The title of the project, ‘FutureFactories’, describes a creative exploration of digitally technology- driven design and manufacture. Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies were developed to compress product development cycles and are now well established. The new frontier is Direct Digital Manufacturing or Rapid Manufacture (RM); Rapid Prototyping technologies applied to the production of end-use artefacts. These technologies essentially allow functional real-world objects to be ‘printed’ out in a series of fine layers direct from virtual Computer Aided Design (CAD) data. The need for significant tooling investment, such as moulds and dies dedicated to a particular job, is gone. This allows flexibility in production, unprecedented in the industrial era as the mass- production economics of standardization and uniformity cease to apply. Through Direct Digital Manufacturing a revolution is underway in 3D Product Design that is likely to be as radical as that brought about by digital technologies in 2D Graphic Design. Layer-build manufacturing costs are principally governed by the build height i.e. the number of layers built. They are largely independent of the part’s geometry. There is no economic to producing repeats as there are no physical tools or mould dedicated to producing a particular form that can be reused. The question is therefore, why not produce something unique every time? There are clearly design implications as a unique specification has to be generated somehow and these will be discussed. From a purely manufacturing point of view however, the economies of scale rationale of mass-production need not apply. There will be benefits to volume manufacture in the bulk ordering of material, shared plant costs and the like, but these advantages would apply equally to volumes of differing artefacts. Each time CAD information is entered into the build process there is a degree of data processing which would be reduced or eliminated in repeat builds, this however is the work of minutes as opposed to the builds themselves which take several hours.
Three-dimensional model is able to achieve statistical calculation to generate digital model construction drawings . Software can not only manifest real scenario of substation through three dimensions and a multi- angle, making all the equipment, wires and special relationship of the structures as plain as print, but can also achieve the real lightning protection checking, precise materials statistics under a three-dimensional model. In addition, to better understand the design intent and design advantages, you can use three-dimensional animation in the substation to report the design, three-dimensional visual fully reflect the project design. Substation plat- form and three-dimensionaldesign of digital transfer applications to query and retrieve information to provide
In order to achieve a frequency invariant response, we may optimize the array’s coefficients directly with respect to the desired response. However, this is not a practical approach for large arrays. Moreover, for two or three-dimensional arrays, even for a moderate size, the number of coefficients to be optimized can be extremely large and it is almost impossible to optimize them directly. In the planar array design example provided later, the number of coefficients is 32 × 32 × 32 = 32768. Another approach is harmonic nesting, where for a number of frequency bands, different subarrays with appropriate aperture and sensor spacing are operated [4,5,1,11]. This method can be based on frequency bin processing [4,5,1] or a decomposition into octave bands by means of filter banks . Subsequently, each octave band or group of frequency bins lying within one octave draws their inputs from one specific subarray. While the resulting beam pattern is octave-independent, the spatial resolution within an octave band is still dependent on frequency.
Magnetic theory, and its principles and practices, have been well studied. Because of this, many modern technical embodiments already exist — including medical applications, wireless identifications, thermal processes, and audio and video processing [1-5]. Additionally, magnetic theory can also be used for object location and tracking. This paper will present a novel technique to track the position and orientation of a high speed magnetic source in three-dimensional space with a detectable range exceeding three feet. Additionally, this system will operate in the presence of environmental magnetic noise. The paper will focus on a permanent magnetic (DC) source, but the same principles could be used for a variety of magnetic source signatures.
