timber production and sales

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Analysis of standing timber sales based on overall coniferous/broadleaved tree species ratio

Analysis of standing timber sales based on overall coniferous/broadleaved tree species ratio

More interesting data could be yielded from comparison of winning prices with respect to the average price of raw timber in the Czech Republic. This would require determination of raw timber production prices for different production sites. The Czech Statistical Office publishes prices of raw timber in roadside landing parity, yet the studied open tenders sell standing timber, i.e. on site stump (stand). Added to this, information on the pro- duced raw timber assortments in the sold units is required for the comparison mentioned earlier but at present it is still missing.
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Forest visitors' opinions on the importance of forest operations, forest functions and sourcesof their financing

Forest visitors' opinions on the importance of forest operations, forest functions and sourcesof their financing

AbstrAct: The survey was conducted in three selected areas of the Czech Republic in 2008, with the results pro- cessed in 2009. Forests visitors received inquiry forms (face to face interviews, random sample). The total number of visitors on 8 survey days was 7,369. The total number of filled-in questionnaires in the three areas was 1,122. Tree planting and tree protection are considered as the most important forest operations, followed by road and stream bank maintenance. On the contrary, timber transport and harvesting are considered as the least important activities. The nature-protecting function is considered as the most important forest function, followed by soil-conservation, climatic, hydrological and health (recreational) functions. Timber production and non-timber production are the least important functions according to the respondents. 20% of respondents claimed that increased costs needed to improve non-market forest functions, used by the visitors, should be partially or fully financed from the timber sales revenues, while only 6.5% of respondents say the costs should be partially or fully financed from payments by the users of forest functions.
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Analysis of timber production and institutional barriers: A case of community forestry in the Terai and Inner-Terai regions of Nepal

Analysis of timber production and institutional barriers: A case of community forestry in the Terai and Inner-Terai regions of Nepal

The usual processes of log buying, sawmilling and retailing are as follows. LBs and sawmills buy logs from CFUGs as well as from other sources, such as public and private forests. The sale of logs from a public forest has to be done by a sealed bidding auction system. Sales from community forests also follow a similar procedure. The highest bidder can get the timber if the bidding offer meets the minimum price directed by the government, which is Rs250 per cubic foot of log in the case of Sal. After a successful bid, the logs are marked as “Sold Mark” from the CFUG as a sign of being sold legally. This must happen before the winning bidder can load them onto a truck. According to the Forest Act 1993, a CFUG must put a sold mark on the logs before issuing a transport permit. However in practice, in addition to the CFUG mark, the DFO also puts on a “Sold Mark” and issues a transport permit to the winning bidder. Thus, in practice the log buyer has to obtain permits both from the CFUG and the DFO. The permit includes details of the logs such as species, size, the quantity of timber and the destination sawmill.
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Small forests, big ambitions and a hard reality - community forestry in Nepal

Small forests, big ambitions and a hard reality - community forestry in Nepal

Several theories have been put forward about what factors are constraining CFs from realising economic benefit from their Sal forests in the Terai (Bampton & Cammaert, 2006; Kanel, 2006; Oli, 2003; Timsina, 2007). The first is that individual forests are too small to profitably organise harvest and market sales. For example, the average size of a CF is only 75 hectares (Kanel and Dahal, 2008). For organising harvest and market sales as a business, economies of scale is very important (Pratten, 1971; Timsina, 2007). Sakurai et al. (2004) studied timber production in CFs and private forests in Nepal, and found that CFs in the Terai had lower protection costs and higher silvicultural costs than other regions. However, the minimum efficient scale of timber harvest is not known.
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Comparative effectiveness of silvicultural interventions for increasing timber production and sustaining conservation values in natural tropical production forests. A systematic review protocol

Comparative effectiveness of silvicultural interventions for increasing timber production and sustaining conservation values in natural tropical production forests. A systematic review protocol

While tropical silviculture still remains little-known or poorly acknowledged among decision-makers, there is also some strong antagonism even within the forestry scientific community, namely between forest ecologists and conservation ecologists. The former defend silvicultural interventions as tools to stimulate forest production whereas the latter accept only the most gentle interventions and promote biodiversity conservation through the creation of protected areas even within production forests. One source of confusion and conflict is that depending on how it is carried out, logging can represent either forest exploitation or a major silvicultural intervention designed to maintain forest productivity. From the outset, tropical silviculture faced the problem of reconciling timber pro- duction with long-term conservation of forest ecosystems, though the main objective in the early days was indeed to improve timber production [1]. The main challenge lies in finding thresholds of extraction intensity coupled with silvicultural treatments that are compatible with: (1) the maintenance of biodiversity and the main ecosystem services targeted for a given forest management unit, (2) the profitability for the actors involved.
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Assessment Of Current State And Impact Of REDD+ On Livelihood Of Local People In Rungwe District, Tanzania

