermo dynamic arrows did not reverse during the contracting phase of the universe, it is only when the three arrows of time pointed in the same
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Entanglement Arrow of Time in the Multiverse

Entanglement Arrow of Time in the Multiverse

In this paper, we thus present a model of the quantum multiverse in which an arrow of time can be defined both for single universes and for the multiverse itself, within the framework of a quantum information theory of the whole multiverse. We shall take the point of view of Ref. [1], where the electromagnetic and the psycholog- ical arrows of time are consider consequences of the (classical) thermodynamic arrow of time. We would like to notice, however, that the latter might also be related to the quantum thermodynamical arrow of time provided that the brain might be considered as a quantum system, which is currently a matter of investigation (for a dis- cussion on the subject, see Ref. [26] and references therein). Nevertheless, we shall only deal with the thermo- dynamical, quantum and classical, arrow of time and its relationship with the large scale expansion of single universes.
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Initial Conditions for Defining an  Arrow of Time at the Start of  Inflation?

Initial Conditions for Defining an Arrow of Time at the Start of Inflation?

arrow of time state that as the Universe grows its temperature drops, which leaves less energy available to perform useful work in the future than that availa- ble in the past. Thus the Universe itself has a well-defined thermodynamic arrow of time. The problem of the initial configuration of the arrow of time, however, is not brought up. This paper is to initiate how to set up a well defined initial starting point for the arrow of time. Specifically re-setting the degrees of free- dom of about g ∗ ~ 100 -120 [2] of the electro weak era, to g ∗ ~ 1000 at the
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Time’s Arrow in a Finite Universe

Time’s Arrow in a Finite Universe

A rather trivial situation where assuming infiniteness tends to hide the real problem is the simple Martingale betting system and the so called St Petersburg paradox (see [9]): suppose we play heads or tails and we win the stake if the coin comes up heads and lose it if the coin comes up tails. If we double our bet after every loss, the first win will recover all previous losses plus win an amount equal to the original stake. Thus, if we have access to an infinite amount of money, eventually heads will sooner or later come up and the Martingale betting strategy will always generate a gain in the long run if we go on in this way. But, of course, if the assumption about infinite wealth is removed then we will instead have to face the opposite fate of a certain ruin within a finite time. Clearly, assumptions about infiniteness in physics are usually much more subtle than in this example. Nevertheless, it can be that we are making similar mistakes in cosmology.
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Mimicry in Achebe’s Arrow of God

Mimicry in Achebe’s Arrow of God

Moses Unachukwu was directly forced by the white man to follow their life style. Unachukwu was convinced of the white man’s power is it nothing but fear that compelled him to convert to the new religion. He envisioned the future and secured his place in the colonisation process. As a true “mimic man” he shows a greater degree of ambivalence. He is strongly influenced by his native Chief Priest of Idemili. He bluntly speaks against Mr. Goodcountry who calls the converts to kill the royal python. His great knowledge of the Bible also gives him confidence as points out that “neither the Bible nor the catechism asked converts to kill the python, a beast full of ill omen” (48). He tells the converts a story that proclaims the importance of the sacred-python. He tells that Umuaro actually was a union of seven villages. But the seventh village was destroyed as a result of the wrath of the God when the six brothers killed and cooked the meat of a royal python. After this incident the other villagers declared it as an abomination to kill the sacred python. Unachukwu convinces the coverts that killing a sacred-python will bring destruction. It is this same Unachukwu that preaches the power of the new religion. He is a firm believer of Christianity and considers Jesus as the real God and at the same time he values his native religion too. This simply reveals the ambivalence of Unachukwu. Mr. Goodcountry prefers to ignore Unachukwu for this ambivalence. Mr. Goodcountry scorns him: “You [Unachukwu] say you are the first Christian in Umuaro, you partake of the Holy Meal; and yet whenever you open your mouth nothing but heathen filth pours out” (49).
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Thermodynamic properties of muscle contraction models and associated discrete-time principles

Thermodynamic properties of muscle contraction models and associated discrete-time principles

