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Static Testing of Draft Sensor for Three Point Hitch Dynamometer Utilization

Static Testing of Draft Sensor for Three Point Hitch Dynamometer Utilization

Ordinary ploughing is a one of the most energy- intensive operations in crop production. Based on tractor engine nominal power and torque, equivalent plough is mounted. Rig utilization is based on this well-known fact and this approach aff ect fi eld performance and fuel consumption. Another variable that aff ects the rig performance is an adjustment of three point hitch. Inappropriate coupling o en causes increase in wheel slip and undesirable load transfer which estuary unsuitable weight distribution. This adjustment aff ects not only the fi eld performance, but also soil compaction due to load transfer from tractor tilt and force resultant from ploughing directly on wheel load (Portes et al., 2013). Wheel slippage increase leads to

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Pressure in the hydraulic system of three point hitch of tractor equiped with electrical and mechanical control

Pressure in the hydraulic system of three point hitch of tractor equiped with electrical and mechanical control

ABSTRACT: The goal of the measurement of the tractor ZTS 164 45 equipped with digital electrohydraulical control EHR-D BOSCH during ploughing with ploughs KUHN (4 bottoms) and 5 PHX 35 (5 bottoms) was to obtain time dependent states of pressure in the hydraulic system of the three point hitch of tractor. From the point of view of comparison of obtained results testing conditions were determinated with respect to physical and mechanical properties of soil such as soil volume mass, soil humidity, penetration resistance and shear resistance of soil. Beyond these measurements also measurements of operation parameters as a ploughing depth, ploughing width, working speed and fuel consumption were accomplished. The measured results of physical and mechanical properties of soil show big content of loam elements and stones in the soil. Simultaneously the measured results of the operation parameters of the ploughing sets confirmed that the ploughs KUHN and 5 PHX 35 are suitable for tractor ZTS 164 45. Based on the measured results there is a possibility to infer following conclusions: Control system of the three point hitch offers a reliable function. Hydraulic circuit is equipped by an improper distributor which causes pressure peaks which are corres- ponding with safety valve adjustment. Hydraulic circuit has a low conductive resistance. Loading of tractor body is higher when using mounted plough than with semi mounted plough.

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Design and Analysis of Lift Arm for Three Point Hitch of Tractor

Design and Analysis of Lift Arm for Three Point Hitch of Tractor

---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - The main objective of this work is to strengthen performance of the three point hitch system. It is achieved by using experiment tests. The lift capacity of three point hitch mechanism is established according to ISO. The lift arm is good safe enough for lifting of a usual plow but it may be failed when the three-point hitch works with maximum load lifting capacity. The force of 13980 N was applied on the lift arms at the rear end. The lift arm was design in catia software. The ansys software were used to estimate the stress distribution and safety factor of lift arm .A tractor is vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds for carrying out various agriculture operations like ploughing, rotavation etc. using implement. Lift arm system is a key feature which connects the different farming equipment with the tractor. The position of the lift arm is changed depending upon the type of crop, farming stage, implement type and soil conditions.

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Design and Analysis of Lift Arm for Three Point Hitch of Tractor

Design and Analysis of Lift Arm for Three Point Hitch of Tractor

---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - The main objective of this work is to strengthen performance of the three point hitch system. It is achieved by using experiment tests. The lift capacity of three point hitch mechanism is established according to ISO. The lift arm is good safe enough for lifting of a usual plow but it may be failed when the three-point hitch works with maximum load lifting capacity. The force of 13980 N was applied on the lift arms at the rear end. The lift arm was design in catia software. The ansys software were used to estimate the stress distribution and safety factor of lift arm .A tractor is vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds for carrying out various agriculture operations like ploughing, rotavation etc. using implement. Lift arm system is a key feature which connects the different farming equipment with the tractor. The position of the lift arm is changed depending upon the type of crop, farming stage, implement type and soil conditions.

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Geometric performance parameters of three point hitch linkage system of a 2WD Indian tractor

Geometric performance parameters of three point hitch linkage system of a 2WD Indian tractor

Geometric performance parameters of hitch Movement range, lower hitch point clear- ance and levelling adjustment. The lower hitch point height and transport height were found to be 160 and 840 mm, respectively. The movement range was 680 mm. Shortening the length of lift rods from 465 mm to 415 mm increased the transport height to 950 mm and lower hitch point height to 300 mm. Lower hitch point clearance and levelling adjust- ment were 145 and 122 mm, respectively. The hitch linkages of the selected tractor fulfilled the stand- ard specified requirement of max. lower hitch point height (200 mm), min. transport height (820 mm) and min. movement range (610 mm) for the cat- egory-I hitch. However, it required shortening of the length of lift rods to meet the standard speci- fied requirement of minimum transport height (950 mm) for the category-II hitch. The lower hitch point clearance was found to be more than the min. recommended by the standards (100 mm) for cat- egory-I and II hitches. At the horizontal lower link and vertical mast position, when one of the lift rods was shortened from 465 to 415 mm, the lower hitch

