Prior to Helsinki, the DAC/FA warned that mostly commercially-motivated tiedaid triggered the distortion of aid flows from countries most in need to those countries and projects that promised to be profitable for donors’ businesses. It was certainly the tied-ness of the instrument that was the biggest thorn in the DAC/FA’s side. Confronted, however, with the reality of aid politics, a strategy of containing the most harmful effects was chosen, joining the Participants’ efforts to design the instrument in a way that would lead to less aid and trade distortions. For that purpose the DAC adopted a series of guidelines to increase the transparency of tiedaid policies and to enhance their development orientation. Although the Working Party had put its focus on aid quality much earlier, it was in the 1990s that discussions on how to achieve this goal were the most intense (DCD/DAC/FA/M(93)2- PROV). These concerns are yet another expression of a general rethinking of development co-operation in the immediate post-cold war era when the effectiveness of aid was seriously challenged and an aid fatigue translated into reduced ODA-volumes (Wood et al. 2008: 5). One of the most emphatically pursued proposals by the DAC/FA was the call for a greater role of aid agencies in the design and implementation of projects financed with tiedaid credits (Fritz 2013: 122). Furthermore, the DAC Secretariat repeatedly urged that estimates of the gap between the economic and the financial internal rates of return would indicate the development contribution of projects (DCD/DAC/FA (94)9: 5).
The purpose of this paper is to employ a simulation method to investigate the welfare implication of aidtied to a purchase of quota-restricted imports in a dynamic economy. To highlight the role played by capital accumulation, a production externality arising from the capital stock is explicitly incorporated in the production function. This externality was first considered by Arrow (1962) in a growth framework, in which knowledge creation is a side product of investment. Essentially, each firm’s knowledge is a public good so that firm can have free access to it. Romer (1986, 1989) extended this insight to model endogenous growth. Barro and Sala -i-Martin (2003) provide a comprehensive survey of this literature. 3 We will show that accumulation of capital is positively related to the price of the quota-restricted foreign good. Aidtied for purchasing the foreign good can lower its relative price and hence capital accumulation in the economy, if the tying ratio is substantial. This suggests that to avoid the fall in the capital stock, tightening import quota (i.e., zero quota) is optimal when a large capital externality is present. Thus, tiedaid for relaxing quota may immiserize the recipient country. On the contrary, the optimal level of import quota is large when the capital externality is low. In this case, tiedaid that relaxes the quota restriction can be welfare improving if the initial level of quota is set too low.
contracts oﬀerings adapt to individual country characteristics to maximize their eﬀectiveness?
Since creation of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), an impor- tant issue arises as to whether aid recipients should be freely available to buy goods and services from all countries ("untied aid"), or should aid recipient countries be restricted to the procurement of goods and services from the donor country ("tiedaid"). The DAC recommends untying Oﬃcial Development As- sistance to Least Developed Countries: it expects untied aid to be more eﬃcient than tiedaid due to administrative burdens and possible technical incompatibili- ties among donor and recipient technologies that accompany tiedaid. Moreover, tiedaid, sometimes qualified as a hidden subsidy to donor’s national industries, arguably responds to political pressures, as opposed to recipient countries needs. Accordingly, DAC recommendations and the aid eﬀectiveness literature beg the following question: Which contract is more eﬀective for each set of recipient characteristics? To examine how diﬀerent recipient characteristics aﬀect each contract’s eﬀectiveness can help to design the optimal contract for each recipient situation and improve the overall eﬀectiveness of development assistance. Con- cretely, the question we pose is: Do both tied and untied aids have diﬀerential eﬀects on growth? And how do such diﬀerential eﬀects depend on the existence of good policy environments?
The magnitude and the direction of the transitional dynamics and long-run effects depend crucially upon the elasticity of substitution between the two types of capital in the recipient economy. Our analysis suggests that tiedaid is more effective in terms of its impact on long-run growth and welfare for countries that have low substitutability between factors of production. This finding has important policy implications, especially in light of recent empirical evidence suggesting that the elasticities of substitution for less developed or poor countries are significantly below unity. 8 We find that the welfare gains from a particular type of aid program (tied or untied) are sensitive to the costs of installing public capital and capital market imperfections, even for small changes in the degree of substitutability between inputs. Economies in which the elasticity of substitution between the two types of capital and the installation costs are relatively high are likely to find tied transfers to be welfare-deteriorating. For such economies untied aid will be more appropriate.
