timing and tracking

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Timing and tracking for the Crystal Barrel detector

Timing and tracking for the Crystal Barrel detector

Systematic resolution studies of a GEM-TPC require an excellent external beam reference. For this purpose the TPC tracking beam telescope has been developed [3]. It consists of two planar GEM detectors with a strip readout of 400 μm pitch and 2 silicon strip detectors of 50 μm pitch which allow for a very precise beam definition of the order of ∼ 25 μ m. Triggering is done with 2 pairs of plastic scintillators of which one pair can be moved with a step motor to perform beam scans to align the whole detector setup. In the middle of the table, a mounting structure is holding a small prototype TPC which was developed to perform reconstruction studies. It has an outer diameter of 20 cm and a drift length of 7.96 cm. Gas amplification is performed with a triple-GEM-stack and its 1500 pads are read out with 4x6 T2K-AFTER boards. The pad plane consists of two different hexagonal pad types with outer radii of 1.25 mm and 1.5 mm which allow resolution studies depending on pad size and pad response. The testbench has been used at the electron beam at ELSA and is currently located at the beam dump of the COMPASS experiment at CERN to optimize the resolution by varying shaping settings and gas parameters in the halo of the high energetic muon beam of 160 GeV with negligible multiple scattering e ff ects. First in-beam tests show a resolution of the track definition of about 25 − 30 μm and a spatial resolution of the TPC of about 200 μm with Ar/CO 2 (70/30) as a drift gas [3] [5]. To

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Long-term microfluidic tracking of coccoid cyanobacterial cells reveals robust control of division timing

Long-term microfluidic tracking of coccoid cyanobacterial cells reveals robust control of division timing

Most previous studies of circadian control in cyano- bacteria have used the rod-shaped Synechococcus elonga- tus sp. PCC7942, for which batch cultures were entrained over several light-dark cycles, followed by fluorescence imaging of circadian-clock proteins under continuous illumination [30, 31]. In such experiments, expression levels of circadian genes have been observed to oscillate during intervals classified subjectively as “light” and “dark” [2, 32], suggesting that a direct light input can entrain the system and that expression of cir- cadian genes may gate cell division [31]. However, recent studies have shown that clock genes also respond to the ADP/ATP ratio within the cell, which is a read out of metabolic status determined by rates of photosynthesis during the light period [33]. Thus, cyanobacterial growth and division can also be affected by light through metab- olism, and cell behaviors after entrainment but under continuous illumination are likely distinct from pheno- types that emerge after transfer to a dark environment in which energetics also change dramatically. Our microfluidic platform provides the ability to directly ob- serve the growth behavior of single Synechocystis cells during the dark phase, with short, low-intensity light ex- posures. The level of light used is sufficient for accurate cell tracking and demonstrably does not induce any cell growth in the dark (Fig. 3a, b). Furthermore, our custom image analysis pipeline does not require fluorescence la- beling of the cell periphery for cell-size quantification, thus reducing stress imposed on cells during imaging. In future experiments, our device would also permit the localization of fluorescently tagged proteins in concert with bright-field imaging.

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Adaptive sonar call timing supports target tracking in echolocating bats

Adaptive sonar call timing supports target tracking in echolocating bats

Many insects have evolved erratic flight trajectories to evade predation by echolocating bats. Insects that hear ultrasound, for instance, exhibit evasive flight maneuvers in response to echolocation signals (Roeder, 1962, 1967; Triblehorn and Yager, 2005). In the experiments presented here, we experimentally manipulated the predictability of target trajectories presented to bats tracking moving prey. Our results show that bats significantly increase the production of SSGs when the unpredictability of target motion increases (Fig. 3), consistent with the hypothesis that SSGs are used by echolocating bats to increase spatiotemporal resolution of target position when demands for sonar localization accuracy are high (Moss et al., 2006; Petrites et al., 2009; Kothari et al., 2014; Sändig et al., 2014; Kothari et al., 2018). These results raise the possibility that bats integrate echoes returning from SSGs to aid target trajectory prediction and sensorimotor planning.