Assessment Of Current State And Impact Of REDD+ On Livelihood Of Local People In Rungwe District, Tanzania

Abstract: A climate change mitigation mechanism, Reducing Emission from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) is anticipated to affect livelihoods of forest dependent communities. This study was conducted to establish this impact on livelihoods of local people in Rungwe District, Tanzania. Data were collected through questionnaires, group discussions, and interviews from three villages: Syukula, Ilolo and Kibisi. Results showed that households’ annual income and crop production are higher after REDD+ implementation. The older respondents (>40 years old) considered REDD+ to be important for forest management compared to younger generation (<40 years old) (p<0.05). Similarly, the older respondents considered wood forest products such as fuelwood, charcoal, timber and poles to be reduced. There was a widespread awareness about REDD+’s objectives among household respondents. Therefore, REDD+ proponents should implement alternative sources of livelihoods to help local people improve their income and reduce dependence on the forest resources and eventually decrease deforestation and forest degradation.
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The production and sales of anti-tuberculosis drugs in China

The production and sales of anti-tuberculosis drugs in China

As one of the 22 high TB burden countries, China has made great progress by reducing 51 % of TB prevalence and 79.5 % of mortality rate between 1990 and 2010, achieving the TB control targets of the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals ahead of time [3]. This could be attributed to the nationwide implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended DOTS (directly observed treatment, short-course) strat- egy since the 1990s. However, China still has the world second highest burden of both TB and MDR-TB in 2014. It was estimated that the prevalence and incidence of TB in China were 668 and 390 per 100 000 popula- tion, respectively. Meanwhile, 5.7 % new TB cases and 26 % retreated cases were MDR-TB in China [1]. This was mostly because of the inappropriate TB treatments and treatment interruption, especially among patients treated within the hospital system. TB treatment in China is provided by CDC and hospitals. Hospitalization for 100 % of MDR-TB patients in 2014 was reported in China [4]. However, hospitals provide limited outpatient follow-up of TB patients. A Chinese survey showed that over 40 % of the MDR-TB patients did not complete their last treatment course, among whom most were treated within the hospitals [5]. The Chinese government has taken many actions along with DOTS, such as the free treatment policy and the use of anti-TB fixed-dose com- bination (FDCs). Studies are needed to illustrate the effect of policies and regulations for TB prevention in China, and to provide new ideas for TB control. Until recently, no study was seen to use the production and sales data to evaluate this issue.
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REALIZED TRANSITIONS TO ISSUE OF SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION IN FORESTRY OF JAPAN AND FINLAND

REALIZED TRANSITIONS TO ISSUE OF SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION IN FORESTRY OF JAPAN AND FINLAND

The less fractional structure of raw wood, the more industrial possibilities of use by the cut down trees as by activest component of wood exploitation. There- fore paper production magnifi cation and production decrease of cauls, saun wood, furthermore sticks, is the main tendency of forestry in all over the world on nearest 50 and more than years (we heuristically sup- pose, that this tendency of de-velopment will be expanded technically and techno- logically in all countries up to an extrem- ity XXI centuries, and then there century of a heavily wood replacement by other kinds of artifi cially created materials will come, however use of raw wood as re- newed source will not be stopped never).
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Assessment of Timber Harvesting and Logging Capacity in North Carolina's Coastal Plains-A Simulation Approach.

Assessment of Timber Harvesting and Logging Capacity in North Carolina's Coastal Plains-A Simulation Approach.

Production per employee (in-woods) hour for the simulation comes out to 14.3 tons/hour where production per employee (in-woods) hour using BLS employment levels in 2012 becomes 16.2 tons/hour, a difference of 1.9 tons/hour. From this we can conclude that the simulation could be a fair representation of logging crew productivity in the coastal plain. When comparing production results from this simulation with previous logging survey studies, we find this study to be within an acceptable range of crew production levels. Barrett et al.’s (2010) study found that the most productive crews in the Virginia Piedmont harvested as much as much as 2500 tons per week. Baker et al. (2015) interviewed 22 logging firms across the South and reported average weekly production among those firms to be 4,197 tons. In Hahn’s (2015) survey, the average logging firm produced 2,960 tons per week. We acknowledge that surveys are subjective by nature but prove useful in this study as a verification of feasibility for simulated results. We also know that the simulation did not account for every inefficiency associated with a typical harvesting operation. Inefficiencies such as mechanical breakdowns and year-to-year weather patterns can heavily impact crew productivity but are difficult to model.
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A Normative Balance Dynamic Model of Regional Economy for Study Economic Integrations // Economic integration, competition and cooperation  6th International Conference   2007  Opatija   Croatia: University of Rijeka  April 19 20 (CD Book: Session 6) 15 p