Aims: The aim of this study is to compare postcontrast three‑dimensional (3D) T1‑Sampling perfection with application‑optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions, 3D fluid‑attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and 3D T1‑magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE) sequences in patients of meningitis. Settings and Design: A hospital‑based cross‑sectional study done in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, IGMC Shimla for a period of 1 year from June 1, 2016, to May 30, 2017. Subjects and Methods: A total of 30 patients suspected of meningitis underwent magnetic resonance imaging evaluation with postcontrast 3D T1‑MPRAGE, 3D T1‑SPACE, and 3D FLAIR sequences. The abnormal leptomeningeal enhancement was noted by two radiologists together on these sequences and scores were given to the abnormal leptomeningeal enhancement. Statistical Analysis Used: The sensitivity of 3D T1‑SPACE, 3D T1‑MPRAGE, and 3D FLAIR was calculated and compared. The level of agreement between these sequences was assessed by kappa coefficient. P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: 3D T1‑SPACE shows superiority in meningeal enhancement along basal cisterns, Sylvian fissure and along cerebral convexities. It is also found to be better in delineating parenchymal lesions. 3D FLAIR failed to demonstrate enhancement along cerebral convexities however found to be better than 3D T1‑MPRAGE in delineating enhancement along basal cisterns and Sylvian fissures. 3D T1‑MPRAGE has shown subtle enhancement in basal cisterns, Sylvian fissure and along cerebral convexities. 3D T1‑SPACE, 3D FLAIR, and 3D T1‑MPRAGE has sensitivity of 91.67%, 66.67%, and 54.17%, respectively. Conclusion: Postcontrast 3D T1‑SPACE sequence is an excellent tool than postcontrast 3D T1‑MPRAGE and 3D FLAIR sequences in the evaluation of meningeal enhancement and depiction of additional lesions in brain parenchyma. Keywords: Fluid‑attenuated inversion recovery, meningitis, T1‑magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo, T1‑Sampling perfection with application‑optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions
The flow through a SCRamjet intake can either be subsonic or supersonic while the latter is the condition desired and is referred to as started intake flow. Intake starting behavior is a performance characteristic that attracts special attention during intake design. Not only is it important to successfully start an intake once a vehicle reaches take over speeds, it is also important to know the limitations and flight conditions that might unstart an intake. Figure 1.5 shows an image of the reconnaissance aircraft SR71 and a design concept of the follow-up aircraft SR72, that has not been built to this date. Note that the SR71 possessed two turbo ramjet engines, while the SR72 is proposed to contain SCRamjet cycles. However, the problem of intake starting occurs thereof independently. An unstarted intake not only causes a loss in thrust and introduces the complicated task of engine restart, but it can also affect the aerodynamic stability or operability when more than one engine is installed as seen in figure 1.5. The SR71 for example encountered severe handling problems once one intake unstarted , due to the other one causing a high yaw moment that had to be balanced by the rudder. Ultimately an intake unstart and fail to restart can even lead to a loss of the vehicle, as reported for one flight of the X51A .
Her website biography Iris Van Herpen: Normal Rules Don’t Apply describes her as a designer who values the exchange between craftsmanship and innovation (Van Herpen, 2014). Her works push the boundaries of form, volume, fabrication, and traditional societal standards of fashion apparel. The concepts and ideas she explores in her works were directly related to attributes I envisioned my projects encompassing. My evaluation of her garments led me to incorporate a dress design from her Radiation Invasion collection as one of my precedent studies for the Knotty chair. The silhouette of the Knotty chair was inspired by the shapes and movement of line used in the design of the Radiation Invasion dress. Van Herpen’s design fit the parameters of not only my thesis research, but also paralleled the design values I set on my work.
Development of computer technology has brought many advantages in cartography. On one hand it gives possibilities of producing traditional paper two-dimensional (2D) maps, panoramic views and other types of maps faster and more accurate. On the other hand technology development offers the production of new landscape presentations which can supplement and partly substitute traditional maps. Interactive and multimedia dynamic three-dimensional (3D) cartographic models enable the users to select the view and the sort of information they want to see. Applicability of 3D maps depends on the cartographers’ ability to present all relevant data as user friendly, easily understood and complete as possible.
We have studied the possibility of symmetry protected Dirac points in three dimen- sional solids on the basis of representations of spacegroups, and provided examples of realistic materials on the basis of microscopic calculations that exhibit Dirac points on the Fermi surface. Interest in the study of threedimensional Dirac points arises primarily from the exotic nature of the two dimensional Dirac points in graphene. Questions such as access to a variety of topological band insulators, high charge car- rier mobility, nature of the magneto-electric and thermo-electric response functions, stability of Dirac points in the presence of lattice defects, impurities, and electron interactions are only but a few among a long list concerning the physics of Dirac points. Whereas this dissertation has focused on describing the underlying theory behind the existence of Dirac points, a number of authors have already reported sig- nificant progress on the various phenomenological questions relating to three dimen- sional Dirac semimetals. In this Chapter, we summarize their efforts and speculate about possible developments in the future.
