Experimental Investigation on thermoelectricgenerator system consisting couple of ThermoelectricGeneratormodules using two different energy sources, one is solar water heater and the other is gas cartridge heating torch is carried out. Solar energy is used to heat the water through solar water heater to supply heat at the hot side of Thermo Electric Generator (TEG) creating the temperature difference for power generation. This concept is suitable for hot atmosphere like summer season in India, solar radiation is high. The main objective of investigation is to study the performance of TEG for power generation using different energy source i.e. the low temperature source which is considered as the solar water heater and high temperature source as gas cartridge heating torch. The maximum temperature of the hot side of TEG modules that is attained from solar water heater and gas cartridge heating torch are 90 0 C and 300 0 C respectively. It is observed that hot side temperature through solar water heater is limited to 120 0 C. Therefore, operating temperature range for two energy sources is different. In order to check suitability of TEG module for power generation at low and high temperatures two TEG modules are utilized. TEG Module 1268- 4.3 and TEG Module 4199-5.3 are connected in series as well as parallel both combinations are investigated. Conversion efficiency of TEG is obtained maximum at higher temperature difference i.e. during gas cartridge heating torch.
This article presents a study of the influence of design parameters, such as the thickness and width of thermal fins and inter-fin grooves, on the performance of a thermoelectricgenerator for an automotive internal combustion engine. The overall dimensions of a thermoelectricgenerator and, as a consequence, the size of the surface, which exchanges heat with the exhaust gases, are often subject to limitations because it has to fit inside the vehicle’s exhaust system. Changing the thermoelectricgenerator body design by adding fins that increase the heat exchange area can significantly increase the amount of the recuperated thermal energy. However, it inevitably increases the exhaust gas pressure drop in the thermoelectricgenerator, which is certainly a negative impact on the internal combustion engine as a whole. According to our research methodology the fin thickness ranged from 0.75 to 5.0 mm and the groove width from 1.0 to 8.0 mm. Consequently, we considered 48 variants of the thermoelectricgenerator heat exchanger in total. The obtained results show a high degree of non-uniformity of temperature distribution in the cross sections of the thermoelectricgenerator, which leads to uneven heating of the thermoelectricgeneratormodules, reduced efficiency and overheating. This research enabled us to select a design of the fins, which allows to achieve the heat flow through the thermoelectricgeneratormodules of 19kW with exhaust gas pressure drop of 2.5 kPa, while taking into account additional technical solutions. This research helps to improve the technical and economic parameters of a thermoelectricgenerator for an automotive internal combustion engine at the model design stage, which significantly accelerates the process of its development. Subsequent laboratory tests of the developed thermoelectricgenerator model enable us to refine the parameters of the mathematical model and significantly improve accuracy of the calculations.
The conversion efficiency and electrical power generated by the solar thermoelectricgenerator system as a function of solar insolation shown in figure 11. The temperature difference across the thermoelectricgeneratormodules increases with solar insolation. A larger temperature difference across the thermoelectricgeneratormodules, which is proportional to the heat transfer rate, improves the thermal electromotive force generated by the Seebeck effect and increases the output electrical power . The output electric power of the solar thermoelectricgenerator system increased sharply with increasing solar insolation reaching a peak around noon . The conversion efficiency increases gradually with solar insolation, up to maximum value of 1.1217 %, and then it decreases. The conversion efficiency is the function of figure of merit, and hot and cold side temperatures. The maximum conversion efficiency is obtained at hot side temperature of 346 K.