The modeling of the active mechanical behavior of muscles has been the object of intense research since the seminal work of Huxley [12] modeling the attachment-detachment process in the actin–myosin interaction responsible for sarcomere contraction. Then, numerous extensions—mostly based on refinements of the chemical process introduced by Huxley—of the previous model have been proposed in order to take into account different time scales of the actin–myosin interaction. In particular several models have been developed to account for the power stroke phenomenon [4, 5,13, 20]. In parallel, the question of the thermodynamic balances associated with the chemical machinery was intensively studied, notably with the fundamental contributions of Hill [10, 11]. Note that these models are specific cases of molecular motors models without the natural diffusion introduced by the Fokker–Plank equation [2, 3, 14,18]. In this paper, our objective is to develop a formalism allowing to derive these thermodynamic balances for Huxley’s model and its extensions with an additional tracking of these balances at the discrete level after time-discretizing the model dynamics. Moreover, we present how these microscopic models can be incorporated into a macroscopic model of muscle fibers in the spirit of [2] with the aim of following these thermodynamic balances at the macroscopic level for
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TYPES OF EXSTROPHY OF URINARY BLADDER AND CONCOMITANT MALFORMATIONS

TYPES OF EXSTROPHY OF URINARY BLADDER AND CONCOMITANT MALFORMATIONS

Note the complete rectal prolapse (arrow 1), cxstrophied bladder (arrow 2),. ureteral openings (arrow 3), comiminication of the intestinovesical fistula (arrow 4), (ioul)le penis and[r]

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Boundary time crystals

Boundary time crystals

Conclusions - In this work we introduced boundary time crystals. In the same spirit as in the original defini- tion given in [9], in the BTC phase the time-dependent order parameter appears only in a portion of the sam- ple (at the boundary for simplicity). The phenomenon is analogous to surface critical phenomena. On looking at the reduced dynamics at the boundary, one observes that BTCs are intimately linked to the emergence of a periodic dynamics in some macroscopic observable of an open quantum many-body system. A crucial aspect of the whole picture is that the periodic motion should ap- pear only in the thermodynamic limit. We proposed an example of a BTC phase in a solvable model where its existence can be confirmed without resorting to any ap- proximation. We finally discussed that BTCs can also emerge from different mechanisms in topological systems. While completing this manuscript, a few works ap- peared [46, 47] analysing discrete time crystal phenomena in periodically driven dissipative systems.
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Development and analysis of arrow for archery

Development and analysis of arrow for archery

Archery has been used for centuries to hunt and combat. In the modern day, archery main uses are for sport and hunting. From the mid of 19 century, the attempt to turn archery as modern sport has been done and now it is even an official Olympic games. Since then, the factors that help to promote better shooting accuracy has been investigated scientifically. Archery equipment performance is divided into: 1) the performance of the bow launching the arrow; 2) the performance of the arrow in flight; and 3) for bowhunters, the performance of the arrow-broadhead combination on impact (Barton et al., 2012).
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Relativistic thermodynamic state functions from a time dilation perspective

Relativistic thermodynamic state functions from a time dilation perspective

moving observer, this also supports time dilation phenomenon as a slow rate of exchange of heat flux would result in a prolonged lifetime of heat engine that was sent on a journey. Lorentz transformation for heat flux also relates time dilation phenomenon with zeroth law of thermodynamics which explains the attainment of thermal equilibrium between bodies at different temperatures. Time require to achieve thermal equilibrium between two bodies at a different temperature will be dilated because heat flux will be observed to decrease for observers moving at fractions of the speed of light. Thus Lorentz transformation for heat flux given by Eq. (2) embraces time dilation phenomenon with the second and zeroth laws of thermodynamics.
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Conclusion: Arrow injuries still exist in developing societies. Arrow injuries are the result of tribal

Conclusion: Arrow injuries still exist in developing societies. Arrow injuries are the result of tribal

Arrow warfare and its resultant injuries is a rarity today due to availability of a wide range of modern firearm devices. Arrows are used for hunting and tribal wars in developing country.Arrow injuries are a special type of penetrating injuries and its management is still relevant in this century, more so because of the preponderance of tribal population in India. Tribal belts of malwa region of Madhya Pradesh where arrow injuries commonly encounter are jhabua, alirajpur, khargonand manawar. Arrow injuries incidents increase during tribal festival like bhagoria Diwali. Bhagoria festival is celebrated by the tribal people of Madhya Pradesh in India [1] (originally known as 'Malwa'). Also known as Bhagoria Haat Festival, during this festival, young boys and girls are allowed to elope after choosing their partners. The Bhagoria Haat Festival belongs to the local tribes called Bhils and Bhilalas.
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The Austrians and the Arrow Impossibility Theorem

