The treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity comprises a variety of regimens 2,6,10 . Exposed dentine can be treated with patient-applied (personally applied) dentifrices and dentist-applied (professionally applied) in-office treatments. Most of the treatments involve surface and intra tubular blocking agents to reduce the dentinal permeability. Fluorides in different application form and Self etching bonding agents were widely accepted desensitizing agents. Self etching bonding agents simultaneous etch and prime the dentin. These agents dissolve and convert the smear layer, subsequently penetrate the dentinal tubules and immediately begin complete sealing and desensitization 4,5 . However the efficacy of bonding agent decreases over time 11 .
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“A COMPARITIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY OF THREE DIFFERENT REGIMENS OF VAGINAL MISOPROSTOL IN FIRST TRIMESTER TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY” is the bonafide record work done by Dr. R. SUCHINDRA, submitted as partial fulfillment for the requirements of M.D.(Obstetrics and Gynecology) Degree Examinations Branch II, March, 2007.
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was treated with three different regimens of Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol, Medical Union Pharmaceuticals, Egypt) as follows: Group IIA received continuous oral Vitamin D3 in a dose of 4000 IU daily for 3 months. Group IIB was treated with an intermittent regimen of Vitamin D3 in a dose of 50,000 IU weekly for 3 months. Group IIC received a single IM injection of 300,000 IU of Vitamin D3 at the start of the study. Group II continued their oral antidiabetic agents as usual in addition to Vitamin D supplements. All patients were followed up and interviewed regularly during the 3 months of the study to confirm that there was no change in their medications or lifestyle and to check their compliance.
combinant proteins. This strategy and variations of it that in- clude heterologous boosts with DNA and protein have proven successful in the generation of strong immune responses against other mucosal pathogens (5, 10). Furthermore, heter- ologous prime-boost regimens have been found to be effective raising immune responses against poorly immunogenic anti- gens (7, 23). Supporting these findings, our immunization pro- tocol was able to generate a strong immune response to each of the three vaccinogens. We observed high specific-antibody titers after the second protein booster. Recombinant profilin was found to induce the highest titers. Isotype analysis also revealed differences among the selected antigens; IgG1 was the predominant isotype, whereas IgG2B was higher in Cp15- and profilin-immunized animals than in those that were immunized with CApy. Since the isotype profiles reflect the Th1/Th2 path- ways that are activated, our results suggest that each antigen induces a particular pattern of T-cell response. Further studies are under way to characterize the particular T-cell subpopula- tions that are involved in each response. In addition, our het- erologous prime-boost strategy yielded variable levels of mu- cosal immunity, as observed by the IgA titers detected (Fig. 3C). We believe that this variation primarily reflects technical difficulties associated with the detection of IgA in intestinal contents due to its high susceptibility to degradation. Previous studies using a Salmonella vector achieved the induction of a mucosal response with detectable titers of IgA (32), consistent with our observation that our vaccination protocol led to mea- surable mucosal immune responses in the GI tract.
