Established in 1949, the People ’ s Republic of China has gone through 70 years of history. From China ’ s initial inception to the modern day it has grown quickly and become a major force on the world stage, the basic education in mainland China has contributed to cultivating student ’ s talents and developing qualified workers. Specifically, in the 1980s, after implementing a national policy of economic reform and opening up mainland China, China has started a continuous reform in basic education aiming to shift the examination-oriented educational system to literacy- oriented education so as to help students to become modern productive citizens in the twenty-first century. Moving into the twenty-first Century China expanded its education infrastructure and instituted compulsory education from grades 1 through 9, the law was intended to create a compulsory 9-year education. This first round of educational reform began in 1986 helping to ensure every child went to school. The second round began in 2001 when the Ministry of Education promulgated new curriculums, which put forward several new philosophies related to the
why strategic orientation may lack in the HR function. A major one is that the top management does not perceive it important to include the HR department in the decision making process. Mike Losey in an interview (Huselid and Becker, 1999) notes that CEOs must realise that additional competencies are required for HR professionals HRM now entails more than basic proficiencies like administration, transactions, compliance and keeping complaints to a minimum but is now the bottom line stuff. It is a profession that not everyone can perform and HR departments must develop competencies in dealing with strategic issues, business awareness and the ability to quantify its own the contributions/ significance. Tony Rucci in the same interview states that the three significant barriers to HR playing a more proactive role in the next ten years are “a) Lack of basic economic literacy among HR professionals, b) Lack of comfort among HR professionals to take risks and c) HR professionals who do not demonstrate courage of conviction about their principles” (Huselid and Becker, 1999: 362). Research has been carried out on the competency requirements of the HR professionals. Ulrich, Brockbank, Yeung and Lake (1995) find in a study that knowledge of business, delivery of HR practices and management of change are significant competencies of HR professionals. Also, they should have a high degree of personal credibility and should master HR practices.
It is realized by the practice that a process of change is aimed at innovation, are however to be valid or structured perfectly, it is not enough to guarantee success. The result of an organizational change is influenced by other factors, which often are overlooked by theorists managerial about the dynamics with which the change is divided and built by people. For this reason the efficiency of change is more associated with adoption is done by an organization "to develop a sense of connection, a sense to work together to be part of the system; where every part of the system influences and is influenced by others, and where the system as a whole is greater than the parts that make up the system”.
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) with CRISPR- associated (cas) genes constitute the CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems in bacteria and archaea (1). CRISPR loci are identified in genomes by locating regions of conserved repeats interspersed by short variable sequences, spacers, that are adjacent to cas genes. The immune function of the systems is carried out by Cas proteins in three steps: first, the acquisition of DNA from an invader is stored between conserved repeats; next, the entire repeat-spacer array is transcribed into a single RNA transcript that must be processed into individual small interfering units during the expression phase; and finally, during interference, the guide RNAs direct Cas proteins to its target got cleavage of foreign invaders in a highly sequence-specific manner upon reinfection (2-6). Repeat-spacer arrays record the immunization timeline of an organism as spacer sequences, which are always added to the array at the leader end; this can provide a unique, hypervariable locus that can be used to genotype organisms so as to provide insights into their phylogenetic divergence and relatedness to other strains (7). Identifying the source of the spacer sequences, called the protospacer sequence, can tell a story of host-prey dynamics in environments where phage and plasmid intrusions are common and often lethal (8).
At this stage a preliminary mapping of any potential sur- gical terms had been achieved. The final stage of develop- ment of the classification aimed to define a restricted set of 'surgical problems' by examining which problems had been referred to surgeons in the BEACH study. Referrals were counted if they were coded in ICPC-2 Plus as having been made to any of a broad range of specialties in which surgical procedures form a large part of practice, including endoscopy and clinics usually attended by surgeons or obstetricians, such as breast, antenatal and in-vitro fertili- sation clinics. In principle, surgical problems could be defined as those problems that a large, nationally-repre- sentative sample of GPs refers to surgical specialists via private clinics, hospital outpatients and emergency departments.
2 E LECTION P ROCESS M ANAGEMENT - Election process involves the prime duty of Returning Officer to efficiently conduct the election for the Assembly/Parliamentary Constituency. This involves duties at various stages as follows:
Electronic voting refers to the using of computers or computerized voting equipments to cast ballots in the election. The e-voting has been developed for more than 20 years. In the electronic voting, there are three stages: the registration stage, the voting stage, and the tally stage. Verifiable cryptographic voting systems use encryption technology to secure electorate’s votes and to avoid coerce them to vote for any particular candidate or to buy their votes, and any another threats. This research aims to obtain an electronic voting system could be used easily in the third world countries. In this research ten of existing cryptography verifiable voting systems have been studied, and especially focused on End-to- End verifiable voting systems, which is considered as the newest class of voting systems. In addition this paper took a system from another type of verifiable voting systems for a comparison purpose. The comparison between these systems has done according to a set of public evaluation contexts that is followed in any voting system such as: properties, cryptographic building block, ballot format, and models. This paper discusses seven of E2E voting systems, which are closer to deal with in the developing communities in order to modify any one of those systems for using in third world countries. This study concludes that most of the modern voting systems currently in place are not usable in the third world countries (despite the many positive achievements in many aspects) but can be adjusted to fit with these countries. In the future, the most appropriate E2E voting system will be chosen among systems which are mentioned in this study to be adjusted in order to fit in the third world countries.