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Factors affecting the foraging behaviour of the European shag: implications for seabird tracking studies

Factors affecting the foraging behaviour of the European shag: implications for seabird tracking studies

of tracking data was collected from this species at this site allowing the effect of year on foraging behaviour to be investigated. The european shag is considered an amber listed species in europe (eaton et al. 2009) and at 494 breeding pairs the Puffin Island colony is the largest popu- lation in Wales (goddard 2010). This species has also been identified as having good potential for acting as a reliable ecological indicator on the state of the marine environment (Fortin et al. 2013). The effects of year, sex, age of chicks, timing of tracking, number of chicks being raised and the breeding site on foraging trip distance, duration, maximum distance travelled from the colony and the size of the area used were tested with the aim of determining which, if any, are the most important factors to consider when planning and undertaking a seabird tracking study. We then simu- lated different realistic sampling regimes to evaluate how sample selection can influence conclusions on apparent for- aging characteristics.

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Timing Is Everything

Timing Is Everything

In a recent article, Drayman et al. (2) have experimentally tested whether the state of the individual cell plays a significant role in determining the outcome of an HSV-1 infection. They first screened a library of cell clones, each expressing a different green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged full-length protein from its endogenous locus, by tracking the progression of the infection using a reporter cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) expressed from the HSV-1 genome. The behavior of only 1% of the 400 proteins evaluated was different in productively infected cells. Two proteins stood out: RFX7 and geminin. At the time of infection, both were expressed to their lowest levels in the cells that went on to support the highest levels of HSV-1 gene expression. The levels of these two proteins are directly related to the cell cycle; they are both expressed at their lowest levels immediately after mitosis and at their highest levels at mitosis. These results were thus most consistent with some previous models which had proposed that

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Beat synchronization across the lifespan: intersection of development and musical experience

Beat synchronization across the lifespan: intersection of development and musical experience

Beyond natural development, life experiences may fine-tune rhythmic entrainment. Previ- ous work has established a link between musical practice and greater timing accuracy in rhyth- mic tasks, such as beat tracking [19]; one study showed that children and adults with music training had more proficient tapping synchronization and tempo discrimination (i.e. attune- ment) than individuals without music training [16]. Elementary school children with one year of musical training have more accurate performance on sensorimotor rhythmic tasks than peers with no music training [20]. In fact, musical training is thought to engender benefits for a wide array of auditory-perceptual and cognitive functions throughout the lifespan [21 – 23]; but see [24]. This suggests that musical training—which incorporates memorizing, interacting with, and attending to sound — may be associated with advantages in auditory attention and temporal acuity, abilities which are linked to synchronization [25]. Moreover, beat synchroni- zation performance correlates with auditory neural synchrony [26], which may be strength- ened in individuals with a minimal amount of musical training early in life [27]. One should be cautious, however, that these putative musician enhancements may be due to preexisting dif- ferences, such as rhythmic competence, that draw certain individuals to pursue music training.

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Portal Venous Phase CT of the Liver in Patients without Chronic Liver Damage: Does Portal Inflow Tracking Improve Enhancement and Image Quality?

Portal Venous Phase CT of the Liver in Patients without Chronic Liver Damage: Does Portal Inflow Tracking Improve Enhancement and Image Quality?

This study has some limitations that warrant consid- eration. First, this study was conducted on a limited co- hort at a single institution. Second, the technical diffi- culty of portal venous bolus tracking in the presence of respiratory motion probably caused the wide variability of scan timing observed when SMV tracking was used. Third, we did not evaluate the diagnostic performance for livers with diseases such as tumors, fatty liver, or cirrho- sis. Furthermore, in patients with cirrhosis accompanied by portal hypertension, time to the portal inflow of con- trast material may well be variably delayed and portal venous enhancement reduced, which may affect the fea- sibility of portal venous bolus tracking.

