5.18, occupying the first and second positions in terms of rank, respectively. Because of the high degree of economic financialization in these regions, the two regions are clearly placed in the top echelon in terms of regional financial development. However, differences in the FIR across the other regions are not significant, and thus they can be placed in the second echelon. More specifically, 23 regions have a FIR between 2.0 and 3.8, and six regions have a ratio between 1.5 and 2.0. The lowest region is Inner Mongolia, with a ratio of only 1.578. This measure thus clearly confirms the superiority of Beijing and Shanghai as China’s economic and financial centers when it comes to financial development. The difference between the first echelon and the remaining regions is marked due to the priority application of social resources and preferential policies which the former enjoys. In contrast, the middle and western regions of China are still lagging behind in terms of financial development due to their outdated financial structures and inefficient services (Rahman and Luo, 2011). We can observe that the total GDP of the western regions reached 11391.46 billion CNY in 2012, an increase of 12.48% compared to 2011, which was faster than the eastern and middle regions with growth rates of only 3.18% and 1.54%, respectively. 5 The trend of consistently high economic growth demonstrates well their potential and their ‘late-mover advantage’ in financial development.
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Qian’an city located in Luan He river basin in which there are 16 rivers and the total length is 311km. There are 12 rivers that belong to Luanhe river system, such as Luanhe river, Qinglonghe river, Shahe river and so on and there are 4 rivers like West Shahe river, which belong to coastal water system. Among the 16 rivers, Luanhe, Qinglonghe, white Yanghe, cold Shahe and west mouth Shahe have large amount of water in flood season but less water in non-flood season. As general practice, the five rivers will not flow break and the surface water resources is substantial. The other 11 rivers belong to seasonal river, the water of which suddenly rise or diminish in rainy season, while dry up to zero flow or subsurface flow in spring, autumn and winter.
“vital index” and “age index” had a too low correlation coefficient with the indica- tors “income per capita” and “unemployment rate” (Puljiz, 2007). Due to some methodological difficulties, gross domestic product per capita (GDP per capita) was not involved in the construction of the development index. However, the GDP per capita is still considered as a potential indicator while it is expected that the reliabil- ity of the estimation of GDP will grow (Puljiz, 2007). However, it is not possible to use the GDP per capita as an indicator on the local level because it is calculated on the regional and state level. The Decree on the Development Index prescribes the indicators used in the construction of the development index: income per capita, budget revenue per capita, unemployment rate, change in population number, and educational attainment rate. The indicator values have been acquired from MRR- FEU (2013a, 2013b, 2010a, 2010b). Local/regional income per capita is calculated by dividing the total income in a tax period (one calendar year), generated by taxpay- ers, persons domiciled or habitually resident, in the territory of the local/regional unit, by the total population number of a local/regional unit. Budget revenue per capita is calculated by dividing the realized reduced local/regional budget revenue by the population number of a local/regional unit. Budget revenue is reduced by: receipts from domestic and foreign aid, subsidies and transfers, receipts derived pur- suant to special contracts (co-financing by citizens), additional share in income tax, equalization aid for the decentralized functions and disposal of non-financial assets. Unemployment rate is determined by dividing the total number of unemployed per- sons by the sum of unemployed and employed persons in the area of the local/re- gional unit. Change in population number is expressed as the ratio of the number of the population in a local/region unit according to the last two consecutive censuses. Educational attainment rate is calculated as the number of persons with secondary education and higher, aged over 15 years, as a proportion of the total number of population aged 16-65 in the area of the LGU/LRU.
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Structure of population by age and age index There was an annual decline in the share of the pre-reproductive period (0-14 years) composition of the age structure of the basic economic generation in the administrative district of the municipality of Valašske Meziříčí. The study shows a decrease by 1 % at the end of the reporting period in 2012, as compared to the year 2003. In the post-working age, people are in the same time frame to increase their share in the total population of roughly 3.8 %. The main cause is the declining birth rate intensity not only in the administrative district and increasing life expectancy. For the first time in 2009, the proportion of elderly (retired population) surpassed those aged 0-14 years. This signifies that the population is gradually aging in the study areas. The fact is also consistent with the prediction until 2017 when it may reach the age index values of about 130 (Tab. III). The administrative district of the municipality of Valašské Meziříčí has been steadily recording the growing number of senior citizens (65+ years), albeit slowly. The prediction of aging index further indicates that the number is likely to increase steadily over a long period. This suggests that the age group (elderly) and their families may need a broad range of social and health services. Nonetheless, it is necessary to support the activities and programs that would help not only senior inhabitants but also other age groups. The active and adequate care of their health could improve their lifestyle and increase their life expectancy (longevity).