Table 1 gives an overview of our experimental results. Subjects were faced with an identical set of 16 first-stage choice problems, though the order in which each subject faced them was selected at random. No subject breached the time constraint of 30 seconds in any choice problem. Hence, in principle, there could have been 16 second-stage choices. But for reasons explained in Section 2.3, our procedure stopped after the first-stage choice if that was too inferior. On average, there were 4.2 such instances per subject, leaving us with a mean of 11.8 second-stage choices per subject — or 73.9% of the possible 16. Of the inferior choices, 84% (3.5 per subject) were dominated;
Nowadays, Tandem queueing model has drawn a good deal of attention for many researchers be- cause of it’s practical applications in real world. Hunt studied a finite server tandem queueing sys- tem and discussed the notion of approximate decom- position. Burke has considered a queueing system with the poisson arrival flow and exponential dis- tributed service times, he showed that the output process also follow poisson with same parameter as
shape the choice of migration destinations. The rapid and sustained increase in emi- gration from Africa has heightened interest in the selectivity of these flows (Castagnone et al. 2015, Schoumaker, Flahaux, and Beauchemin 2015, van Dalen, Groenewold, and Schoorl 2003). Understanding the nature and scope of selective emigration out of Africa is important for both theoretical and policy reasons, since it is closely related to the ongoing debates about brain-drain and its consequences for Africa (Anarfi, Quartey, and Agyei 2010, Docquier and Rapoport 2007, 2012). The outflow of skilled emigrants is not only thought to deprive African nations from citizens who can make the most valuable contribution to the development process, but it is also thought to cause losses in public spending on education as emigrants receive education in their origin countries before migration (Anarfi, Quartey , and Agyei 2010, Docquier and Rapoport 2007, 2012). Although selective emigration out of Africa has important implications for development, it remains relatively understudied. Using data from the 2009 Ghana survey of the Migration from Africa to Europe project (MAFE), the British Labor Force Survey (waves 2010-12), and the American Community Sur- vey (waves 2005-10), this study bridges four gaps in our understanding of selectivity among emigrants from Africa. First, this study investigates how current emigrants compare to return migrants and non-migrants in terms of their socioeconomic charac- teristics. Second, it explores whether emigrants to various destinations differ in their socioeconomic characteristics. Third, the study examines selectivity by using alter- native measures of socioeconomic characteristics at either the individual or household level. Finally, it investigates whether Ghanaian emigrants to the United Kingdom and the United States base their migration decision on a comparison of earnings across multiple destinations or whether they rely on the presence of networks to choose their emigration destinations.
To be more precise, another 30 products were selected and added to the initial list. To select these products, we applied a simple criterion of the product having been awarded a design prize, such as the Compasso d’Oro, the Red Dot or the IF Design Award. To challenge the emerging proposition, we also decided to include products from a broader variety of industries. In addition to furniture, housewares, and electric lighting, we also used products from household appliances, consumer electronics, automotive, and packaging. Again, each of the six design experts proposed a number of innovative products to produce a longer list. The group then selected 30 products to join the initial ten. For the final selection, the success of each product from the design point of view was evaluated by considering its presence in independent trade magazines and in domestic and international design museums and exhibitions. However, thanks to the contribution of the two professors from Bocconi University, during step two of the research process, it became clear that none of the design experts had a clear idea of the commercial success of such products when selecting the innovation examples. What they were able to assess was their innovation content in terms of cultural success within the design community. On the other hand, for the two Bocconi professors, it was important to establish how much each product had contributed to the financial success of its manufacturer. The difference between the design discipline, concerned with qualitative and cultural issues, and the business discipline, concerned with numerical value and financial results, once again came to the forefront. The research group’s joint decision was to ignore commercial success as an influential element in determining a product’s design-innovation content. At the same time, the two Bocconi professors deemed it worthwhile to conduct a spinoff study aimed at correlating the product’s success in the design community with the financial state of its manufacturer. The results of this study are described in the paper “Design as a Strategic Competence for Continuous Innovation” (Baglieri, Zamboni, & Secchi, 2009).
Abstract: Activated carbons can be produced from biomass in a thermal process either in a direct carbonization-activation process or by first carbonizing the biomass and later on activating the biochars into activated carbons. The properties of the ACs are dependent on the type of process used for production. In this study, the properties of activated carbons produced in a one-stage and a two- stageprocess are considered. Activated carbons were produced by physical activation of two types of starting materials, bio chars produced from spruce and birch chips in a commercial carbonization plant and from the corresponding raw chips. The activated carbons produced were characterized regarding specific surfaces, pore volumes and pore size distributions. The un-activated bio chars had some degree of surface area 190 and 140 m 2 g -1 for spruce and birch and pore volumes of 0.067 and 0.092
Additionally, contact with air might change the properties of the surface of the biochars making them less sensitive to the activating agent. In the industrial production of the biochars a continuous process is used while the laboratory tests were performed in a fixed bed reactor in batch mode; the process parameters used might affect the properties of the ACs produced. Similar, so far unpublished, results have previously been obtained using biochars produced in batch mode indicating that there are structural effects in the biochars rather than the production process itself that makes the differences.
