Tobacco cultivation in Tanzania began in the early 1960s, where production was approximately 3,000 t/year (~5,500 ha, yield 513 kg/ha; FAO, 2016). Production increased throughout the 1970s and 1980s and fluctuated around 30,000 t/year throughout the 1990s. In 2002, production was 27,423 t/year, cropped on 32,000 ha with a yield of 807 kg/ha. In 10 years (2012), production had more than quadrupled to 120,000 t/year, cultivated on 155,527 ha, with a yield of 771 kg/ha (FAO, 2016). This rapid increase in production without an increase in yield, and a corre- sponding fivefold increase in cultivated land, demonstrates that rapid land use change has taken place. This matches our findings, which indicate increasing migration into Kipembawe since 2002, and corre- sponding increases in the number of households cultivating tobacco. Rapid land use change resulting from tobacco cultivation has prece- dence in Tanzania, where tobacco cultivation rapidly expanded during the 1970s in Tabora, leading to fuelwood shortages and environmental changes including drought, irregular rains, and whirlwinds due to land use change by the 1990s (Maegga, 2011; Waluye, 1994). Similar impacts have also been seen in other miombo regions, such as Malawi (Mandondo, German, Utila, & Nthenda, 2014) and Zambia (Kalaba, Quinn, Dougill, & Vinya, 2013).
11 Read more
Then why do the government and policy makers are rigid on reducing the use of tobacco in the country? Although political motive exists in refraining from increasing tax rates on bidis and restricting tobacco cultivation, the government has been justifying its action on the grounds of large scale employment that is associated with tobacco. Thousands of farmers are engaged in cultivating different types of tobacco in the country. Everyday around 4 million people are rolling bidis in India, two-third of them being women. In addition farmers, retailers, processors, tendu leaf pluckers are dependent on tobacco for their livelihood. More importantly tobacco is one of the main sources of revenue to government. Tobacco contributed around 11% of the excise revenue in 2012 (CBECDDM 2013) and accounts for about 4% of the total value of India’s agricultural exports (www.ctri.org.in/) resulting in substantial foreign exchange earnings. The net returns from tobacco on an average appear to be 2-4 times higher than the revenue from other crops like groundnut, cotton, black gram in Karnataka, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. This is the reason why farmers go in for tobacco cultivation
16 Read more
Land use change in Kipembawe results from increases in tobacco cul- tivation driven by rising prices and in ‐ migration to cultivate the crop. This has led to an increase in population, which drives further direct land use change through the extraction of wood resources to provide housing and firewood, in addition to clearance and degradation of woodland for cultivation and livestock keeping. Given that tobacco cultivation is linked to the majority of LULCC changes within Kipembawe, it is the main driver of land use change leading to wood- land degradation. Due to the Tanzanian government's current positive support for tobacco production, it is probable that tobacco cultivation will continue to increase, driving further woodland degradation and deforestation. Action is required to avoid these impacts. Tobacco com- panies and government forestry and livestock departments have poli- cies in place (e.g., “ modern ” burners, woodlots, livestock movement, and logging restrictions), but there is little evidence of their implemen- tation. This must be addressed, in addition to the development of land management strategies that regulate woodland utilisation and alterna- tive methods for drying the tobacco crop. Encouraging the develop- ment of diverse livelihood approaches and limiting the top price of
10 Read more
From Table 3 we can say that among 262 respondents 163 (62.2%) says that tobacco cultivation pollutes the environment. About 66 percent tobacco grower says that soil fertility has been decreased by tobacco cultivation. Around 95 percent respondents reveal that tobacco cultivation is more profitable than cultivation other crops. This is a great threat to other crop production and continuing this one creates food crisis in our country in long run. By tobacco cultivation the tobacco growers get more money at a time from the company related to tobacco cultivation. It is observe that 92 percent of the respondent says that they are inspired to tobacco cultivation by any company situated in Kushtia. Tobacco cultivation requires large investments of cash causes farmers to borrow from moneylenders with high interest, leads to chronic indebtness. About 62 percent of the respondent says that they get loan for tobacco cultivation from a company. The major companies involved in tobacco leaf production as well as cigarette and bidi production in Kushtia areas are British American Tobacco (BAT) Company, Akij Tobacco, Abul Khair, Dhaka Tobacco, Nasir Tobacco. Around 67 percent tobacco grower says that they have to use more fertilizer in tobacco production and it affects the further production of other crops in the same land. Exposure to green leaves causes acute sickness making farmers often bedridden and causing vomiting, headache and breathing problems. In this study around 75 percent respondent says that they face some health related problem. They also say that the harvesting process of tobacco is so risky.