The Austrians and the Arrow Impossibility Theorem

alternative states.” This terminology, Buchanan believes, is “singularly unfortunate” and “the source of the confusion” in Arrow. What confusion? That “between the definition of the social welfare function and the actual processes of choice: voting and the market” (Buchanan, 1954a: 114-115). But the confusion on this is one entirely manufactured by Buchanan: the SWF is the “actual process of choice”. By defining one, you necessarily define the other. Despite Arrow having said this in the clearest possible terms, Buchanan finds it necessary to introduce a distinction, such that these terms will no longer mean what Arrow meant by them. He immediately draws the consequence of his terminological adjustment: “As will be shown in this paper, the decision-making process may produce consistent choice, even though the rule which states the social ordering from the individual values may not exist” (Buchanan, 1954a: 115). So Buchanan’s protest is that the SWF, the market or planning process, should be considered both as a rule or programme for doing something, and as the implementation of that rule in some sequence of actions. But if the process which takes as inputs the individual orderings and produces as output the social ordering, if that process is regular, lawful, then a rule or law exists, whether we happen to know what it is or not. The process is the rule or law in action. There cannot be lawful decision-making process for which the rule may not exist. Buchanan summarises the Conditions and sets out Arrow’s conclusions. He then adds “But Arrow extends the argument to say that these ordinary decision-making mechanisms do not allow rational social choice. Now this is a horse of quite a different color, with which the Arrow argument should not legitimately concern itself at all” (Buchanan, 1954a: 115). This is a very strange comment to make, as, of course, it is the rationality of the social ordering emerging from any SWF whatever, which is at the heart of the problem Arrow is addressing. Why on Earth should Arrow not concern himself with it? The reason soon becomes clear. He is failing to understand the term rationality in the very precise and minimal sense which Arrow unambiguously gives it. This is not from ignorance. On other occasions Buchanan treats rationality in exactly the same way as Arrow does. In his paper on “Individual Choice in Voting and the Market” which appeared in the JPE later the same year, he refers in the text to “rationality in individual behavior” and explains in a footnote that “Rationality in individual behavior is defined in the normal manner, that is, the individual is able to rank
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Containment and Division:Evaluating class based metaphors in Higher Education

Containment and Division:Evaluating class based metaphors in Higher Education

Broadly speaking, we tend to think of time as an arrow of progress (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). For English speakers, time moves horizontally from birth to death (Boroditsky, 2000). Progress move diagonally from the bottom-up: that is, we move incrementally across the arrow of time where each success increases the trajectory of our progress. In contrast to the horizontal progression of time, value has a vertical hierarchy where high is good and low is bad (Johnson, 1990). We claim to feel down, or have our mood lifted (up). We might hear idioms such as “going up in the world” or “falling from a great height”. These conceptual geometries of value are explicit in our language: we have numerical sequences like primary, secondary, or tertiary; assessment is graded via alpha-numeric scales; we also have vertical sequences like lower, upper, and higher. Such geometries underpin our ways of thinking (see Chilton, 2014).
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Thermodynamic modeling, energy equipartition, and nonconservation of entropy for discrete time dynamical systems

Thermodynamic modeling, energy equipartition, and nonconservation of entropy for discrete time dynamical systems

Next, we give a deterministic definition of entropy for a large-scale dynamical sys- tem that is consistent with the classical thermodynamic definition of entropy and show that it satisfies a Clausius-type inequality leading to the law of entropy nonconservation. Furthermore, we introduce a new and dual notion to entropy; namely, ectropy, as a mea- sure of the tendency of a large-scale dynamical system to do useful work and grow more organized, and show that conservation of energy in an isolated thermodynamically con- sistent system necessarily leads to nonconservation of ectropy and entropy. Then, using the system ectropy as a Lyapunov function candidate, we show that our thermodynami- cally consistent large-scale nonlinear dynamical system model possesses a continuum of equilibria and is semistable; that is, it has convergent subsystem energies to Lyapunov sta- ble energy equilibria determined by the large-scale system initial subsystem energies. In addition, we show that the steady-state distribution of the large-scale system energies is uniform leading to system energy equipartitioning corresponding to a minimum ectropy and a maximum entropy equilibrium state. In the case where the subsystem energies are proportional to subsystem temperatures, we show that our dynamical system model leads to temperature equipartition, wherein all the system energy is transferred into heat at a uniform temperature. Furthermore, we show that our system-theoretic definition of entropy and the newly proposed notion of ectropy are consistent with Boltzmann’s kinetic theory of gases involving an n-body theory of ideal gases divided by diathermal walls.
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Macro- and microstructural descriptions of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver

Macro- and microstructural descriptions of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver

The same glycogen variability has been reported for Salmo trutta fario, which had a high content, especially in the reproductive period because there is great energy demand at this time to produce protein and synthesize lipid [10]. Finally, it was concluded that many factors interfere with glycogen levels because this content has been linked to energy production, suggesting that its demand depends on the physiological needs of the fish, especially during the evaluated time.