In this paper we highlight aspects related to the links between international migration, foreign tiedaid and the welfare state. We model migration as a costly movement from an aid- recipient developing country with low income, poor infrastructure, and no welfare system, towards a rich donor, developed country with a well-developed welfare system. Within this model we find, among other things, that the best response of the developed donor country is to increase aid as the co-financing rate by the recipient country increases. When the immigration cost decreases, e.g. due to greater economic integration between the two countries, it is beneficial for the donor country to increase aid.
In analyzing data using the usual non-parametric methods, one of the problems a researcher often encounters is the problem of tied observations. Several writers have suggested many ways of resolving this problem; including ignoring the tied observations and reducing the total sample size appropriately or randomly assigning the tied observations to either one or the other position of the data sets dichotomized in some way or assigning them their mean rank 1, 2, 3 .
output capacitor, in addition to using protective diodes for over and reverse voltages protections. On the other hand, several measurement techniques combined with control algorithms have been introduced as well. In , the authors demonstrated how to detect a small level of dc current in the single-phase full-bridge grid-tied inverters. This measurement technique uses a small 1:1 voltage transformer and an RC circuit to detect the dc voltage. It is quite difficult to measure the dc voltage with high accuracy due to the existing ac voltage, which increases in magnitude with the increase of the em- ployed phase shift between the grid and the inverter voltages. On the other hand, the authors in ,  are discussing a measurement technique to detect the dc offset between the inverter output terminals using RC filters and voltage transformers, in which the common mode voltage problems should be effectively considered. Similarly, the authors in ,  are discussing the dc current component measurement and mitigation using output low-pass filters and voltage sensors for single-phase and three-phase systems. Also in , the authors are using a reactor with a specific design combined with a current transformer and an LC filter to mitigate the dc component. This reactor is working at the knee point of the magnetizing curve or higher, where this measurement technique is seen as a bulky and complicated one. The authors in ,  are discussing the effect of using means of dc offset calibration on the dc current injection by measuring the dc link current, in which the gain and the linearity errors are neglected and they might affect the measurement in different scenarios.
The student may appeal the denial of aid in writing (email is acceptable) to the Financial Aid Office (for federal aid) or the Student Accounts Office (for institutional aid) explaining why he failed to make SAP and what has changed that will now enable him to make SAP. The student should include any third-party documentation (e.g., signed letter from physician, obituary, etc.) to support his appeal. If the appropriate office grants the appeal, the student will be eligible for aid, be placed on financial aid probation for one term, and may also be placed into an academic plan determined by the respective office. The office that granted the appeal will review his progress after the completion of the next term to see if he made SAP or met his academic plan. If he did not succeed in making SAP or meet his academic plan, he will be ineligible for future aid until he regains eligibility by the normal academic procedures described above. A student may only be granted one successful appeal per degree level (i.e., only one appeal granted for bachelor level, one for master level, and one for doctoral level).*
AREA 2: INVOLVEMENT IN POLITICS 2
TIED FOR 32ND
Despite its financial resources, Minnesota’s teacher unions were less involved in the last decade of state politics than were their counterparts in most other states. 3 Their donations to candidates for state office amounted to just 0.46 percent of the total (30th); these contributions constituted 2.5 percent of the donations to candidates from the ten highest-contributing sectors in the state (39th). A relatively higher proportion—2.2 percent—of total donations to state political parties came from
The Lincoln Continuous Tied Mixture HMM Speech Recognizer* The Lincoln Continuous Tied Mixture HMM Speech Recognizer* D o u g l a s B P a u l Lincoln Laboratory, M I T Lexington, Ma 02173 A b s t r a[.]
ADAPTATION TO NEW MICROPHONES USING TIED MIXTURE NORMALIZATION A D A P T A T I O N T O N E W M I C R O P H O N E S U S I N G T I E D M I X T U R E N O R M A L I Z A T I O N A n a s t a s i o s A n a s[.]
4.2.1 Arch Bridges. Nettleton and Torkelson (1977), of the Federal Highway
Administration (FHWA), produced a reference to address topics of steel and concrete arch bridge design not previously examined. The work includes open spandrel arch bridges and through arch bridges. Specifically the document covers wind stress analysis and deflection, stress amplification due to deflection, rib shortening moments, plate stiffening, and calculations for preliminary design. Additional topics include construction of arch bridges. Planar, two dimensional analysis is used throughout the text and the design uses Allowable Stress methodology. Still the reference is valuable as it presents topics beyond arch analysis and can be consulted for analysis and design of arch members not covered elsewhere. Member details for static loading are easily developed; however, no information is presented on the overall dynamic characteristics of arch bridges. It does have a short section on wind induced vibration on specific members – tied arch hangers and open spandrel arch columns. The examples of bridges impacted by wind are dated though the analysis and outcomes are still in use today. The equation for vortex shedding induced vibration is noted below and remains in use to evaluate hangers (bridge rope), hangers (H members), cables, and truss members (H or I shapes).