Large landholdings were to be found in the plains north of Kavalla, where the big cities of Serres and Drama were. In contrast, in the hilly and mountainous area around Kavalla it would be easier for owners of smaller farms to prosper. In contrast to tenant farmers, who did not have any property rights, and agricultural workers, the owners of small landholdings secured a higher income especially if they could cultivate commercialized goods that could be sold at higher prices in the market. Kavalla and the surrounding area allowed them to switch the agricultural production. Nevertheless, bad harvests, regular and additional taxes and the lack of agricultural credit institutions often forced them to mortgage their land so as to be able to borrow money from tobacco mer- chants, middlemen, moneylenders and trading firms such as Regie. When they could not pay their debts, they worked as seasonal workers in cities and sometimes moved permanently there. This was a source for tobacco workers in Kavalla and it prevented them from a need to emigrate abroad, as was the case in other places in the Balkans. Moreover, these dangers may have undermined the small and medium ownership of land and led to the creation of large estates (Stefanidou, 2007: pp. 155-157) (Pamuk, 2000: p. 222). The production of tobacco in- creased constantly throughout the period of 1839-1913 and replaced other less-commercialized goods such as cereals, cotton and dairy products because the farmers in Kavalla were free to sell their crops to the highest bid- der. In contrast, the neighboring kaza of Eleftheroupoli and Chrisoupoli had to sell their tobacco and cotton production for the capital’s market at lower, usually, prices. The increase in production did not come with an improvement in the means of production which remained rather primitive. The local farmers were reluctant to use new seeds and only towards the end of the period does one see broad use of chemical fertilizers. Moreover, the establishment of Regie as the tobacco state monopoly in 1884 led producers to increase production at the expense of quality. This was a consequence of Regie’s policy of relegating various tobacco qualities into lower categories in order to reduce the prices. Tobacco exports continued due to its supreme quality, the result of area’s climatic conditions and farmers’ specialization in its cultivation (Stefanidou, 2007: pp. 189-191).
10 Read more
Rangpur district was chosen purposively as a study area because this district is one of the renowned for Tobacco production in Bangladesh. Gangachara Sub-district was selected at random from the 7 Sub-district of Rangpur districts as the study area. An opening survey was carried on in some villages of Gangachara Sub-district to collect primary knowledge about the Tobacco production, productivity and efficiency of the Tobacco growers. After preliminary visit three village’s namely Utttor Panapukur, Dhakshin Panapukur and Betgari were selected randomly as the study area. Most of the farmers in these villages used to produce high yielding varieties of Tobacco and sell their product to different middlemen. The main criteria behind the selection of the Sub-district were as follows:
The estimation based on propensity scores assumes continuity in all the observables. However in a special case of controlling for an observable variable where the probability of assignment to the treatment group is a discontinuous function of one or more observable variables ( Duflo et al. 2006), propensity score matching methods do not yield reliable estimates In the case of credit access, for example, most micro credit organizations limit eligibility for credit to households that meet a certain minimum criteria. For tobacco credit in Malawi, t he eligibility criteria comprise two important components. First, credit programs operating in Malawi provide group loans that are tied with a joint liability clause for the group members. Therefore, only individual belonging to a credit group have access (are eligible) to such loans. Second, we note that most of the agricultural credit programs require that individuals at least own 0.5 acre of land, however for tobacco households are required to own at least 1 acre of land. We find that for tobacco cultivation, the specified cutoff point for land size is quite relevant because households owning less than 1 acre of land and are risk averse, are more likely to prioritize the cultivation of maize as a food security crop before they allocate land to the more lucrative tobacco. We therefore, generate an eligibility variable for an agricultural loan based on the two components; ie membership in a credit group and the minimum land holding size of 1 acre.
29 Read more
Tobacco is one of the important commercial crops of India and also called as “golden leaf”. It provides employment directly and indirectly to 38 millions of people. As a commercial crop, tobacco forms an important item in the Indian export basket. FCV tobacco accounts for around 85 per cent of total tobacco exports. Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka together have a share of 99 per cent of total FCV tobacco production in India. Due to less availability of labour, high cost of inputs and poor farm mechanization, resources may not utilize efficiently. Increasing productivity and thereby reducing costs will greatly enhance the competitiveness of tobacco industry both globally as well as in the domestic market. The present study has been conducted with reference to FCV tobacco; to identify the constraints faced by the farmers in the production of FCV tobacco. The Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka are purposively selected for the study as these states are major FCV tobacco growers in India. A total of 120 FCV tobacco growers of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka have been selected by multistage random sampling. The study reveals that untimely rainfall emerged as most severe constraint faced by the farmers in Andhra Pradesh whereas, scarcity of labour has been severe rank constraint for farmers in Karnataka. Though FCV tobacco cultivation in the study area gives high net returns to the farmers but the profit is sustainable if the farmers are provided with more labour, water availability and availability of firewood at low cost.