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likelihood of unproductive investments, the implication is that such domestic vulnerability is aggravated by the joint effects of a larger premium being required by international investors for holding risky assets, and by the prediction of poorer export prospects on account of slower expected US growth which a rise in the high-yield spread predicts. The fitted values from this estimation seem to track well the actual values of the regional stress index (Figure 2 panel a). Note also that there does not appear to be any strong evidence of endogeneity of the right-hand-side regressors on the basis of a Hausman (1978) specification test. This is important because one might suspect that causality may at times run from, say, a rise in regional stress to movements in the stock market or even in the US high-yield spread, rather than vice versa. However, these reverse-causation effects do not appear to be strongly statistically significant.
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One could ‘correct’ the indicator for subnational share by looking at the share of intergovernmental grants (Akai and Sakata 2002; Breus and Eller 2004; Oates 1972; Stegarescu 2005b). This indicator measures the amount of central government involvement in subnational provision of policies. Often a distinction is made between conditional (specific) and unconditional (general) grants, whereby it is generally assumed that central government involvement is higher with conditional grants as a conditional grant ties expenditure to particular strings (conditions) imposed by the central government (Shah 2007). But taking the intergovernmental grants into account does not solve the problem. Aside from data availability regarding unconditional and conditional grants (Rodden 2004), there is the problem that intergovernmental grants do not seem to differentiate between federal and non– federal countries (see figure 4.2), as an one–way Anova analysis as regards to average (1972–2001) subnational intergovernmental grant share as a percentage of total subnational revenue bears out (N = 35; F: 0.50; p = 0.482) 30 .
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Abstract: Water Resources decision making problems such as flood plain zoning, design of hydraulic structures etc. are based on design flood estimate, defined as discharge for a specified probability of exceedance. Flood Frequency Analysis helps to estimate the flood value for a specific return period. This procedure requires sufficient length of observed data of floods on river gauging sites which many a time is not available. In India major rivers have very few gauging sites and their tributaries are mostly ungauged. When quantiles have to be estimated for ungauged sites, Flood Frequency Analysis is neither possible nor reliable. Regional Flood Frequency Analysis is the means to overcome such problems, reasonably quantifying flood estimates at desired frequencies for sites within a more or less hydrological homogeneous region. Narmada Basin located in central India covers an area about 98,976 sq. km, drained by a large number of tributaries, most of which are ungauged, has been considered as the case. Index Flood method utilizing Gumbel’s EV-1 distribution have been used in the present study to develop the Regional flood frequency relationship. The Annual Peak Flood data of 16 gauging sites of Narmada Basin, having record length of 12 to 17 years, is utilized for flood estimation. Flood frequency curves for the considered gauging stations are generated. Development of regional flood frequency relationship leads to the estimation of different return period flood.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have been a famous concept for the low income, developing countries since their propagation by the United Nations in the year 2000. These goals were conceived of with the aim of helping under-developed low income countries overcome the problems of illiteracy, poverty, low health status, and quality of life. Substantial emphasis was on the attainment of the Millennium Development targets in education due to the pivotal role of education in national development. Such targets included education for all by the year 2015 through one hundred percent gross enrollment rate, gender equality in access to education opportunities, eradication of adult illiteracy, and general improvement in the quality of education in low income countries.
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Sustainable development has been the subject of considerable discussion and it has attracted much attention among environmentalist, economist, and policy makers. The term Sustainable Development (SD) is widely used in the current political and environmental discourses. The vagueness of the term allows it to be appropriated by different social groups with different positions regarding development. Part of the imprecision is inherent in the concept itself, which depending on the approach and by whom is the approach may take different connotations . Sustainability can be thought as living within the constraints of environmental, technological and social needs, while sustainable development is the process of moving to the point where all human activity is sustainable. The Brundlant Commission in 1987 described sustainable development as development that seeks to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability to meet those of the future .