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The start of migration correlates with arrival timing, and the total speed of migration increases with migration distance in migratory songbirds: a cross-continental analysis

The start of migration correlates with arrival timing, and the total speed of migration increases with migration distance in migratory songbirds: a cross-continental analysis

To model the variation in the total speed of migration in relation to body mass, individual tracking data were aggregated based on the species/population, breeding latitude, and season to estimate the corresponding mean values. For the pied flycatcher and the barn swallow, dif- ferent populations exhibited substantially different total migration distances, and these species were therefore split into different populations for this analysis. The vari- ation in the total speed of migration between different species/populations was modelled using a linear mixed- effect model assuming normally distributed errors. The body mass of each species/population and the season and their corresponding two-way interaction were used as explanatory variables. All numeric variables were log10 transformed. The bird family was included as a random factor (intercept) to account for phylogenetic non-independence [21]. To account for differences in sample size and in the accuracy and precision of esti- mates between species/populations, the inverse of the standard error of the total speed of migration estimate was included as a species − /population-specific weight in the model. The two-way interaction was not significant and, thus, was omitted from the final model.

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Design and Implementation of CSR for DDR4 Memory Controller

Design and Implementation of CSR for DDR4 Memory Controller

Control registers are arrived based on the different timing parameter requirements for the command generation as per the JEDEC DDR4 SDRAM specification [1]. Calculate the number of bits required to store timing value for both 1600MT/s and 3200MT/s speed memory, and group this value into register of 32bit wide and give the proper address. The example given below shows how to calculate the number of bits required for storing the timing parameter for memory controller by considering both minimum and maximum speed memory. Let us first consider for 1600MT/s (Min) speed memory and calculate number of bits required to store the timing parameter tRRD_L (1K) (Activate to Activate command delay to same bank group for 1KB page size) as per the JEDEC specification.

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Static Timing Analysis (STA) of SAS Expander on Virtex7 FPGA by using Vivado

Static Timing Analysis (STA) of SAS Expander on Virtex7 FPGA by using Vivado

Static Timing Analysis needs application of proper constraints, generating timing reports, and checking if timing met or not. Using TCL scripts helps to speed up timing analysis. Using different strategies while implementation and synthesis can improves timing. Synthesizing design for timing optimization results in improved performance at the cost of area.

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Adaptive blind timing recovery methods for MSE optimization

Adaptive blind timing recovery methods for MSE optimization

A different sampling timing phase produces different channel responses in the presence of multipath chan- nels. For finite length equalizers, which are always insuf- ficiently long in practice for wireless multimedia broadcasting systems such as advanced television sys- tems committee (ATSC) receivers, the mean squared error (MSE) performance of a fixed length minimum MSE (MMSE) equalizer depends on the sampled chan- nel. Certain timing offsets yield channels relatively easy to equalize with baud-spaced equalizers and, conse- quently, the MSE performance of the MMSE equalizer of a given length is limited by the choice of timing phase offset. The problem of finding the optimal timing phase in the presence of long delay spread multipath distortion has been considered resolved with the intro- duction of fractionally spaced (FS) equalization [1]. FS equalizers not only equalize multipath channel distor- tion more effectively, but also plays a role of interpola- tion filter for the timing phase to produce the best MSE performance [1]. However, for long delay spread chan- nels such as the ones ATSC digital television (DTV) receivers are facing, FS equalizers covering the entire range of multipath delays are often impractical due to

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An enquiry into the relation between components and their composition on desired performance and cost of pick&place robotic arms

An enquiry into the relation between components and their composition on desired performance and cost of pick&place robotic arms

The hip motor delivers its power through a timing belt to a pulley on the bottom side of the hip axel. The reason to incorporate a timing belt and pulley system is due to the fact that it is not wise to place the hip motor at the centre of the hip. This is possible but would result in loading the motor shaft axially in order to clamp the angular contact bearings together. Making a quick calculation, assuming the arm is 400mm, the load plus weight of the arm is around 700g and the bearing is 30mmØ would put the axial force at This is more than the typical 50N a gearboxed electro motor can handle. This is why the design is chosen where the motor is not located above the hip but instead is placed on the base of the frame.