We propose a new design concept and a fabrication process for three-dimensional (3D) silicon photonic crystals on a 100 nm scale that does not require any alignment processes. The elemental technique used in this process is two directional electrochemical etching processes at a particular magnetic ﬁeld. First, we have performed photonic band calculation and estimated device parameters to obtain the maximum photonic band gap in the visible range centered at around 800 nm. Next, we have experimentally observed the formation of a two-dimensional periodic pore with a diameter of 80 nm and an aspect ratio above 80 on an n þ (100) silicon substrate. Finally, we have fabricated 3D microstructures by two directional etching
The paper reviews three traditional lines of research in residential energy consumption in the UK, and based on the review it proposes a three-dimensional models for achetyping residential energy consumers in the UK. With the model, eight archetypes of residential energy consumers in the UK have been identiﬁed. They are: pioneers greens, follower greens, concerned greens, home stayers, unconscientious wasters, regular wasters, daytime wasters, and disengaged wasters. With these archetypes of residential energy consumers, the 3-D model demonstrates how it can aid local energy policy/intervention design in the UK cities. From the study in the paper we conclude that, in order to be effective, local energy policies/interventions rely on speciﬁc and concrete residential energy consumer archetypes, and using three dimensions, i.e., property energy efﬁciency level, greenness of behaviour, and length of daytime occupancy, to archetype residential energy consumers is an effective way for local energy policy/intervention design in the UK.
Enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan was performed before surgery. CT images were acquired using the 256- slice spiral CT (Philips Brilliance iCT, Philips, Amsterdam, the Netherlands), and the thickness of slice was 1.25 mm. The images were stored in DICOM format and imported in to the FitMe 3D reconstruction software system (a domestic soft- ware, developed by Feite United Graph; and the author was authorized to use it) to perform the 3D reconstruction of the tumor and its peripheral blood vessels. The reconstructed data were saved in AVI video format and JPEG picture format, respectively, to facilitate the observation on the processing of the surgical design in the overall view under dynamic condi- tions and in the local view under static conditions.
There are several limitations in our present study. Firstly, the anthropometric data were taken by single observer resulting in potential bias. However, based on our previous study on femur morphology [6-9], precautions have been taken whereby all anthropometric data were taken three times and verified by an experienced orthopedic surgeon to minimize the single observer error. For finite element ana- lysis, the stem and bone were assumed to be fully bonded without penetration. In clinical practice, surgeons are allowed to err 50 μm on each side rather than risk the femora fracture . Furthermore, Petterson et al. [11,12] emphasized that the degree of contact pressure interference penetration during implant fixation is difficult to ascertain due to several factors such as the implant’s size, femora size and quality, and force exerted during surgery. In this study, our newly designed stem demonstrated well distributed stress proximally, and micromotion under threshold for osseointegration (less than 40 μm). However, further stud- ies regarding biomechanical testing are required to validate the finite element result before clinical trial. In addition, several stem designs of commercial implants were needed to demonstrate and compare the optimal performance of our newly designed stem. Still, comparison with other cementless stems from the literature showed that our stem is not inferior to established off the shelf implants. Although dynamic loading was applied to the implant in the actual gait cycle, we only simulated static loading in this study. In addition, the “average” femora model was used for both fit and fill analysis, and finite element analysis. This “average” femora model was developed from our previous morphology study [6-9] and represented the local popula- tion. Other physiological factors such as age, gender and bone condition were not considered in this study.
1 mm or less perpendicular distance between the implant and endosteal [20,25]. The fit was determined by translating the contact between the implant and the endosteal canal into a straight line . The contact area was computed by trap- ezoid area, with fit acting as the base of the trapezoid, and the height from the cross section as shown in Figure 5(a). In addition, fill was defined as the percentage of the implant area within the femur intra medullary [5,20] from the anteroposterior view and mediolateral view for each cross section as illustrated in Figure 5(b). The cross section was divided into three levels; proximal, middle and distal. The proximal represented the metaphyseal region, medial (the upper end of isthmus) and distal (10 mm above the stem’s tip). The goal was to acquire the optimal fit and fill and as such, the stem should be within reasonable size, making it easier for the orthopedic surgeons without breaking the femur. The newly designed stem was then compared with other cementless stems . The Fukui Medical School (FMS) stem was straight, coated at one third proximal, had proximal lateral flare with different medial radius, and was designed specifically for Japanese dysplastic hips. Later, they designed FMS-A which followed the anatomic femora and introduced the anterior flare. On the other hand, the Omniflex and Omniflex-J was a straight cylindrical stem tapered at one third distal. The AML and Harris-Galante stem was straight stem, coated with a porous surface and sintered titanium fiber composite pad, respectively. In addition, the IDS stem was purposely designed for optimal fit and fill in endosteal canal.