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Load characteristic of tractor three point hitch for their simulation in laboratory condition

Load characteristic of tractor three point hitch for their simulation in laboratory condition

The normative output spectrum densities of op- eration load obtained on the base of the cognition of inner structure of the observed operating loads by frequency spectrum give us the keystone for the determination of the requirements on simula- tor from presented point of view. On the base of technical conditions resulting from realized experi- ments and technical solution of simulator we shall work out functional scheme of simulator control. After this we determine basic parameters of control system of simulator and we design needed circuits and equipment with connecting to the complete system. In such a way the obtained results present new knowledge about operating load of TPH of the wheeled agricultural tractor.

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A novel three point hitch dynamometer to measure the draft requirement of mounted implements

A novel three point hitch dynamometer to measure the draft requirement of mounted implements

An adjustable three-point hitch dynamometer with a draft capacity of 50 kN was developed to measure forces on the tractor and mounted implements. The design concept of the dynamometer was based on two linkage frames mounted between tractor links and the implement. The force sensing elements were comprised of a loadcell that was installed between the frames. The system provides variable width and height of the dynamometer links to satisfy a wide range of implement dimensions. All mounted tillage implements at categories II and III such as plows, cultivators and harrows were able to be tested by this dynamometer excluding mounted implements powered by power take-off (PTO). The dynamometer was calibrated and several field tests were conducted to measure the force required to pull a moldboard plow in a clay loam soil. The calibration showed a high degree of linearity between the draft requirements and the dynamometer outputs. Field tests showed that it was able to function effectively as intended without any mechanical problems.

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Influence of top link length of three point hitch on performance parameters of ploughing set

Influence of top link length of three point hitch on performance parameters of ploughing set

Measuring system consists of two distributed ap- plications combining analog and digital channels (Fig. 2). Analog signal presents drawbar pull or sig- nal of load cell U2A HBM with a range of 100 kN. Load cell amplifier HBM Spider8 was connected via LPT port to a measuring notebook. The ampli- fier includes precise source of excitation and sig- nal is processed by ADc with 16-bit resolution. The actual velocity of the tractor was measured using the frequency output of an external radar sensor TGSS RDS that has the characteristic parameter of pulses 128.52 per m. To determine the wheel slip, it was also necessary to know the theoretical speed of the wheel. Incremental optical sensor (IRC) with 360 points per revolution was used for this purpose. The second part of the measuring system saved the data from the CAN-Bus. A communication card from the National Instruments (NI PCMCIA CAN Series 2) was inserted into the notebook. This card is fully compatible with requirements according to SAE and ISO 11 989 standards. The synchroniza- tion between parts of measuring chain was essen- tial. To meet this target it was necessary to write own measuring application. For this purposes na- tive development system called LabView was used. The main loop timing was set to 20 samples/s as well as data logging. The programming project was built as three independent routines. The first loop asked library (DLL) released by HBM company and used inner functions. This routine ran at 100 sam- ples/s and the resulting value was based on aver- age of five points. The second loop was in charge of CAN-Bus monitoring. Communication speed of CAN-Bus was 250 kbps. Because architecture Table 1. Specification of a set

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Comparing the Hydraulic Control of Tractor Three-point Hitch

Comparing the Hydraulic Control of Tractor Three-point Hitch

During the testing, adjusting and controlling work of the agricultural machinery, we have proceeded in accordance with existing technical standards. The testing of agricultural tractors is no exception (Páltik et al., 2007; Poničan, Korenko, 2008). The development of tractors and tools directed to system with either attached or trailed machines resulted in certain discrepancies between the manner of operation of tractors and the methods of measuring their tractive properties (Čupera et al., 2011). Laboratory tests and verifi cation of force eff ect in tractor’s three point hitch were researched by many authors (Čupera et al., 2010; Porteš et al., 2013; Bentaher et al., 2008; Kumar, 2012).