A Normative Balance Dynamic Model of Regional Economy for Study Economic Integrations // Economic integration, competition and cooperation 6th International Conference 2007 Opatija Croatia: University of Rijeka April 19 20 (CD Book: Session 6) 15 pp

Regional economy production sectors (X, Y, Z) use labour, the capital and intermediate products of adjacent production sectors. Production sectors deliver product on domestic market, on outer market, and on the market of intermediate product. It is considered that the prices are formed in each market of each product and change of the prices is in inverse proportion to change of stocks of corresponding products. Households L offer labour and consume final production. Trading intermediary T redistributes material and financial flows. Bank system B emits money resources, gives out credits to production sectors. The regional government G accumulates taxes from production sectors (the profit tax n 1 , the value-added tax n 2 and excises n 3 , the uniform social tax n 4 , the
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The Effect of Tax Treaties on Multinational Firms: New Evidence from Microdata

The Effect of Tax Treaties on Multinational Firms: New Evidence from Microdata

This paper adds to this literature by utilizing firm-level data. This permits us to analyze both the level of FDI (measured by affiliate sales) as other papers do as well as several other dimensions of MNE behavior. In particular, we find that although there is no significant impact on the level of FDI (the intensive margin) when a tax treaty enters into force, it does increase the probability of investment in a country (the extensive margin),by 0.1%. Although small in absolute value, when one considers that the average probability of investment in our data is only 0.6%, this effect becomes meaningful. Examination of the extensive margin is impossible using the country-level data employed in other studies. Furthermore, we consider whether the implementation of a treaty affects other aspects of a MNE’s behavior, specifically its exporting and importing activities. Using a simple model, we show that if a treaty affects the tax rate paid in the host, this may well affect the value of a subsidiary as a vertical affiliate (i.e. where output is exported back to the parent) or an export platform (where exports are sent to third countries). 4 Furthermore, this affects the incentive to import from the parent. Here, we find that although a treaty has no effect on exports to third countries, we do find significant effects on trade with the
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The Effect of Tax Treaties on Multinational Firms: New Evidence from Microdata

The Effect of Tax Treaties on Multinational Firms: New Evidence from Microdata

This paper adds to this literature by utilizing firm-level data. This permits us to analyze both the level of FDI (measured by affiliate sales) as other papers do as well as several other dimensions of MNE behavior. In particular, we find that although there is no significant impact on the level of FDI (the intensive margin) when a tax treaty enters into force, it does increase the probability of investment in a country (the extensive margin),by 0.1%. Although small in absolute value, when one considers that the average probability of investment in our data is only 0.6%, this effect becomes meaningful. Examination of the extensive margin is impossible using the country-level data employed in other studies. Furthermore, we consider whether the implementation of a treaty affects other aspects of a MNE’s behavior, specifically its exporting and importing activities. Using a simple model, we show that if a treaty affects the tax rate paid in the host, this may well affect the value of a subsidiary as a vertical affiliate (i.e. where output is exported back to the parent) or an export platform (where exports are sent to third countries). 4 Furthermore, this affects the incentive to import from the parent. Here, we find that although a treaty has no effect on exports to third countries, we do find significant effects on trade with the
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An EPQ Model with Imperfect Production Systems with Rework of Regular Production and Sales Return

