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Early Lactation Milk Yield and Composition of Grazing White Fulani Cows Fed Dietary Levels of Soya milk Residue in the Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

Early Lactation Milk Yield and Composition of Grazing White Fulani Cows Fed Dietary Levels of Soya milk Residue in the Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

This study was conducted to investigate the milk yield and composition of White Fulani cows fed dietary levels of soya milk residue during early lactation period of 14 weeks postpartum. Three primiparous and six multiparous (third parity) White Fulani cows were used for the study. The experimental cows were milked twice daily (morning and evening), and the calves were allowed to suck milk from their dam before and after milking. The completely randomized design with three dietary treatment levels (0, 20 and 30%) of soya milk residue and three cows per treatment was employed. The average milk yield per day ranged between 2.29 and 3.28 kg. The 30 % inclusion level of soya milk residue recorded the highest (P<0.05) morning, evening and total milk yield. The morning milk yield is between 1.4 and 1.8 times higher than that of the evening milk yield. The ranges of 3.38 to 3.65% milk protein, 3.75 to 4.70% milk fat and 0.80 to 0.84% milk ash were observed. Strong and negative correlations were observed between the total milk yield per day versus milk fat, milk protein and milk total solids (r = -0.998; -0.599; and -0.946 respectively). Magnesium (120.04 to 135.67 mg/kg) and potassium (1800.52 to 2200.30 mg/kg) constitute the lowest and highest concentrations of the milk minerals. In conclusion, lactating White Fulani cows can benefit when fed Panicum maximum grass basal diet and concentrate diet with up to 30% inclusion level of soya milk residue for efficient milk yield and composition.
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The application of a mechanistic model to analyze the factors that affect the lactation curve parameters of dairy sheep in Mexico

The application of a mechanistic model to analyze the factors that affect the lactation curve parameters of dairy sheep in Mexico

Lambing number effects on total milk yield (L) and maximum secretion potential (MSmax) of. 410[r]

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The first observation of milkability of the sheep breeds Tsigai, Improved Valachian and their crosses with Lacaune

The first observation of milkability of the sheep breeds Tsigai, Improved Valachian and their crosses with Lacaune

The positive and significant correlation was also found between the teat position and cistern depth (points). The same effect was also observed be- tween the teat angle and cistern depth (mm) in our flock and also in Manchega (Rovai et al., 1999) and East Friesian ewes (McKusick et al., 2000). The latter authors used an opposite scale for the teat position evaluation, therefore the correlation was negative. However, the udders with deeper cisterns and larger teat angle can have a problem with the falling off of the cups during milking (Labussiere, 1988) and increasing of stripping milk yield by a part of the cisternal milk which is located below the orifice into the teat canal and cannot be reached without machine stripping (Bruckmaier et al., 1997; Carta et al., 1999). This can, however, prolong the milking time and thereby reduce the efficiency of machine milking. The ewes in our study did not belong to really high-producing ewes, however, positive correlations of total milk yield with cis- ternal depth and teat position could already be observed in these sheep. This could indicate that further breeding for higher milk production could lead to the worsening of udder morphology (as
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Influence of Genetic and Non-Genetic Factors on Lactation Traits in Dairy Cattle: A Review

Influence of Genetic and Non-Genetic Factors on Lactation Traits in Dairy Cattle: A Review

Lactation length is an important production trait as it influences the total milk yield. In most modern dairy farms, a lactation length of 305 days is commonly accepted as a standard. This standard permit for calving every 12 months with a 60 days dry period. The 12 month interval has been considered “Ideal” for many years. If a cow milked longer than 305 days, her yield for the first 305 days is taken as the lactation yield. Some cows are not milked for a full 305 days because they go dry or the lactation terminated for any of several reasons. These short records projected to a 305 days equivalent.
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Productive Performance of Pure Friesian Cows Raised under Conditions of River Nile State, North Sudan

Productive Performance of Pure Friesian Cows Raised under Conditions of River Nile State, North Sudan