Questions collected data on certain socio-professional factors including: gender, age, nationality, marital status, having children, date of graduation, country of graduation, specialty (if present), and history of medical problems that required long-term use of medications. There was a section pertaining to tobacco smoking that collected data on the dentists’ own tobacco use and attitude towards: patient education on the health hazards of tobacco, routine enquiry of patients regarding their tobacco use habits, offering quitting advice to smoker patients, willingness to undertake a tobacco cessation activity in the clinic, and routine screening for signs and symptoms of oral cancer. Inclusion criteria included being a dentist registered with Saudi Commission for Health Specialties or Kuwaiti Dental Association.
during co-cultivation period. The optimization of these factors is a critical step as it breaches the limitation of Agrobacterium T-DNA delivery into recalcitrant species, such as P. violacea orchid. It is also demonstrated that transient gfp gene expression of transformants can be used with high reliability and efficacy to detect and isolate transformants PLBs. The use of various other Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains and the combination with super binary vectors and binary vectors with a constitutively active virG may further improve transformation efficiency in many or all orchid’s species and hybrids. The established protocol for Agrobacterium- mediated transformation here therefore, can be utilised for gene-of-interest transfer into P. violacea and its related orchid species.
14 Read more
Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of disease and premature death. It is the cause of over five million deaths each year worldwide which is expected to rise to over eight million deaths yearly by 2030. The vast majority of these deaths are projected to occur in developing countries. Nearly 0.8-0.9 million people die every year in India due to diseases related to tobacco consumption . Also, tobacco use and its association with oral diseases is a major contributor to the global oral disease burden . Hence the pattern of tobacco consumption as well as the form in which it is consumed in a community becomes important to plan preventive programmes. Keeping this in mind, the present study was designed to assess the association between socio-demographic variables and type of tobacco consumption among subjects attending a rural hospital in south India.
allowed to survey and complete 66% of them. The survey questionnaire was developed by Stanford University, and the questions primarily focused on tobacco. We were asked to identify what type of tobacco products were sold in the store like types of cigarettes (Camel vs Malboro), menthol cigarettes, E-cigarettes, chewing tobacco, snus, flavored tobacco, E-liquids, and little cigarillos. We were asked to identify whether these tobacco products came in flavors like cherry or grape. Another big component of the survey involved the pricing of tobacco products, and what price promotions or discounts were given at the store. Additionally, there were questions about alcohol availability like what types of alcoholic beverages were available in the store and where they placed. Also, certain nutrition questions about the availability of 1% milk, and whole -wheat products, and condom availability were on the survey as well. This is a condensed
27 Read more
countries has emphasized the implementation of this law as an appropriate and legal means for achieving the goals of tobacco control in the society (2). However, for the FCTC to succeed, early ratification must be followed by implementation, and there are indications that in many countries around the world, policies and programs as well as local legislation are weak or even practically nonexistent,(3) and consequently the FCTC is not being put into practice. To date, investigations on the process and potential obstacles against its progress in the developing world have been limited (4).
Adolescent engagement could decrease through effective regulation and cooperation from social networking sites. The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act granted the FDA regulatory authority over tobacco product marketing, with e-cigarettes included in 2016. To date, the FDA has not instituted any significant regulation over online tobacco marketing, perhaps because of concern that the tobacco industry would challenge any regulation as violating its First Amendment protection of commercial speech. Yet, restrictions on commercial speech may not violate constitutional protections if the FDA mandated the tobacco industry to only advertise to verified adult tobacco users. 44
13 Read more
Tables 1 and 2 summarize number and percentage of smokers and users of smokeless tobacco initiating daily smoking during specific ages in Ahmedabad city respectively. Looking at the age bifurcation majority of the smokers and smokeless tobacco users start the daily consumption tobacco products between the age of 17 to22 years mainly between the age of 17 to 19 years as an effect of urban culture. With an increase in age of users, a visible increase in age of initiation of daily smoking has found. Age effect on initiation age of daily smokeless tobacco consumption is inversely proportional. For remaining categories majority of respondents have started daily tobacco consumption before the age of 17 years. Therefore main comparison is between initiation of tobacco abuse between 17 to 22 years of age and initiation before it. Illiterate or less educated, economically and socially backward, Hindu and Muslim tobacco users initiate their daily tobacco users at somewhat early age than other categories of tobacco users respectively.