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Logistics is the hygiene factor of social and economic development, so the regional logistics must meet the de- mand of the regional economic development. As a basic economic activity, logistics is also one of industries con- stituting the regional economy. Seen in this light, the logistics of the regional economic development is not only a hygiene factor, but also an incentive factor of the regional economic development. So first of all, logistics should be set as the security condition of the regional economic development and secondly it can be an indus- try as a key support in the area with logistics advantages. Structure is the basic attribute of everything. Accord- ing to the system science, it is relatively stable contact way of the inherent manifestations of organizational pro- cedures and temporal relationship between the various elements within the system. Logistics network structure is the basic problem of the logistics network. It is com- posed of logistics nodes and logistics routes. Logistics nodes assume the function of logistics pauses while lo- gistics routes assume the function of logistics spatial transference, logistics activities of transport and delivery
The scope of this technical note was to analyse the MERIS standard API2 product in the southwestern coast of Portu- gal. A regional MLP algorithm to retrieve TChl a, estimated through a phytoplankton absorption coefficient, was imple- mented and applied for this purpose. This regional algorithm produced good agreement with in situ data, hence indicating a high accuracy of regional MLP products. The applicabil- ity of the regional MLP in the study area was verified by a novelty detection scheme. With this information, the study reports an underestimation tendency of MER API2 , which is consistent with other European basins within low ranges of this constituent. The results of the regional MLP were closer to the in situ reference for API2 – TChl a estimated with a ph (442) – than to TChl a determined by HPLC. This work
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funds. From a theoretical as well as empirical point of view, their impact on regional development is not clear. On the one hand the endogenous growth models à la Aschauer (1989) and Barro (1990) predict that if public infrastructures are an input in the production function, then policies financing new public infrastructures increase the marginal product of private capital, fostering thus capital accumulation and growth. On the other hand, the economic geography theoretical works developed by Martin and Rogers (1995) and Martin (2000) demonstrate when transportation infrastructures are financed, they affect the process of industry location and lead to involuntary effects: financing intra-regional transport infrastructures in the poorest regions increases the probability of firms locating there, but reduces the country’s aggregate growth rate and increases regional income inequalities, whereas interregional transport infrastructures foster the aggregate growth, but lead to greater concentration in the core (Dall’erba and Hewings, 2002).
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Variations in life expectancy and life span of populations in different countries differ in accordance with the availability of basic human needs like food, shelter, clean water, sanitation services, medicine and vaccines availability and accessibility to the people, basic health awareness and campaigns in the area. Recent studies have shown a massive downturn in the environment and its detrimental effects on climate, flora and fauna, and the finishing of resources of freshwater and land which endanger humankind and health in general. The biggest contributors to environmental degradation are the very high development index countries.
V ∪ , and two vertices are adjacent if and only if they are adjacent or incident in G . It is introduced by Behzad & Chartrand . Several properties of total graphs are investigated in the literature (see [1-4,6,7,15,20]). The total graph H = T ( G ) of G is shown in Figure 1.
Proof. Consider the TUC nanotube. The number of edges of graph TUC line graph L(TUC) and total graph T(TUC) are 12pq2p , 24pq8p and 60pq 14p, respectively. If we consider to the edges of TUC in T(TUC), there exist 4p edges with endpoints which have degrees 4 and 6, 2p edges with endpoints which have degrees 4 and 4 and 12pq8p edges with endpoints which have degree 6.
