and more conventional 10V Josephson voltage standard (JVS) systems operated between 70 and 75 GHz . PJVSs are based on series arrays of overdamped Josephson junctions (JJs) divided into smaller independently biased subarrays. The overdamped Josephson junctions are externally or intrinsically shunted and exhibit a cur- rent-voltage characteristic (IVC) with a negligible hysteresis. In contrast to underdamped and therefore hyste- retic SIS (S = superconductor, I = insulator) junctions used for conventional JVS systems, overdamped Joseph- son junctions display single-valued Shapiro steps under microwave irradiation. Each of these constant voltage steps, including U = 0 , can be attributed to a definite dc bias current. This special property opens up new areas of application beyond simple dc metrology covered by the conventional JVS. Today, the PJVS constitutes, to- gether with the Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer (JAWS) based on pulse-driven Josephson junctions , the basis of modern ac voltage metrology. PJVS circuits representing the current state of technology are us- ing Nb x Si 1‒x barrier junctions. This junction type allows operating frequencies from 15 to 70 GHz by changing
This device could be used if it was placed under a different supply reference. For example, the ground of the device could be set at -40 V and the positive terminal at -10V. This would allow full voltage control over the needed range while keeping the device within voltage limits. The problem unfortunately is that the digital control signals from the microcontroller must also be isolated into the -40 V to -10V reference. This would have to be done with opto-couplers or solid state relays; a very costly requirement in hardware which is not feasible compared to the other approaches listed.
in vitro evaluations of GIC biocompatibility. 9,25,73 . This could be explained by the fact that the in vitro toxicity of GICs was due to a complex mechanism based on both ion release in particular, Aluminium and Fluoride ions and pH effects. Devlin et al. 25 (1998) stated that aluminum ions contributed to the in vitro toxicity of Ionomeric cements. Oliva et al. 61 (1996) stated the polyacid component (e-g. acrylic, maleic, tartaric and benzoic acids) can also create a decreased pH in the immediate environment, further contributing to a cytotoxic response. There was statistically significant increase in proliferative activity in Group II, III, IV and V than Group I (Conventional GIC) at 24, 48 & 72 hrs (p<0.05). GROUP II (GIC + 10v/v% CH), Group III (GIC +50v/v% CH) and Group V (GIC + 30wt % BAG) showed higher proliferative activity than all groups with no significant difference between them.
Protocol VS I. The embryos in perihatching de- velopmental stage were equilibrated in a culture medium H-MEMD with 10% v/v of glycerol (1.37M solution of glycerol in medium) for 10 minutes. Then they were placed in a vitrification medium for 1.5 min max. (the vitrification medium contained 50% v/v 2M sucrose in tridistilled water, 30% v/v of glycerol, and 20% v/v of foetal calf serum – FCS). Finally, the embryos were dropped with micropi- pe�e and stored in liquid nitrogen vapour. Embryos were thawed a�er the immersion of drop with embryo in a medium containing 0.8 M sucrose for 10 minutes.
The literature related to gender reassignment surgery has numerous limitations (e.g., lack of controlled studies, evidence not collected prospectively, large number of patients lost to follow-up). However, the majority of patients in case series and cohort studies experienced successful outcomes in terms of subjective well-being, cosmesis and sexual function. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health or WPATH (formerly known as the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association) Standards of Care (SOC) for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender Nonconforming People and the DSM V criteria are widely accepted as definitive documents in the area of gender dysphoria treatment. The SOC criteria have been adopted as the standard of care for the treatment of gender dysphoria, including hormone therapy and gender reassignment surgery.
Moreover, in recent decades the electrochemical preparation of conducting polymers on metallic substrates has been extensively studied [10-13] since this synthetic approach has several advantages, e.g. absence of a catalyst, direct addition of the doped polymer upon the surface of the electrode (particularly interesting for electrochemical application), easy control of the deposited coating thickness, and the possibility of in situ characterization of the polymer growth through electrochemical techniques .
treatment. The distal one-half centimeter of the tail was clipped and a capillary pipette containing anticoagulants (EDTA for cell counting) was used to collect 20 µl samples from the bleeding surface. The withdrawn sample was used for cell counting and immediately after collection; the cut surface of the tail was cauterized with styptic powder. The collec- ted blood was transferred to sterile test tube containing anticoagulant at a ratio of 1: 10. The collected blood was used for hematological para- meters within two hours of collection. The hemato- logical parameters were determined with the help of pathology laboratories.
Experimental . The data collection covered over a hemisphere of reciprocal space by a combination of three sets of exposures; each set had a different φ angle (0, 88 and 180°) for the crystal and each exposure of 10 s covered 0.3° in ω. The crystal-to-detector distance was 5 cm and the detector swing angle was -35°. Crystal decay was monitored by repeating fifty initial frames at the end of data collection and analysing the intensity of duplicate reflections, and was found to be negligible.