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ZYGOMATICO-MAXILLARY COMPLEX FRACTURE: TWO-POINT vs. THREE-POINT FIXATION

ZYGOMATICO-MAXILLARY COMPLEX FRACTURE: TWO-POINT vs. THREE-POINT FIXATION

Open reduction and internal fixation with non- compression titanium miniplates and screws was planned for patients in both the groups. Before performing surgery, the hair in the temporal region of the scalp was shaved off. An incision about 2.5 cm long was marked above and parallel to the anterior branch of the superficial temporal artery within the hair line. Surgery was carried out under local anesthesia (2% xylocaine with adrenaline 1:2,00,000) after proper premedication. Proper anatomic reduction at fracture site was achieved and fixed with 1.5 mm non-compressible titanium miniplates at two points in group I and at three points in group II. Patients were followed up, on 3rd day followed by 7th day for suture removal, later followed up on 2nd week and a monthly follow up thereafter. Outcome of open reduction of Zygoma was assessed after completion of three months.

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Comparison of the Working Memory Performance between Literate and Illiterate Adults

Comparison of the Working Memory Performance between Literate and Illiterate Adults

According to WM model which is explained by Baddeley and Hitch (1974) and based on the last works (Hassanpoor, H. H. 2003, Dutke, S., & Mike, R. 2006, Lee et al. 2007, Oberauer et al. 2003 and Swanson 1992 & 2003) we used five tasks for the measurement of WM and its subsystems. The reliabilities of these five tasks, as our instruments, have been studied by (Hassanpoor, H. H. 2003, in Iran) and the reliability coefficient was 0.77 for non-word and forward digit span, 0.72 for visuo-spatial span, and 0.79 for operation span. Due to the low level of literacy of the adults in the groups, we applied some trivial changes in the tasks and again computed reliability. The Cronbach’s Alpha for each task for the present sample was 0.76 for non-word and forward digit span, 0.74 for visuo-spatial span, and 0.81 for operation span.

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Solutions to a Three Point Boundary Value Problem

Solutions to a Three Point Boundary Value Problem

By using the fixed-point index theory and Leggett-Williams fixed-point theorem, we study the exis- tence of multiple solutions to the three-point boundary value problem u t atft, ut, u t 0, 0 < t < 1; u0 u 0 0; u 1 − αu η λ, where η ∈ 0, 1/2, α ∈ 1/2η, 1/η are constants, λ ∈ 0, ∞ is a parameter, and a, f are given functions. New existence theorems are obtained, which extend and complement some existing results. Examples are also given to illustrate our results.

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Coincident point and fixed point results for three self mappings in cone metric spaces

Coincident point and fixed point results for three self mappings in cone metric spaces

In 2007, Huang and Zhang ([3]) introduced the concept of cone metric spaces which is a gener- alization of metric spaces, by replacing the set of real numbers by ordered Banach space and proves some fixed point theorems for some contractive maps in normal cone metric spaces. Subsequently some other authors (see [1], [2], [6]) studied properties of cone metric spaces and fixed point results of mappings satisfying contractive type condition in cone metric spaces.

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On a Third Order Three Point Boundary Value Problem

On a Third Order Three Point Boundary Value Problem

Such problems arise in the study of the equilibrium states of a heated bar. Very recently, there have been several papers on third-order boundary value problems. Graef and Yang 2, 3, Guo et al. 4, Hopkins and Kosmatov 5, and Sun 6 have all considered third-order problems. Anderson 7 considered the three-point boundary value problem for 1.1 in the case t 1 < t < t 2 and the three-point conditions ut 1 u t 2 0, γut 3 δu t 3 0; using

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The design of a three point linkage implement height control system

The design of a three point linkage implement height control system

This test indicated that a force of 20kg would result in an extension speed of approximately 20mm/second. It is estimated by visual observation that the maximum expected lift rate of a three point linkage implement is approximately 100mm/second. Note that this device is not being customised to fit one tractor; it is designed to be universally used on a wide variety of tractor/implement combinations. Thus the aim of this design process is to come up with a maximum feasible lift rate figure that could be encountered and design a spring that will be able to extend the shock absorber at the correct rate and at the same time supply sufficient force to press the tyre into the ground. Thus based on the observations of the operation of three point linkage systems, it is decided to design the spring to lower the wheel at a rate of 200mm/s. This speed is far greater than any lifting rate that may be encountered, so will be sufficient to keep the wheel pressed into the ground at all times.

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A related fixed point theorem in three Menger spaces

A related fixed point theorem in three Menger spaces

The literature in related fixed point theorems have been developed by many authors; [1], [2], [4]-[9] and the references therein. The result of Fisher on two metric spaces [4] was generalized to three metric spaces by Jain, Sahu and Fisher [8]. The result in [8] was generalized to set- valued mapings by Jain and Fisher [7]. Recently Beg and Chauhan extended the result in [7] in Menger spaces and obtained related fixed point theorems for three mappings; for more details, see [1]. In this paper, a related fixed point theorem for six set-valued mapings in three Menger spaces is obtained based on the result in [1].