In 2020 an estimated energy needs will increase by around 40% from current needs. Thermoelectrically technology is a major alternative source of energy in addressing the needs. Thermoelectrically can produce heat or cold. Thin shape, measuring 4 x 4 cm with a thickness of only 4 mm. Thermoelectrically generally wrapped by a thin ceramic rods containing bismuth telluride therein when fed a DC voltage of 12 volts to one side will be hot, while the other side gets cold. To be able to work optimally should be at thermoelectrically 5- 7 Ampere. How it works thermoelectrically, by making the heat on one side, then on the other hand, the heat will be absorbed until cold. Temperature difference between the hot and cold sides can reach 65 ° C. Thermoelectrically code printed on it, there are numbers 12 706, which means that the input voltage of 12 volts, the current optimal requested 6 amperes [1-2]. One obstacle facing Indonesia today is the imbalance between the power consumption requirements of customers compared with PLN's ability to provide electrical energy. So also on the issue of the depletion of oil reserves. As we know that fuel to produce electric energy sources derived from fossil energy sources such as coal and other fossil fuels. Fossil energy sources alone can be discharged at any time if the user is done continuously. To resolve the matter, PLN conduct electrical energy savings to consumers by seeking alternative energy sources to improve the efficiency of existing energy sources. In everyday life are common sources of thermal energy that is derived from various sources. The heat source can be derived from the Sun, fuel, food, friction, candles, gas stoves and others. Thermoelectric generation is a module that can generate electricity by harnessing the thermal energy source. Thermoelectric plants are environmentally friendly because it does not cause pollution [3-5].
The thermoelectric efficiency of a material can be characterized by a dimensionless universal Figure of Merit (ZT = σS 2 κ -1 T), where σ is electrical conductivity, S is Seebeck coefficient, κ is thermal conductivity and T is absolute temperature. TE materials can be divided in groups by appropriate working temperature range. At high temperatures (700-900 K) very promising materials are inorganic clathrates, with ZT near 1, half Heusler alloys with ZT > 0.6 and skutterudites with ZT above 1. [7-12] To achieve high ZT thermal conductivity should be low. Therefore, a general way to improve ZT is to decrease thermal conductivity of the material. Zhao et al. have demonstrated very high ZT > 2 in SnSe single crystals with ultralow thermal conductivity of 0.23 Wm -1 K -1 at 973 K.  A lot of present work is devoted for decreasing
John C. Bass , has stated that Thermoelectricmodules in use today have a COP of only about 0.5. This compares to COPs of larger scale machines, such as air conditioners and refrigerators at levels of 3.0 to 5.0. For electronic component cooling there is a new class of thermoelectric materials that has resulted from recent R&D. These are categorized as “low-dimensional” thermoelectrics and they have the potential to increase COP greatly. These are super-lattice thin-films, also called “quantum wells”. This type of structure provides higher value of figure of merit, ZT. This paper discusses new technology which is multi-layer quantum well (MLQW) that should increase the COP by four to five
communication module is actually the realization of the three sub-modules. The baud rate generator is used to produce a local clock signal which is much higher than the baud rate to control the UART receive and transmit; The UART receiver module is used to receive the serial signals at RXD, and convert them into parallel data; The UART transmit module converts the bytes into serial bits according to the basic frame format and transmits those bits through TXD.
Water scarcity is one of the burning issues of today’s world. Though the water covers more than two third (about 70%) of the earth’s surface but still fresh water which can be used for drinking and carrying out every day remains scarce. So, to overcome this we need to develop a method to condense water from air. However, in highly humid areas such as places close to the water source water can be obtained by condensing water vapour present in air. Here to develop water from air we use the convergent nozzle, axial fan, thermoelectric, filter and collecting tank etc. here the air from atmosphere is sucked by air fan through filter then pass it to through nozzle, which is provided with fins. While the air passing through the nozzle at exit of nozzle we place a thermoelectric to get the reduced pressure about 1atm and temperature about 18°C i.e. below the dew point temperature at that temperature and pressure the phase change takes place from the air to water thus the condensation takes place and forms the water. The power consumption for this process is very low and the obtained water is pure to drink safely.
Anatychuk and Havrylyuk  developed a test stand for measuring parameters up to 600°C that accounts for heat losses from the hot side to the surrounding environment. The test stand uses a heat meter attached to the cold side heat exchanger, which measures the heat flux flowing out of the module. The heat meter used was a reference material of known conductivity such that the exact heat rate could be calculated using the temperature difference measurement. At steady- state conditions, it was assumed that the amount of heat flowing in will be equal to the amount of heat flowing out of the module. In order to accommodate different-sized modules, the setup employed interchangeable heat meters with an area resembling the module being tested. To minimize errors, the hot side was well calibrated using a protective heater. The authors also calculated the uncertainty in measurement, which was found to be 3%.