An EPQ Model with Imperfect Production Systems with Rework of Regular Production and Sales Return

viceable product and time. Nita H. Shah et al. [5] deve- loped an inventory model that jointly optimizes cost of manufacturer and retailer under buoyant market condi- tion. Proposed model also considers imperfect production processes and partly backlogging is allowed only at the retailer’s end. Gour Chandra Mahata et al. (2010) deve- loped an [6] developed an EPQ model for deteriorating items in the fuzzy sense where delay in payments for both retailer and customer are permissible to reflect rea- listic situations. Swapan Kumar Manna [7] developed two deterministic economic production quantity (EPQ) models for Weibull-distribution deteriorating items with demand rate as ramp type function of time. It is assumed that the finite production rate is proportional to the time- dependent demand rate and the unit production cost is inversely proportional to the production rate. The EPQ model without shortages is studied first and with short- ages is investigated next. Biswajit Sarkar et al. [8] de- veloped an economic production quantity model for both continuous and discrete random demand of merchandise and a certain percent of the total product is of imperfect quality, which follows a probability distribution. The im- perfect quality items are reworked at a cost. The percent of defectiveness in the total product usually increases with an increase in production run time. K. Srinivasa Rao et al. [9] concerned with a production inventory system with the assumption that the life time of the product is random and follows a Weibull distribution. This paper uses mathematical modeling to derive the long run aver- age cost function for the proposed EPQ model with scrap, rework and sales return then employs optimality condi- tions to determine the optimal production quantity for the proposed mode. The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents the assumptions and nota- tions. Section 3 is for problem formulation and numerical example. Section 4 summarizes the assumptions. Finally, the acknowledgement of the author.
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Time Management The Key to Restaurant Catering Sales Production

Time Management The Key to Restaurant Catering Sales Production

In a role of leading successful sales team members towards big sales goals, time management stands out as one of the most critical, and most directional subjects to consider, address and build discipline and structure around. Certainly, it is no mystery that the most productive sales professionals have one thing in common – a strong commitment and daily discipline to calendar management as the backbone of highly organized sales habits. The lesson taught long ago in this great restaurant business, is to plan the work and then work the plan. Simple, sound advice, but in a day filled with the demands of competing priorities and more work than seemingly will fit into one day, the calendar can play a big role in not only getting it all done, but feeling good about accomplishments as things are checked off the list!
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MARKET SHARE IN PRODUCTION AND SALES OF PASSENGER VEHICLES IN ASEAN

MARKET SHARE IN PRODUCTION AND SALES OF PASSENGER VEHICLES IN ASEAN

Finding out the research revealed that, only Thailand and Indonesia emerges as the largest market share in production and sales of cars and motor vehicles than other ASEAN countries, this is because of mounting middle classes with larger disposable incomes, increased investments in automotive sector and introduction of automotive guidelines supporting market progress. In such a case other ASEAN countries of automotive sector should emphasis on Production and sales of passenger vehicles by means of expansion of economy, more disposable incomes, capacity expansions by automakers, launch of several new model vehicles strengthened by foreign vehicle model proliferation at competitive price points and also by price decrease of market liberalization, foreign investment influx for vehicle production enlargement and exploiting know-how to enhance auto production and increase product competition.
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DISCRETE-EVENT SIMULATION OF PRODUCTION AND SALES PROCESSES IN A COMPANY 

DISCRETE-EVENT SIMULATION OF PRODUCTION AND SALES PROCESSES IN A COMPANY 

A company, facing growing backorders, repeated failures, complaints and other problems in performance, losses profits and time. Therefore, mangers need to put and solve complex strategic alignment issues concerning how business processes can be improved as well as what results would be achieved by such strategies. Present paper uses customer order decoupling point and inventory control policy as primary managerial tasks for the alignment of production and sales processes. The solution of these tasks ensures production line balance, supports reliable and efficient customer relationships, and, in particular, orders fulfilment. To verify the solutions’ ability to shorten costs and sales loss, computer-aided discrete-event simulation is chosen as scenario analysis tool. In the paper, Arena simulation models represent manufacturing system in make-to-stock manner according to customer order decoupling point and implement periodic inventory management policies with backordering and loss of sales, such as line balancing and basic stock, checking threshold, and combination thereof. The models are managerial tool for decision-making, providing verification of business strategies by parametrical study of non-stationary customer demand.
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Production planning and sales allocation in the salmon farming industry

Production planning and sales allocation in the salmon farming industry

As discussed in Chapter 3, fresh HOG salmon of different weight classes are used for different purposes, forming the rationale behind dividing fresh HOG salmon into several weight classes. The included sales weight classes have a resolution of one kilo- gram. This is because providers of statistical data on salmon spot prices, such as NASDAQ and SSB, record their prices according to these intervals. The processed product groups are chosen based on available data on the Marine Harvest trade vol- umes of different products, see Figure 2.11. Here, all frozen HOG salmon weight classes are aggregated into one single product group. Fillets include all fillet sizes, with and without additional differentiation such as seasoning and marinades. The smoked salmon-category includes all types of smoked salmon, such as whole, smoked portions, cuts and toppings. Consequently, other elaborated products such as cured salmon and ready meals are not included. As this is a very heterogeneous group of products, it would be hard to calculate meaningful production costs and sales prices. Additionally, the existing data for these products is insufficient.
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Relation between selected indicators of forest stand diversity and quality of timber production in managed Central European forests