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Technical considerations and outcomes for ileal ureter replacement: a retrospective study in China

Technical considerations and outcomes for ileal ureter replacement: a retrospective study in China

Compared with the results in other recent series (Table 3) [4, 11, 13–15], those of the present series seem encouraging. On the basis of our experience, the following recommendations with respect to surgi- cal technique are presented: (1) The ureter should be carefully isolated to diminish the risk of damage to the blood supply. Considering that exposure of the injured ureter could be difficult, in some cases with heavy inflammatory adhesion, we used a metal probe and inserted it through the nephrostomy tube to identify the position of the renal pelvis. (2) As long as a tension-free and water-tight anastomosis could be ensured, minimizing the length of ileal graft is crucial. (We divided an extra 5 cm of ileum for re- placement). However, for patients with improved renal function, combined ileal interposition and Boari flap– psoas hitch may be an option. (3) Side-to-side anastomosis can increase the ease and reduce the intestine-related complications during small-bowel reconstruction. (4) The ileal segment should be maintained in an isoperistaltic orientation; alternatively, a distal antireflux procedure may be performed to prevent postoperative reflux. However, a proximal antireflux technique is unnecessary because the outflow resistance of the ureter should be eliminated before anastomosing. (5) Appropriate stenting in the ileal segment is crucial to prevent anastomotic leakage. The ureter stent should be fixed to the proximal and distal ends of the ileal graft to prevent dislocation.

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Laparoscopic Excision of Large Intra-Abdominal Cysts in Children: Needle Hitch Technique

Laparoscopic Excision of Large Intra-Abdominal Cysts in Children: Needle Hitch Technique

fluid into the peritoneal cavity [19]. In order to address these issues, several laparoscopic approaches and modifications have been described. These include either drainage of the cyst by ultrasound guided paracentesis or drainage during laparoscopy followed by excision or manipulation of the cyst or extracorporeal cystectomy [20–25]. For drainage and manipulation of the cyst, different techniques have been described using a planned trocar placement through the cyst, percutaneous gastrostomy introduction set, soft cup aspirator set, suprapubic catheter, extracorporeal drainage via a minilaparotomy, and aspiration and traction through the port to facilitate dissection [20–25]. The technique we describe provides a controlled means of aspirating the cyst and allows traction to the cyst wall to facilitate intracorporeal manipulation and dissection of the cyst. Also, one can read- just the needle along the anterior cyst wall to provide traction in a sequential manner in cases of large cysts as was done in case 2. The needle hitch technique minimizes the need for additional instrumentation and ports for traction and facilitates better ergonomics for intracorporeal manipulation and dissection of large cysts.

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Flexural Behavior of Composite Beams Under Three Point Loading

Flexural Behavior of Composite Beams Under Three Point Loading

Abstract—In recent days, composite beams have recently undergone increased usage throughout the world, which have been influenced by the improvement of high strength concrete enabling these beams to be considerably economized. Beams are designed to resist the majority of loads. This project presents an experimental study on the flexural behavior of composite beams made of steel channel section with and without lip encased with concrete of size 1300mm x 150mm x 150mm under three point loading. The conventional concrete beams and composite beams were casted, cured for 28days and then subjected to three point loading. In this project, it is exposed to determine the load-deflection behavior, ultimate load and failure pattern of the beam specimens by the experimental program.

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Hitch Hiker 2.0: a binding model with flexible data aggregation for the Internet-of-Things

Hitch Hiker 2.0: a binding model with flexible data aggregation for the Internet-of-Things

Zigduino configuration: Zigduino is an Arduino- compatible mote based on the ATmega128RFA1 [40], which offers a 16 MHz MCU, 16 KB of RAM, 128 KB of Flash and an IEEE 802.15.4 radio. We use ContikiOS v2.6, Contiki X-MAC (CX-MAC) [41] and LooCI v2.0 [13] extended with Hitch Hiker 2.0. The parameterisation of CX-MAC uses the default Contiki values. In the case of the mobile robot case-study the Zigduino is extended with a ShieldBot mobile robot base [42]. Table 2 shows the con- figuration settings of Zigduino. We compare Hitch Hiker against (i.) transmission of standard messages (referred as Standard binding) and (ii.) an optimally configured one-hop data aggregation scheme using an optimal aggre- gation buffer size of 3 (referred as One-hop aggregation). Values reported below represent averages taken over one week.

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