Levonorgestrel has a prolonged half-life of around 24.4 h. This rationalizes considering single-dose LNG emergency contraception as well as two doses taken 12– 24 h apart. Pharmacokinetics of levonorgestrel was eval- uated in a study using different dosing strategies in young, healthy, women . This trial involved 24 women who were randomized to three levonorgestrel treatment groups: a single 0.75 mg dose, two 0.75 mg doses taken 12 h apart and two 0.75 mg doses taken 24 h apart. The pharmacokinetic profiles were similar with all three treatments. Plasma concentrations of levo- norgestrel were 9.6 ± 0.38 nmol/L at 12 h and 6.2 ± 0.53 nmol/L at 24 h after the first 0.75 mg dose. Effective concentrations greater than 0.48 nmol/L were main- tained for 48–60 h after the 12 and 24 h doses. The statistical investigations indicated no significant differ- ences between groups in any of the pharmacokinetic pa- rameters i.e. peak plasma concentration (C max ), time to
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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Tubercu- losis is diagnosed by identifying MTB bacteria in clinical specimens. A complete medical evaluation must include a medical history, a physical examination, a chest X-ray, and microbiological examination of sputum or another appropriate sample. The disease that has compromised health for 1000 years is one of the greatest global public health challenges of our time [1, 2]. TB is among the “top 10” causes of mortality from disease [3, 4]. In 2014, six million cases of TB were reported to the World Health Organization (WHO). Worldwide, almost one third of all affected people are infected with M. tubercu- losis, the bacterium that causes TB; eight million people develop TB annually and 1.8 million die of the disease . The greatest disease burdens are found in the poor- est populations that have the fewest resources to devote to TB control. China has the second largest TB burden worldwide, accounting for 12% of all cases [5, 6]. Lack of medication adherence to TB treatment regimens and inappropriate prescription practices are important contrib- uting factors to treatment failures and the development of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB [7, 8] which is now a major threat to the progress made in global TB treatment in re- cent years. In the 2010 National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey, 20% of TB patients treated by the public health system—using national TB case-management approa- ches — were lost to follow-up or were not taking their medications regularly [9, 10]. Therefore, the Chinese med- ical community needs to implement more effective medi- cation adherence strategies. We cannot confirm that China will meet this target , especially considering the increasing numbers of newly diagnosed TB cases, particu- larly of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) . MDR-TB is TB caused by bacteria resistant to treatment by at least two of the most powerful first-line anti-TB medications (drugs), oniazid and rifampin. Some forms of TB, termed extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB), are also resistant to second-line medications.
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fectively reduces total VSCs in oral malodor patients [14,15]. Further, tongue cleaning is effective in preventing bacterial putrefaction on the tongue by reducing the amount of tongue coating. By decreasing the nutrient supplies to the bacteria, bacteria counts on the tongue and total VSCs in the oral cavity are reduced [16-18]. Many studies of various mouth rinse applications and tongue cleaning procedures have been conducted [19-21]. How- ever, few studies have compared the effect of simultaneous chemical and mechanical procedures on the reduction of VSCs in subjects with oral malodor. Therefore, this study aims to assess the effects of different oral hygiene proce- dures, i.e., tooth brushing, mouth washing, and tongue cleaning, alone and in combination, on the reduction of VSCs in subjects with oral malodor.
One limitation of our study was that it was a small, retro- spective cohort study rather than a randomized clinical trial. The patients in our study started chemotherapy at different time points, before and after the approval of mFOLFOX6 and XELOX regimens. In addition, the median follow-up time was 35.0 months in the FF4 arm, 30.0 months in the FF6 arm, and 24.2 months in the XELOX arm, but each arm could not reach the median OS by the data cut-off. Further follow-up is neces- sary to confirm the benefit of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy
When comparing the effects of bleaching agents on enamel, all of the three regimens showed statistically highly significant decrease of mean AMH. Also the decrease in mean AMH was statistically significant higher for in office bleaching regimens as compared to at home regimens. On comparing the effects of remineralizing agents on post-bleached enamel, CPP-ACP (Tooth mousse) and Reminpro revealed statistically significant recovery of baseline values of in all three experimental groups. No statistically significant differences were found between Table 9. Comparison of Post-remineralization mean AMH values with Baseline & Post-bleach mean