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Between movement and position: Tracking and its 
landscapes of readiness

Between movement and position: Tracking and its 
landscapes of readiness

If new technologies of networking, speed, and tracking have opened up this site of the micro – an affective space-time of bodily awareness, disposition, and readiness – then this is a space that can be politicized. The state of ‘readiness’ opens up a new site of operations in the intervals between perception and action. We can define it as a condition of heightened awareness and alertness, where the vigilant and optimized machinebody is roused and poised to act. In this state, one is not only cognitively but affectively engaged. Through the scrim of readiness, we can understand tracking as characterized by a shift toward real-time engagements and continuous, heightened states of alertness and preparedness in such a way as to generate an embodied state of receptivity for both conflict and libidinous consumption. It produces the body as a receptive site for both fears and attractions, and thereby integrates combat and commodity. It functions as a hinge between war and consumerism.

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Static Timing Analysis and Timing Violations of Sequential Circuits

Static Timing Analysis and Timing Violations of Sequential Circuits

Timing violations makes the chip entirely not to run in a proper mode of operation. From [1] detection and correction circuits for timing violations have been proposed based on timing equations analysis. To avoid violations many techniques have been proposed like adjustable delay buffers [3]-[6], time borrowing principle [7], etc. Details of detection and correction circuits are given in [1]. Mostly setup and hold time violations are seen and have to be avoided.

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Minimizing engine emissions using state feedback control with LQR and artificial intelligence fuel estimator

Minimizing engine emissions using state feedback control with LQR and artificial intelligence fuel estimator

closed-loop state-space controller. Figure 1 presents the block diagram of the engine control. The engine parameters, including fuel to air ratio, ignition timing, exhaust valve closed timing and intake valve open timing, are used as the input parameters to control the level of emission in the virtual engine. The reason for choosing those parameters are explained in early studies [3][4]. The controller estimates the original fuel composition using artificial neural network. The fuel estimator is able to find the probability distribution of the likelihood of the given fuels. This provides the proportional control to the state-feedback controller according to the fuel composition.

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A Timing Synchronization Algorithm in Ultra high speed System Based on FPGA

A Timing Synchronization Algorithm in Ultra high speed System Based on FPGA

In the digital communication system [1], there is a clock error between the receiver clock and the transmitter clock, and the relative motion of the receiver and the transmitter will also bring the Doppler bias [2]. This has a great impact on the quality of data transmission especially for ultra-high-speed communication systems [3] on account of the period of each symbol is at the nanosecond level. In order to eliminate the error and get the correct symbols, it is necessary to do timing synchronization in receivers. Considering the traditional serial bit synchronization structure cannot meet the requirements of ultra-high-speed data receiver and the real-time update of interpolation decimal interval is not conductive for hardware implementation. We present a parallel bit synchronization algorithm by using cubic interpolation and give the implementation with Xilinx Virtex7 series XC7VX485T and 4.8Gsps ADC development platform. This algorithm uses a fully-pipelined structure with maximum throughput, breaking the limitations of data processing rate on digital devices, which greatly improves the throughput of timing synchronization.

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Diabetic foot tracking and monitoring strategies in nurse practice