As part of the Judd et al.  study, a large database of 1003 images and the associated fixation data from 15 independent observers were made public to researchers in the field. This database represents the largest set of available data to date. Thus to address the issue of whether eye fixations are guided by salient image features we performed a statistical analysis of these fixation data. In this analysis, we examined the fix- ation data independent of the associated images. Given that a Gaussian blob was shown to predict fixations better than saliency algorithms , we started our examination by the assumption that fixation data are independent of image fea- tures. In order to examine the truthfulness of this assumption, we represented the fixation data from each image in terms of a k-dimensional probability histogram. Representing fixations using probability histograms allowed us to compare fixations from different observers and images. Given that each histo- gram can be represented as a vector in a k-dimensional space, we grouped all the 1003 vectors from each observer into a data matrix. Knowing that the images used in the Judd et al.  study were carefully chosen to be as different from each other as possible, we would expect an analysis of the associated fixations to reveal that the fixations in turn are dif- ferent. This difference was analyzed by performing an eigen- decomposition of the k × k correlation matrix obtained from the probability histograms. It is well known that eigen-analysis of a data matrix whose vectors are linearly independent re- sults in a set of eigenvalues that are comparable in magnitude. On the other hand, analyzing a matrix whose columns are lin- early dependent results in a limited number of nonzero eigen- values. Such matrices are known as rank deficient where the number of nonzero eigenvalues corresponds to the actual rank, r, of the matrix where r is smaller or much smaller than the dimension of the matrix.
The fiberhead is fixed into an invar plate that matches the dimensions of the sample stage underneath. The com- plete assembly of the microscope can be seen in Fig. 5. The sample 共 restricted to lateral dimensions of 10 ⫻ 10 mm 2 兲 sits on a scan tube, 24 which rests inside a set of nested inertial piezo motors that allow for four-dimensional motion of the sample with respect to the tip: X, Y, Z and rotation 共⌽兲 . The Z and X-Y motors are similar to those discussed by Hug et al. 25 The scanner is directly coupled to the Z coarse approach motor. The Z motor is located in the center of an X-Y- ⌽ motor, which allows for long range manipulation of sample with respect to the tip. The rotation can be used to rotate the lattice planes of a blunt tip and the sample with respect to each other to measure variations in friction forces that are introduced when the tip and sample lattices are brought in and out of registry. 26 The X-Y- ⌽ motor consists of a sapphire disk of 100 mm diameter, which is clamped between three pairs of piezo stacks using CuBe leaf springs. The rotational
A multifunctional part has multiple uses, such as structural and electrical functions, for example, a structural health monitoring part. Multifunctional designs could be realized using AM multi- material processes, and allow for a new AM design paradigm. The manufacturing processes, such as multihead ink jet printing, capable of producing these parts are still under development, with considerable ongoing research into materials and process configu- ration. A variety of techniques have been proposed, primarily using stereolithography and direct write/print technologies, and the reader is directed to Lopes et al.  for a history of work car- ried out in this area. As this area of manufacturing is nascent, there has been little work carried out on developing the design philosophies tailored for MFAM, particularly within the scope of optimal placement and routing. Some related works to define design for AM (DfAM) frameworks are the multimaterial design framework: OpenFab  that defines a procedure to efficiently grade mechanical properties through the volume of a part; and a three step global approach to DfAM , which is more general.
A brief review is given of the theory of magnetic reconnection in three dimensions. The key elements of a three- dimensional null point are its spine and its fan, which consist, respectively, of a field line and a surface of field lines that pass through the null. The fans of two nulls intersect in general in a field line called a separator that joins the nulls. Several different types of reconnection have been proposed, namely: spine reconnection, fan reconnection, separator reconnection and quasi-separatrix layer reconnection. In addition, a new exact solution for reconnective annihilation has been recently discovered. A summary is also given of the impressive evidence of reconnection at work on the Sun provided by a range of observations from the Yohkoh and SOHO satellites, both of solar flares and of coronal heating events.
nanographene, a material composed of interlinked, covalently-bonded nanoplatelet graphene units. By constructing realistic model networks of nanographene, we study its structure, mechanical stability, and optoelectronic properties. We find that the material is nanoporous with high specific surface area, in agreement with experimental reports. Its structure is characterized by randomly oriented and curved nanoplatelet units which retain a high degree of graphene order. The material exhibits good mechanical stability with a formation energy of only ∼ 0.3 eV/atom compared to two-dimensional graphene. It has high electrical conductivity and optical absorption, with values approaching those of graphene.