As a measure against global warming, recovering waste heat and converting it into electrical energy is very effective. While there are various methods of recovering waste heat, much expectation is being entertained of the thermoelectric module that has no moving parts and that is capable of converting waste heat directly into electrical energy. Since discovery of the See beck effect, thermoelectricmodules have been studied for more than 180 years. Nevertheless, the thermoelectric module has not become widespread yet. The major reasonfor this is the low efficiencies of conventional thermoelectricmodules. In recent years, however, the characteristics of thermoelectricmodules have improved so much that the prospect of thermoelectric power generation has rapidly become very bright. This paper describes the current status of development and the economics of thermoelectricmodules for power generation.
Abstract— ThermoelectricModules are a useful way to extract waste energy such as exhaust heat from car engines. It works on the Seebeck effect, where an electromotive force will be generated when the junction of two dissimilar metals experience a temperature difference. The efficiency of these modules are low, but advantages of being small, lightweight and maintenance- free make it an attractive addition to applications where energy per unit weight or size is a primary factor. Among the key problems is obtaining a consistent voltage to power devices which depend on a consistent voltage more than maximum power. In applications where a higher voltage than the input voltage is needed, a boost convertor is able to reach the desired voltage at the expense of reducing current. This experiment aims to assess the performance of thermoelectricmodules when connected to a boost convertor, taking into account: input and output voltage, current and power, as well as convertor efficiency against various temperature differences. The experimental test rig is using two HZ-20 thermoelectricmodules connected in series to a 0.9-5V to 5V boost convertor. The hot side of the thermoelectricmodules were heated through a heating block while the cold side were water cooled at room temperature through cooling blocks. The surface temperature region near the hot air inlet and outlet is measured using a temperature sensors and thermal imager. Testing showed that at a temperature difference of 71 , the input voltage and current of 1.76V and 0.76A were increased and decreased respectively to 4.17V and 0.17A. At a temperature difference of 135 , the input voltage and current of 4.09V and 0.89A were increased and decreased respectively to 5.14V and 0.66A. It was also noted that the efficiency of the boost conversion increases with temperature difference, ranging from 53% at 71 to 93% at 135 . In conclusion, the usage of a boost convertor is able to increase the input voltage, decrease the input current, and reduce the range of output voltage over a range of temperature differences. The conversion process is also more efficient when the input voltage is close to the desired output voltage.
In this section, we consider applications of self-cogenerator and self- generatormodules in other modules, in particular in Baer, dual Baer and extending modules. This is the focus of our investigations in this paper. We provide some additional motivation as follows. In , Ka- plansky introduced the concept of a Baer ring. A ring R is called Baer if the right annihilator of any nonempty subset of R is generated by an idempotent. According to , M is called a Baer module if the right annihilator in M of any left ideal of S is a direct summand of M . Following , a module M is called a dual Baer module if for every right ideal I of S, P
transportation is responsible for increasing the use of internal combustion engines. IC engine is the device of high energy usage with low efficiency because maximum amount of energy produced during combustion is lost in the form of heat. As the amount of loss is extremely high, there is a need to control this loss. This paper focuses on the recovery of waste heat from exhaust pipe using a thermoelectricgenerator. TEG is a device which converts thermal energy directly into electrical energy. An experiment is carried out with four different types of vehicles. Results based on observations and graphs were discussed.
Based on Seebeck effect, the thermoelectricmodules have ability to directly transfer heat into electric energy. Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs) are very attractive devices for harvesting waste thermal energy applications, for instance, powering wireless autonomous sensors . The TEG devices have advantages such as silently operation, no moving parts and high reliability. It is the best approach for powering the devices in locations where there are poor levels of illumination but sufficient waste heat.