Diabetic foot tracking and monitoring strategies in nurse practice

Monitoring strategies for diabetic foot prevention and treatment: Regarding monitoring, continuous follow-up, health education focused on self-care and prevention of complications, adherence to therapy and patient satisfaction increased. The educational resources used were: seminars, flyers, weekly visits for physical and emotional support, portable laboratory, training programs, leafletand illustrative traffic light focusing on the risks. (Leese et al., 2011; Sharoni et al., 2017; Virani et al., 2006; Schmidt et al., 2008). Among the computerized self-management tools, Internet portals to strengthen treatment adherence and remember follow-up appointments, the use of telemedicine in patients with poorly controlled diabetes and the computerized data logging, allowing self-management and vigilance by the nurse, ensured better cardio-metabolic control (Tutino et al., 2017; Welch et al., 2011; Gabby et al., 2006). The multidisciplinary consultation (Santos et al., 2011; Hsu et al., 2015; Pataky et al., 2007)and community based care (Virani et al., 2006) contributed to holistic assistance and cost minimization. The behaviors based on risk stratification (Lavery et al., 2005; Leese et al., 2011)proved to be punctual to prevent complications (Gabby et al., 2006)and amputations (Hsu et al., 2015). In Scotland, risk stratification classified patients with low, moderate, high risk or active ulceration, and the guidelines, referrals and frequency of foot assessment were guided by the risk score (Leese et al., 2011). Emotional problems related to diabetes have been observed to include guilt, anger, depression, worry and fear. Thus, the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (PAID) (Gabby et al., 2006)proved to be important to note and intervene in these impasses that make adherence to therapy difficult, as early referral to the necessary specialists, as well as the availability of functioning referral and counter-referral services (Leese et al., 2011), facilitate the follow-up (Chin et al., 2014). A study pointed out that early debridement and the use of the acronym TIME contributed to the reduction of diabetic ulcer healing time. The acronym TIME involves clinical observations, interventions for the pathophysiology involved, and expected outcomes for each of the four components: T (non-viable tissue), I (infection / Table 2. Implications and challenges of diabetic foot tracking and monitoring in nurse practice. Brazil, 2019

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A Low-cost, Wearable Opto-inertial 6 DOF Hand Pose Tracking System for VR

A Low-cost, Wearable Opto-inertial 6 DOF Hand Pose Tracking System for VR

Tests has been done to characterize the resolution, static and dynamic spatial accuracy of the overall tracking system. The resolution is the smallest change of position or orientation that the tracking system is able to detect. Resolution is limited either by jitter or quantization levels. The visual effect of the jitter on computer display can affect the user’s haptic experiences. Static accuracy is the amount of reading error when the position and orientation remain constant. Errors due to noise, scale factor error and non-linearity can be shown on static accuracy tests. Very low frequency error components which can be perceived over a period of time are categorized under the term stationary drift. The jitter is the rapidly changing error component [5]. The static accuracy is calculated as the Root Mean Square (RMS) error of the recorded position and orientation angles from the true ones when the tracking sensors are held at a known fixed position and recording the position and orientation output data stream for a 10 min period of time.

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Indirect tracking of drop bears using GNSS technology

Indirect tracking of drop bears using GNSS technology

Significant advances were made with the advent of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology, providing the ability to obtain accurate, regular and frequent estimates of locations for movement ecology research into many species of animals (Tomkiewicz et al. 2010). At first, only large vertebrates such as elephants (Douglas-Hamilton 1998) and bears (Schwartz & Arthur 1999) were able to be tracked due to the considerable sensor size and the reliance on rather large, heavy battery packs. Technology improvements and the miniaturisation of equipment allowed the tracking of much smaller animals, including possums (Dennis et al. 2010) and pigeons (Steiner et al. 2000). In all these cases, the sensor is attached directly to the animal of interest.

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Road Lane Detection and Tracking

Road Lane Detection and Tracking

The interpreted lines in the roads and lanes are then identified using this system. Warning is provided to the driver when the vehicle is moves out of the lane unintentionally. On the turn signal the system will get disabled. The initial steps of lane departure warning system is lane marker detection and for this purpose there are mainly two methods that is to be followed and these are model based and feature based approach. In the model based approach it uses the geometric parameters for detecting lanes whereas the feature based approach uses lower level features such as the edges. Lane appearance diversity, changes in visibility conditions, variation in clarity of images are some of the main challenges and issues which is faced by the lane departure warning system. The lane markers used will be different for different countries. For solving the lane detection and tracking problems we have to investigate the type of lane behaviours and the challenges faced during the time of tracking. Special colours are used for marking the reflectors lane whereas lane markers are usually marked with white and yellow colours.

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