In the upper catchment of the study area, more than 60 % of the land is under intensive cultivation, predominantly rain- fed. In the lower catchment, more than 80 % of the area is under cultivation and 20 % of the watershed is considered too degraded for agricultural production. The upper water- shed is covered by very shallow Leptosols which have rea- sonable potential for conservation agriculture. Over 90 % of the area in the downstream part of the watershed is cov- ered by Haplic Alisols, which are suitable for irrigation. The remaining soils, Vertisols and Gleysols, are constrained by poor drainage. The area is included in the tepid moist mid- highland agro-climatic zone, which is affected by the posi- tion of the north–south oscillation of the inter-tropical con- vergence zone characterized by high annual rainfall variabil- ity. The rainfall of the Koga watershed is of the monsoon type, with mean annual rainfall of 1640 mm, of which 94 % occurs in the months between May and October.
13 Read more
Despite these efforts highlighting and incentivizing medical providers to assist in tobacco use identifica- tion for cessation counselling and treatment, overall, Medicare administrative data for diagnosis of tobacco use is half the prevalence shown by BRFSS survey data. A recent similar study using National Inpatient Sample data reported a substantially lower prevalence of tobacco use compared to BRFSS data . Pro- viders may be hesitant to add tobacco use diagnoses due to “tobacco rating” of health insurance plans which increase health care premiums for tobacco users up to 50% . Diagnostic coding is derived from a complex combination of provider identifica- tion, documentation, clerical interpretation and as- signment of diagnostic codes for tobacco use or treatment, which further leads to under-recognition when reviewing administrative data. This is evidenced in studies using Natural Language Processing or man- ual chart audit which highlight the large discrepancy between chart notation and administrative codes in the assessment of or treatment for tobacco use [13, 14]. Several randomized controlled trials adding tobacco status as a vital sign to the electronic health record improved on this process [39 – 41]. Often cited provider reasons for not providing tobacco cessation counselling include difficulty in managing multiple competing disease conditions in a
Selection of Host Plants: The host plant used is Alternanthera sp. and vegetable crops such as Capsicum frutescens (cili), Solanum melongena (eggplant), Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato) and Musa paradisiaca (banana). This combination was chosen because it has many previous studies that use the plant in pots other than bananas. The result, it is known that the hosts contribute very well to the growth of sandalwood saplings (stem diameter, height, number of leaves and the number of haustoria). Another reason is because it is planted in the yard of the house. The use of banana plants is based on the assumption that bananas contain a lot of water, so it is appropriate with the climate condition of East Nusa Tenggara. Other host plants can be planted with sandalwood after sandalwood cultivation such as: Duranta repen (Bonsai) as medium-term host and Acacia sp. as long-term host.
In contrast to the industry framing strategies on NCD- related debates, our review identified a similarly consist- ent alternative framing strategy most often promoted by public health advocates. Advocates used the media to advance arguments to emphasise the social and political determinants of health, the detrimental impact of indus- tries producing and marketing tobacco, alcohol, processed food and soft drinks on NCD-related harm, and the need for regulation and population-based interventions. A number of studies, most prominently those that ana- lysed tobacco debates, showed that some media depictions emphasised the tobacco industry’ s mendacious conduct, corporate representatives’ ruthless marketing of a lethal product to children and vulnerable populations, and their focus on profits and economic interests ahead of any moral considerations [54, 55]. Supporting such media discourse, another study identified the representations of the smoker as a tobacco industry pawn as a media frame which drew attention away from individual re- sponsibility and towards the misconduct of the industry . An article by Christofides and colleagues , which investigated the tone in which a leading Australian news- paper portrayed the tobacco industry between 1993 and 1997, revealed primarily negative depictions of tobacco corporations.
11 Read more
Data revealed that, someone has one more wife and often husband has exposed power to wife for doing bidi rolling for earning more money. Here it should be noted that, though that wife earns more money but they do not get any kind of care when they often unable to work(4). On the other hand, 52% children are suffering from malnourished in one district of kenya where tobacco are growing (2).Moreover, tobacco workers are living in gathering areas and very unhealthy environment where they can not get minimum basic needs for leading life(5). In one studies data showed that, among 120 respondents, 36.7% workers were working in this job because of their parents desire, 16.7% told that, economic necessity is the another reasons for doing this job which was 16.7%. The reason was near to home told by the 30.8% workers. 15.0% were told that there was no job except this work as a result they were involved in this profession. It’s their family work which was told 1% workers(6).
13 Read more