This paper measures and compares fragmentation in aid sectors. Past studies focused on aggregate country data but a sector analysis provides a better picture of fragmentation. We start by counting the number of aid projects in the developing world and find that, in 2007, more than 90 000 projects were running simultaneously. Project proliferation is on a steep upward trend and will certainly be reinforced by the emergence of new donors. Developing countries with the largest numbers of aid projects have more than 2 000 in a single year. In parallel to this boom of aid projects, there has been a major shift towards social sectors and, as a consequence, these are the most fragmented. We quantify fragmentation in each aid sector for donors and recipients and identify which exhibit the highest fragmentation. While fragmentation is usually seen as an issue when it is excessive, we also show that some countries suffer from too little fragmentation. An original contribution of this paper is to develop a monopoly index that identifies countries where a donor enjoys monopoly power. Finally, we characterise countries with high fragmentation levels. Countries that are poor, democratic and have a large population get more fragmented aid. However, this is only because poor and democratic countries attract more donors. Once we control for the number of donors in a country-sector, democratic countries do not appear different from non- democratic ones in any sector and poor countries actually have a slightly less fragmented aid allocation.
AREA 2: INVOLVEMENT IN POLITICS 2
TIED FOR 26TH
Despite ample revenues, the political activity of New Jersey state teacher unions ranks them in the middle of the national pack. In the past decade, 0.58 percent of total donations to candidates for state office, and 0.68 percent of the donations to state political parties, came from teacher unions (27th and 31st, respectively). Fifteen percent of the state’s delegates to the Democratic and Republican national conventions were teacher union members (20th). 3
approximation seem to give underestimations for five out of seven variables, as compared with exact expression or the Efron method. This observation is in accordance with the conclusions drawn by Hertz-Picciotto and Rockhill  who also indicate a tendency for Breslow approximation to underes- timate parameters in the Cox model. The discrete model tends to give higher absolute values for parameter estimates (with the exception of covariate 7). In this case, however, it should be noted that the discrete model is based on a different likelihood function than the Cox proportional hazard model which uses a partial likelihood function (with potential modification such as exact ex- pression , the Breslow or Efron approximation), thus the parameters obtained from these models do not have exactly the same interpretation [Kalbfleisch & Prentice 2002]. The results obtained through the use of random value methods do not represent any systematic pattern, as some estimates are higher than for exact expression and some are lower; however, parameter estimates are very close to those coming from the Efron or exact method. What is interesting, is the fact that differences between the parameters obtained through the use of exact expression and the random value method are in most cases lower than the differences between parameters coming from the exact method, Breslow approximation or the discrete model, which might indicate that simply subtracting a tiny random value might even give better results than some more formal methods of handling tied events. As far as standard errors are concerned, the results obtained do not differ between the five methods to a great extent, only the discrete method shows slightly higher errors, but these differences are not very high. What is worth being mentioned is that the p-value for covariate 3 differs between all five methods to the extent that could even lead to different conclusions concerning the statistical significance of
An on-chip integrated power management architecture is proposed in  to achieve MPPT at PV cell level, of which the system diagram is shown in Fig. 17. The fully integrated circuit (IC) is claimed to eliminate partial shading issues completely. The system adopts the topology of synchronous DC/DC boost converters. To limit the size, the switching frequency is set to 500 kHz. The solution sounds ideal to push the MPPT operation to the most granular level, however, drawbacks lie in the system complexity and high- cost since significant numbers of DC/DC power units are required for a typical PV grid-tied system. There is also a concern to match the DC/DC converter lifetime with the PV cells under the same harsh environment under direct sunlight. Furthermore, it is difficult to design a high-efficiency DC/DC converter for the low input voltage and high output current of a typical PV cell. For example, the maximum power output of a six-inch crystalline-based cell is about 4W, at 0.5 V and a current of 8 A. Few studies these days focus on cell level MPPT research and implementation due to the difficulty and complexity outlined above.