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Adsorption of Congo Red by Ni/Al-CO3: Equilibrium, Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies

Adsorption of Congo Red by Ni/Al-CO3: Equilibrium, Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies

Experimental investigations were carried out using Ni/Al-CO 3 layered double hydroxide as adsorbent for removal of toxic anionic dye namely Congo red from aqueous solutions. The effect of contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature were experimentally studied in batch mode to evaluate the kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process. Experimental results revealed that the degradation of the dye is mostly dependent on temperature. The dye degradation process obeyed the zero-order kinetic model, first-order kinetic model, second-order kinetic model, pseudo second order kinetic and third order kinetic model with correlation coefficient values 1, 0.9998, 0.9999, 0.9999 and 0.9997 respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevic isotherms were applied to the equilibrium data and was well described by all. Thermodynamic studies showed congo red adsorption on the layered double hydroxide was endothermic and spontaneous in nature. The results indicate that layered double hydroxide could be employed as alternative for removal of anionic dyes from industrial wastewater.
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Histopathologic and immunohistochemical investigations of dental abscess formed in maxillofacial area

Histopathologic and immunohistochemical investigations of dental abscess formed in maxillofacial area

Positive expression of ADAMTS4 in fibroblast cells (yellow arrow), osteoclast cells (green arrow), and some apoptotic leukocyte cells (red arrow).. Osteopontin (OPN) immunostaining.[r]

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The Development Of Newly Design Arrow For Slingshot Shooting

The Development Of Newly Design Arrow For Slingshot Shooting

In this project, the work scopes are divided into two that is in PSM 1 and the other in PSM 2. In PSM 1, the literature review were done by doing research on paper works like History of slingshots, Archery’s rules and regulation, Arrow anatomy study, Rapid Prototyping, Science and mathematics of arrow projectile. Next is to design and develop questionnaire for interview by using the information base on the research. After that, an interview with an expert is conducted by having Question & Answer (Q&A) session of the questionnaire that was developed before. And the final stage in PSM 1 is collects the data in the interview so that the design of the prototype can be developed.
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Is “Time” Speeding up?

Is “Time” Speeding up?

I am nearly 70 years old. Suppose that in every astronomical year ( i.e. , the time it takes the earth to revolve around the sun) I accumulate 10,000 more gray hairs (which is, unfortunately, the case!). Each of these 10,000 instances of hair-turning-gray is the result of numerous chemical reactions, each one of which is accompanied by a decrease in the free energy of the system. If, in the days of Adam, thermodynamic time, as de- fined here, was proceeding at only 1/10 the “speed” it proceeds at now, then in the same astronomical year, Adam would have accumulated only 1000 gray hairs—a mere 1/10 the number of gray hairs I accumulate in a modern year. In other words, if it takes 90 astronomical years for every hair on my head to turn gray, then it would take Adam 900 astronomical years to reach the same level of grayness.
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Time's arrow: heterochrony and the evolution of development

Time's arrow: heterochrony and the evolution of development

Many other examples of genetic heterochrony producing im- portant phenotypic change exist. Kim et al . (2000) study patterns of expression of the hairy gene, one of the pair-rule genes important in setting up initial segmentation pattern, in three different species of Drosophila . They find quantitative differences in the rate of gene expression and show that hairy expression varies with regard to absolute time in the three species, and also relative to cell cycle-dependent morphological differentiation. This result demonstrates not only shifts in developmental rate, but also dissociation of hairy expression and other events. The genetic heterochronies may correlate with changes in number or patterning of segments. Skaer et al . (2002) found that differences in bristle pattern in two closely related species of blowfly appeared to be due to changes in the timing of expression of important genes, rather than the spatial pattern of expression. Villani and Demason (1999, 2000) and Wiltshire et al . (1994) provide ex- amples of cases in which leaf morphological variation in Pisum sativum is generated largely through changes in the timing of expression of several genes, rather than shifts in the genes expressed or the spatial pattern of gene expression.
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