The variables are as follows: gross regional product per capita, index of industrial production, share of region in the total volume of industrial production sold, capital investment by region, disposable income per capita, average wages, economic activity rate of population, employment rate of population, unemployment rate of population, total arrivals to the Ukraine (per 1,000 of the current population), total departures from the Ukraine (per 1,000 of the current population), volume of emissions including stationary sources, volume of emissions including mobile sources, carbon dioxide emissions (not included in total emissions) including stationary sources, carbon dioxide emissions (not included in the total) including emissions from mobile sources. The selected 15 regional variables characterizing the competitiveness of 27 Ukrainian regions are used in the text below as input variables to create regional competitiveness factors by means of factor analysis. The factor score characterizing every region forms the basis for multivariate classification compiled out by means of cluster analysis.
requires a comprehensive understanding of the issues at stake. The indicator selection follows a number of criteria that an index should conform with. The first criterion regards the ability of the index to take a full-size snapshot of the socio-economic development of the regions; it must cover various aspects of development. The second criterion is that the index must be capable to track down the evolving regional disparity (in China), hence it must be based on the individual indicators that are consistent and comparable both horizontally (among regions) and vertically (among years). A number of other conditions must be equally satisfied: the indicator selection must be underpinned by a solid theoretical framework; the indicators must be available for data reduction and transparent to be applied by other studies, and etc. (Saisana and Tarantola, 2002; OECD, 2008). Endowed with a good composite index , one can answer such questions as what regions are leading and lagging behind in terms of socio-economic development, what indicators contribute more to determine the level of local development, and the like. This makes the index a powerful tool both for comparative purposes and for policy goals.
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Educational development of student belongs to SC and ST community is not satisfactory. It is observed that SC and ST students face various forms of discrimination in schools. Most of the SC and ST students who enrolled in the public schools in the study area not go to the school regularly. According to of the teachers, the parents of SC and ST students are least bothered about the importance of educating their child thereby denying them the great opportunity for benefitting the educational entitlements and human development. Lack of motivation is also preventing them to reach into the main stream through education. Due to these reasons the drop out ratio is high among the students belongs to these communities. The deferential access of various services contributing to the high incidence of deprivation among the households belongs to SCs and STs Communities. Discrimination in the provision in the provisioning of basic infrastructure with the SC - ST localities also adversely affects their access to basic facilities. Despite the availability of the various legal safeguards for overcoming exclusion and promoting their overall development, the households belongs to SC and ST communities lag far behind other social groups in human development due to their high incidence of multidimensional poverty.
Abstract. We consider the issue of ranking regions with respect to a range of economic and social variables. Departing from the current practice of aggregating different dimensions via a composite index, usually based on an arithmetic mean, we instead use Stochastic Multiattribute Acceptability Analysis (SMAA). SMAA considers the “whole space” of weights for the considered dimensions. Thus, rather than consid ering an average person giving equal or fixed weights to all dimensions, SMAA explores how potential differences in individual preferences regarding the weighting system affect the outcome. In this sense, in contrast to the purported objectivity of the many rankings supplied by economic institutions and mass media, this proposal enhances, simplifies and renders transparent the ranking exercise. The methodology is applied to the ranking of Italian regions, showing that the disadvantage of the South regions with respect to the North regions (so called “Mezzogiorno problem” ) is maintained for the entire spectrum of possible preferences with respect to considered dimensions as represented by vectors of weights. Thus, our research shows that the well-known North-South divide is maintained for classes of individuals with different preferences and it is not related only to the representative individual represented by a single vector of weights - very often assigning the same importance to all the dimensions. Moreover, to consider possible measurement errors, we also tested the stability of the results in front of perturbations of the values attained by the regions on the considered dimensions. The analysis we conducted unveils patterns of similarity and dissimilarity even within regional economy. Many of these findings are neglected within the extant literature addressing the “Mezzogiorno” problem. Finally, we propose a class of original multidimensional Gini indices and a class of multidimensional polarization indices that measure the concentration and polarization of the probability to achieve a given ranking position or better, or a given ranking position or worse. These indices confirm the gap between the North and South of Italy with more nuance than Gini and polarization indices related to single indicators.
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It should be noted that with the transition of humanity to a new stage of development and a shift in emphasis on the need to ensure the well-being of people and society, it is information and communication technologies (hereinafter – ICT) offer great opportunities for socio-economic development. As L. Kochubei notes, “information technologies very quickly became a vital stimulus for the development of not only the world economy, but also other spheres of human activity” . Modern society is flooded with huge information flows, and the development of ICT penetrating practically all spheres of human activity became the driving force for change and accelerated development of society .