penetration of the subsequent files (D2 and D3), as opposed to the shaping files (S1–S2) of the original ProTaper System that cannot penetrate the gutta-percha without fracturing the file tip. (Hulsmann and Bluhm, 2004) The nonactive tips of D2 and D3 reduce the incidence of ledging, perforation, and stripping during the removal of filling materials, as opposed to another retreatment instrument system, which has active tips for all retreatment instruments. (Giuliani et al., 2008) More recently introduced Mtwo-Retreatment system consist of two instruments – R 25/.05, for medium canals and R 15/.05 for narrow canals with active cutting tip. They have an S-shaped cross-section as do the files of the basic sequence, but a shorter pitch length to enhance the advancement of the file into the filling material. These instruments are characterized by two cutting edges, which is claimed to cut dentine effectively. (Bramante et al., 2010; Marfisi et al., 2010) These instruments have a cutting tip so that the instrument can progress easily in the filling material, and they might open the way to other instruments that will be used in the future. (Tasdemir et al., 2008) To facilitate the removal of filling material without damage to the tooth, various chemical solvents like chloroform, xylene, halothane, eucalyptol, turpentine etc. have been used for solubilization of gutta-percha. (Anil Kumar and Aliveni, 2009) Though chloroform possesses antibacterial activity; on the other hand the International Agency for Research of Cancer has classified this solvent as group 2B of carcinogens which indicates inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans, but sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. (Glickman, 1997; Maseiro and Barletta, 2005) A study by Allard et al. (1992) indicates that chloroform exposure of dental personnel can be kept within recommended guidelines by limiting the surface area of chloroform exposed to the operatory air. (Allard and Andersson, 1992) In the present study, chloroform was used during the instrumentation because it is more efficient in dissolving gutta-percha than other chemicals. Different filling materials have been tested for the efficacy of retreatment techniques by different methods, including radiography, clearing, projection of photograph onto a screen, stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, evaluation of digitized images using a scanner, micro- computed tomography and computed tomography. (Duarte et al., 2010) In the present study, the amount of remaining filling material was evaluated by longitudinal cleavage and
were included in the assessment of PFS, OS, and toxicity. Figure 1 shows the detailed steps of our literature selection procedure, and Table 1 shows the main characteristics of all RCTs included in this meta-analysis. The Burger 2010 (GOG-0218) trial included multiple treatment groups (three- arm trial), and to reduce heterogeneity, we recruited only the bevacizumab-throughout group. Accordingly, we divided the control group between the treatment groups and treated comparisons between each treatment group and a split control group as independent comparisons. This was not necessary for PFS or OS as we obtained HR estimates from a Cox regression model. Finally, a total of 4,369 patients were included in the pooled analyses.
Taken together, these data suggest that the addition of progestins to ERT does not counteract the adverse effects of estrogens on the breast, as it does in the endometrium. In fact, the data suggest that EPRT may have a more adverse effect on risk for breast cancer than does ERT. Many issues remain unresolved, however. These include the effects of different regimens and doses of EPRT, long duration use, and whether the effects vary according to tumor characteristics, such as histology, extent of disease, and hormone receptor status. Data from several large studies that are currently underway may provide answers to some of these questions .
In a study that used an escalating dose, the outcomes of praziquantel efficacy gradually improved with in- creasing dosage . The initial dose of 20 mg/kg body weight was lower than the recommended dose of 40 mg/kg to kill schistosomes and showed low efficacy. Consistent with the above, results from a laboratory experiment showed that the use of praziquantel, es- pecially at a lower dose than the recommended cura- tive dose may lead to development of resistance to the drug in future generations . Another study that compared praziquantel given at 40 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg single doses reported satisfactory efficacy with both regimens. However, there was no signifi- cant difference between the doses but more minor and transient side effects were observed at 60 mg/kg regimen .
Systematic review of studies with the use of cleanser and/or emollient in infants highlights the requirement for more studies. 8,14,15 Infant skin continues to develop during the ﬁ rst year after birth, 2,3 which makes an unstable base- line for studies comparing wash regimens. 8,16 Few rando- mized controlled studies have investigated the use of a cleanser and/or moisturizer regimen on healthy, full-term infants over a period of months. 9,17,18 The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of three different skincare regimens, applied over 12 weeks, in infants (aged 0 – 6 months at the start of the study). Outcome measures included clinical dermatological assessments, instrumental assessments of skin barrier properties, and parent/care- giver assessments.