With the aim of utilizing dissipated heat through thermoelectric effect using PCM, heat is stored in a tank, to get greater temperature for the hotter side of the thermoelectric module. The exhaust is passed through the tank in a spiral coiled tube in two pipes. The digital thermometer is use on the way to measure temperature at inlet and exit of tank. The similar arrangement to measure hot temperature at the two points where modules are placed is also done. For colder side of module, two sources, one as air and other water is used which is passed through the heat sink which has finned internal structure is made; a digital thermometer is again placed for measuring the cold side temperature. Thus, temperature is recorded at a total of 5points. A digital multimeterbeuse on the way to assess open circuit electrical energy, and hence power is measured, which is compared with the theoretically calculated power. Different readings are taken for different arrangements, such as, at different time intervals at all points mentioned above for different loads applied on engine, such that temperature increase can be noted at different places and steady nature can be obtained. Once, got steady state, for some time, it’s called charging. The similar procedure is repeated during discharging phase, when engine is stopped, and the measurements are taken at all points till it becomes steady with environment. The total time for charging and discharging in all the different cases is measured and compared.
With progressively stringent fuel consumption regulations, many researchers and engineers are focusing on the employment of waste heat recovery technologies for automotive applications. Regarded as a promising method of waste heat recovery, the thermoelectricgenerator (TEG) has been given increasing attention over the whole automotive industry for the last decade. In this study, we first give a brief review of improvements in thermoelectric materials and heat exchangers for TEG systems. We then present a novel design for a concentric cylindrical TEG system that addresses the existing weaknesses of the heat exchanger. In place of the typical square-shaped thermoelectric module, our proposed concentric cylindrical TEG system uses an annular thermoelectric module and employs the advantages of the heat pipe to enhance the heat transfer in the radial direction. The simulations we carried out to verify the performance of the proposed system showed better power output among the existing TEG system, and a comparison of water-inside and gas-inside arrangements showed that the water-inside concentric cylindrical TEG system produced a higher power output.
The utilization of alternative energy conversion systems like using thermoelectric generators (TEG) increases the overall efficiency of the automobile and promises a higher electrical power output.TEG extracts the waste thermal energy from the exhaust and converts it into electrical power. It works on the principle of Seebeck effect. This review focuses on matlab/simulink based analysis of systems, techniques and models devised especially in last decade concerning the use of thermoelectric generation in field of automobiles. TEGs operate by developing potential by the virtue of temperature difference.
output clock frequency of baud rate generator should be 1* 9600Hz. Therefore the frequency coefficient (M) i.e. counts value of the baud rate generator is: M =50MHz/1*9600Hz=5208 When the UART receives serial data, it is very critical to determine where to sample the data information. The ideal time for sampling is at the middle point of each serial data bit.
designed in a FEM environment (see Figure 8) through which the temperature distribution in each part of the prototype cooling assembly and the contacts between them were explored. Customized packages for heat- transfer simulation inside moulds were not appropri- ate due to the limited input designs; in those pack- ages it is not possible to implement a device like a TEM working as a heat pump, and also the contacts seen in Figure 6 cannot be properly described. For simulating physical properties inside a developed pro- totype a simulation model was constructed using the COMSOL Multiphysics software. This package ena- bles multiphysics modelling, taking into account sev- eral physical phenomena (heat transfer, fluid flow, elec- tromagnetic fields, etc). The result was a FEM model identical to the real prototype through which we were able to compare and evaluate the results. The FEM model was explored in terms of heat-transfer physics, taking into account two heat sources: a water ex- changer with fluid physics and a thermoelectric mod- ule with heat-transfer physics (only conduction and convection were analyzed, radiation was ignored due to the low relative temperature and therefore the low impact on temperature).
In Figure 7-8 above shows that the material has resistance values in thermal between 50 to 800 (°C) is the type of material CMO-CASCADE better used to create electricity generators mini is by the resilience of the thermal reaches 747 (°C), and for material (Calcium Mangan oxide) CMO-32-62S thermal resilience reaches 439 (°C), while its thermal resilience Pbte-Bite material reaches 317 (°C) and the fourth is Bi2Te3 (Bismuth Telluride) having its thermal resistance under 100 (°C) at 41 (°C). To determine the ability thermoelectric as generating electrical power that can be applied to lighting, in this research built prototype TEG device as a thermoelectric power plant testing. Figure 9 shows the prototype TEG made of heat sink fan as his refrigerator and plate aluminum measuring 110×110×3 mm 3 as a medium heat on the hot side of the module TEG then output wires of TEG module is connected to the terminal and connect to the LED lights to determine if it's working or not.