The effectiveness of social media in facilitating learning depends on the selection and proper use of social media based on pedagogical and environmental factors (Zgheib, 2014; Imlawi, Gregg, and Karimi, 2015; Ng'ambi and Lombe, 2012; Kassens-Noor, 2012; Irwin, Ball, Desbrow, and Leveritt, 2012). The use of microbloging in facilitating informal process-oriented learning helped students in getting deep understanding of the content (Ebner, Lienhardt, Rohs, and Meyer, 2010). Lichter (2012) measured the influence of a YouTube video assignment on students performance. Students had the option of creating videos, watching them, doing both, or nothing from the previous options. Findings showed students who created videos performed better than who only watched the videos; students who watched videos performed better than those who did not watch the videos. These videos became learning aids for students who created the videos, students who watched them, and anyone who watched them on YouTube.
The proposed converter, which is shown in Fig. 2, integrates an ac–dc boost PFC converter into a three-level dc–dc converter. The ac–dc boost section consists of an input diode bridge, boost inductor Lin, boost diode Dx1, and switch S4, which is shared by the multilevel dc–dc section. When S4 is off, it means that no more energy can be captured by the boost inductor. In this case, diode Dx2 prevents input current from flowing to the midpoint of capacitors C1 and C2 and diode Dx1 conducts and helps to transfer the energy stored in the boost inductor Lin to the dc bus capacitor. Diode Dx3 bypasses Dx2 and makes a path for circulating current. Although there is only a single converter, it is operated with two independent controllers. One controller is used to perform PFC and regulate the voltage across the primary side dc-bus capacitors by sending appropriate gating signals to S4. The other controller is used to regulate the output voltage by sending appropriate gating signals to S1 to S4.
Boisvert, J., & Ashill, N.J. (2011). How brand innovativeness and quality impact attitude toward new service line extensions: The moderating role of consumer involvement. Journal of Services Marketing, 25(7), 517-527. Bordens, K.S., & Abbott, B.B. (2011). Research design and methods: A process
The destruction of cell integrity in berries contain- ing anthocyanins is the starting point of active physi- cal and biochemical maceration processes that take place until equilibrium is established between antho- cyanins concentrations in the solid and liquid phase. The pace of the process leading to the balanced concentrations of anthocyanins is determined by the degree of disintegration of plant material on the one hand and by its mechanical movement on the other. When making red wines, this process is accelerated by stirring, supplementation of sulphur dioxide, enzymes, alcohol production during fermentation, changing pressure of carbon dioxide and by heating of grape mush; all these steps can take place in open vats as well as in fully automated closed fermentors (Mandžukov 1989; Hamatschek, Pototschnigg 1990; Zimman et al. 2002). Vinification of red wines is based on alcoholic fermentation and maceration, i.e. dissolving of components present in grape must and in solid particles of grapes. There are three basic technologies of red wine making, viz. vinification based on (i) crushing of grapes and a simultaneous fermentation and maceration; (ii) heating of grapes
For the electrochemical assays, the potential range was set from -0.5 to 1.0 V (Figure 1). The first scan involved CG only, and there was no evidence of degradation (Curve I - Figure 1a). The SEM image for homogeneous film of the polyelectrolyte deposited on gold surface is shown in Figure 1b. PPy/CG composite was electrosynthetized by cyclic voltammetry (Curve II - Figure 1a), where the redox process in the formation of composite was observed. According to Otero et al. , the application of a certain potential in the presence of a monomer would produce a free radical, thereby initiating polymerization and subsequent modification of the electrode. In cyclic voltammetry in the presence of Py, there was a shift to higher anodic potential and the formation of a pre-peak at 0.3 V, followed by the high peak at 1.0 V. During successive scans the reversibility of the system was negatively impacted and an increasing separation of the anodic and cathodic potential peaks was observed. The SEM image of PPy/CG (Figure 1c) reveals a morphology typical of granular-like coverage . Thus, a heterogeneous surface with a granular structure and dendrimers was generated. Note that PPy/CG composite had a shiny black color, similar to standard PPy film.
Identifying and analyzing problems. A model helps organizations recognize the underlying causes of a problem, bottleneck, or breakdown in the process. The step-by- step nature of the model allows analysts to look at the individual elements and figure out how to change them to solve problems. The model becomes the focal point of discussion, allowing those involved to walk through the steps necessary to capture the institutional memory or knowledge of the work process. Convening the people connected with a process and documenting it through the creation of a process diagram (or model) results in a broader and more consistent understanding of the process. Assumptions are made explicit, expert knowledge is documented and different perspectives are presented and reconciled. These models can then help you predict where problems may occur and provide you with the capability to add or clarify activities that eliminate or avoid problems. Investigating improvements. Once you have mapped out the steps, you can analyze a process to determine areas that can be improved. A model will show unexpected