Relation between selected indicators of forest stand diversity and quality of timber production in managed Central European forests

Euclidean distance, do not describe the forest struc- ture to its full extent, but rather quantify differences between the two stand parts, in our case young and old trees. Due to this, we analysed the trend be- tween the quality of timber production and struc- tural diversity using a simple indicator represented by the number of tree layers (Fig. 4b), although this indicator was not ranked among those with the highest correlation with the quality of timber pro- duction. We found that in uneven-aged stands and even-aged stands older than 40 years, the propor- tion of high-quality assortments is greater than in the stands with the greater number of tree layers (Fig. 4b). However, in stands younger than 40 years, the relationship was negative (Fig. 4b). This can be influenced by the fact that the proportion of high- quality assortments is lower in young stands due to their small dimensions. Moreover, the results may also be influenced by a greater error of timber qual- ity estimates in young stands. Since the structure of a forest is the result of natural processes and hu- man disturbances that include forest management practices, such as thinnings, fellings, and plantings (Gadow et al. 2012), the negative trend of the per- centage of high-quality assortment with increasing structural diversity may also be caused by the ap- plied silvicultural treatments.
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Indigenous Knowledge and Factors Related to Practices of Forest Conservation Among Forest Dependent Communities in the Tocha District Southern Ethiopia

Indigenous Knowledge and Factors Related to Practices of Forest Conservation Among Forest Dependent Communities in the Tocha District Southern Ethiopia

Abstract: The study was conducted to assess and explain indigenous knowledge and factors related to practice of forest conservation among forest dependent community in the three kebeles in Dawuro Zone, Tocha District. The communities involved were Malla and Manja. In light of this, both primary data and secondary data were used. Primary data was obtained through structured questionnaire, key informant information and focus group discussion while secondary data was obtained from published and unpublished materials, books, journals and project reports. A total of 162 sample respondents were identified using simple random sampling technique. According to the binary logit analysis age, religion, extension service and education were one of socio-economic factors found to be significantly related to the practice of forest conservation while sex, marital status, family size, ethnicity, occupation and residence to forest were not significantly related. The communities’ awareness about the general function of the forest was identified as indirect benefits like having high tendency to bring rain, maintaining soil fertility, protecting from extreme sun light and protecting the soil from erosion and direct benefits like getting non timber forest products (NTFP) and timber and other forest associated products are the well known contribution of forest. Even though, these two well contribution forests are known the communities understanding on indirect benefit is higher than direct benefits of forest. The forest communities are more associated with the forest and they have different conservation methods in their area due to their indigenous knowledge. This indigenous knowledge of community related towards the practice of conservation was for the purpose of traditional belief, medicinal value, for the extraction of honey and coffee shade and others. Though forest is conserved and protected by the communities, forest being deforested and reduced in coverage. Hence, forests were being depleted intentionally or unintentionally in the study area. This is due to expansion of agricultural land, population growth, logging of timber, high demand of charcoal, fuel wood and so on. Because of these pressures there is high level of deforestation in the area. Generally, for the protection and utilization of forest in sustainable manner it is recommended that traditional ecological culture should be done wisely.
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RANSBURG v. UNITED STATES 67-2 USTC 9672; 21 AFTR 2d 560 (S.D. Ind. 1967). Editor's Summary Key Topics

RANSBURG v. UNITED STATES 67-2 USTC 9672; 21 AFTR 2d 560 (S.D. Ind. 1967). Editor's Summary Key Topics

The government contends that is has always been the intent of Congress with respect to capital gains that a taxpayer allowed to a capital gains treatment on income and report only fifty percent (50%) of his gain and at the same time, cannot deduct one hundred percent (100%) of the expenses directly incurred in producing the gain. The case of Watson v. Commissioner, 345 U.S. 544, 547 is relied upon. That case deals with the sale of land with an annual unharvested crop of oranges prior to the year 1951. The Revenue Act of 1951, Section 24(f), expressly provided that in computing net income of such sale no deduction (whether or not for the taxable year of sale and whether for expenses, depreciation, or other- wise) attributable to the production of such crop shall be allowed. The Court adopted the prospective 1951 Act as its interpretation of the taxpayers' impropriety in deducting
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