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Previous trials using every-3-weeks cisplatin which report grade ≥3 nephrotoxicity rates of 4.1–8.4% [2, 4, 27] use clinical criteria for renal failure to define such acute severe nephrotoxicity, including the need for dialysis and/or Cr elevations greater than 3.3 – 3.9 mg/dL among others. However, these criteria for renal failure likely underestimate small but clinically relevant renal insults. In our study, a Cr rise of ≥ 0.3 mg/dL was used per the Acute Kidney Injury Network definition of AKI  and has been associated with a 4.1-fold increased risk of mortality . Furthermore, relative changes in Cr, rather than absolute rises, likely cap- ture changes in renal function that better reflect indi- vidual differences in body mass. Thus, compared to every-3-weeks platinum, we observed that weekly platinum regimens were associated with fewer renal injuries that may not constitute renal failure but po- tentially impact patient survival.
From the results of the current study, we conclude that relapsed and refractory disease continued to represent the most significant challenge in treating NHL with no difference between different lines of treatment. The hematological toxic- ity, GIT toxicity, hepatoxocitiy, neurotoxicity and renal toxicity didn’t show a significant difference between investigated lines of treatment. The overall and PFS didn’t show any difference between different lines of treatment while the low response and survival rates mandate the need to add rituximab to 2nd line treatment and to proceed to bone marrow transplantation in eligible patients.
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Isolation of testis cells and enrichment for gonocytes Isolation of testis cells and enrichment of gonocytes were performed using methods that were established in our laboratory (three-step enzymatic digestion, Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation and extracellular matrix (ECM) differential plating; [29, 30]). Briefly, for each batch of the three-step enzymatic digestion, ~600 mg of testis parenchyma was thoroughly minced with fine scissors for 5 min, suspended in 5 mL of DPBS, vortexed for 30 s in a test tube shaker (Reax Top; catalogue no. 541–10000; Heidolph Instrument, Essex, UK) and digested with 1 mL of 0.2% w/v collagenase IV (catalogue no. C-153; Sigma- Aldrich, Oakville, ON, Canada), 0.1% w/v hyaluronidase (catalogue no. H-3884; Sigma-Aldrich), and 0.01% DNase (catalogue no. DN25; Sigma-Aldrich) in Dulbecco’s modi- fied Eagle’ s medium (DMEM; catalogue no. 10–013-CM; Mediatech) supplemented with 1% w/v antibiotics (as above) at 37 °C for 10 min. Fetal bovine serum (FBS; cata- logue no. A15–701; PAA Laboratories, Etobicoke, ON, Canada) was added to stop the digestion and the suspen- sion was vortexed for another 30 s and filtered through a 40-μm filter (catalogue no. 3522340; BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA). The filtrate suspension was centrifuged at 500×g at 16 °C for 5 min and resuspended in 5 mL of DPBS supplemented with 1% w/v antibiotics. Erythrocyte depletion was performed by mixing the cells with 20 mL of the lysis buffer, composed of 156 mmol/L ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl; catalogue no. A9434; Sigma-Aldrich),
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The observation that circulating CD8+/CD38+/CD45RO+ T lymphocytes were reduced in all groups of patients after 12 months of therapy confirms the potency of mod- ern day antiretroviral regimens. The observation that such reduction was possibly more precocious in EFV- receiving individuals allows to speculate that EFV-based therapeutic regimens could be associated with a more favourable immunomodulatory effect. Notably, these results confirm recently published data showing reduced immu- noactivation, as measured by the percentage of circulat- ing CD8+/CD38+ T cells after 6 months of therapy, in EFV compared to PI/r-treated individuals .
Thrombolytic agents may be useful in acute pulmonary embolism, but their optimal dosage remains uncertain. We have examined the relative efficacy of heparin and different doses of streptokinase, either alone or in combination, in acute experimental pulmonary embolism. A standardized massive embolus of autologous blood clot incorporating canine [ 125 I]-
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This trial is designed to compare the effectiveness and safety of unprotected weight bearing with two com- monly used post-operative treatment regimens after in- ternal fixation of specified, intrinsically stable but displaced ankle fractures. An expert panel has been established to evaluate every potential subject, which en- sures that every patient is strictly screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and that there is a clear indication for surgical fixation.