Data utilized in this study were obtained from the farm records of Al-Fayet project. The dairy farm is located in Gandatow, Shendi, River Nile State, as the first farm kept pure Friesian cattle. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the productive performance of Friesian dairy cows and investigate the factors affecting those productive traits. A total of 138 performance records of Friesian cattle were used; covering the period from 2011 to 2014. The investigated data included total milk yield, lactation length and daily milk yield. The collected data were classified according to the parity number, season and year of calving. The data were analyzed using SPSS computer program. Analysis of variance was performed and means were separated using Duncan’s multiple range test. The results showed that overall means of total milk yield, daily milk yield and lactation length were 5604.2 kg, 14.3 kg and 378.2 days, respectively. The total and daily milk yield were significantly (P≤0.05) affected by parity order, season and year of calving. On the other hand, year and season of calving had an insignificant (P>0.05) influence on lactation length, while the trait was significantly (P≤0.05) affected by parity order. The study concluded that the productive performance of the pure Friesians cows raised in River Nile State, was better and higher than those estimates obtained from previous reports in Sudan. The productive performance of pure Friesian cows could be improved by adoption of proper management, feeding and breeding programs.
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Asymmetric time interval between evening and morning milking and its effect on the total daily milk yield

Asymmetric time interval between evening and morning milking and its effect on the total daily milk yield

shares of evening and morning milk yield increased as well; however, the percentages of evening and/ or morning yields in the total yield remained practically unchanged and represented 43.5 % and 56.5% or 40.4 % and 59.6 % in variants with intervals of 11 and 13 hours and/or 10 and 14 hours, respectively. In the variant with the milking interval of 11 and 13 hours, values of correlation coeffi cients between the above parameters (i.e. F, TP, L, SCC, and log SCC) of evening and morning milk yields on the one hand and the total milk performance on the other ranged from the minimum r = 0.896 (F) to the maximum r = 0.980 (TP). In the variant with the interval of 10 and 14 hours, the corresponding values of correlation coeffi cients were r = 0.848 (F) and r = 0.983 (TP). These correlations were statistically highly signifi cant in all cases (P ≤ 0.001). Further, linear regression equations enabling the estimation of milk parameters of the total milk yield on the base of results obtained in evening and morning milking was calculated as well. Values of coeffi cients of determination (R 2 ) of these equations ranged
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Factors affecting production performance of sirohi goats under field conditions

Factors affecting production performance of sirohi goats under field conditions

2. The heritability estimates for production traits under study were of high magnitude. The heritability estimates for production traits ranged between 0.391 ± 0.087 to 0.652 ± 0.101. Similar results were also reported by Pathodiya et al. (2010). This indicates, sire used in the field have different in genetic potential. Therefore, these traits can be improved through approaching mass selection. The genetic correlation obtained was positive and high except lactation length with 90 and 150 days milk yield was negative correlation. The phenotypic correlation's except lactation length with 90 days milk yield (low and negative) was positive and high among production traits under study. The positive genetic correlation of 90 days milk yield and 150 milk yield with total milk yield indicated selection for higher total milk yield would increase milk yield and simultaneously provides a selection criterion in the early lactation.
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The effects of feeding frequency on the intake and performance of cows grazing mixed pasture : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Animal Science at Massey University, Palmerston

The effects of feeding frequency on the intake and performance of cows grazing mixed pasture : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Animal Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

4.3 Yields of Milk Protein for the Two Treatments in both Periods 74 4.4 Yield of Lactose for the Two Treatments in both Periods 76 4.5 Concentrations of Milk Fat for the Two Treatments in both Periods 78 4.6 Concentrations of Milk Protein for the Two Treatments in both

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Yield and Milk Quality Parameters at Different Stages of Lactation from a Small Herd of Nguni, Boer and Non-Descript Goats Raised in an Extensive Production System

Yield and Milk Quality Parameters at Different Stages of Lactation from a Small Herd of Nguni, Boer and Non-Descript Goats Raised in an Extensive Production System

A total of sixty goats from three different genotypes namely Nguni (20), Non-descripts (20) and Boer (20) were initially selected from local farmers who were willing to participate in the study in Nkonkobe Municipality of South Africa. Over-all, thirty goats including Nguni (10), Boer (10) and Non-descript (10) that met the same condition (including similar time of kidding and time of milk sample collection) from the start of the study till the end were assessed and used for the study for uniformity of parameters measured. The average age of all goats used in the study was 5 years and have kidded at least once before. The average weight of the goats used was 40.07 kg. Goats selected were clinically healthy and categorized into three different genotypes based on phenotypic characterization by trained personnel from the Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, South Africa. All goats were ear-tagged for ease of identification. Goats were herded by herdsmen in the morning to freely graze on available pastures for approximately 8 hours after which they were returned to the kraals before sun-set. Goats had regular access to drinking water.
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A study on the inheritance and phenotypic and genetic interrelationships among some physiological and productive variables in Jersey cows : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science, Mass

A study on the inheritance and phenotypic and genetic interrelationships among some physiological and productive variables in Jersey cows : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science, Massey University of Manawatu, New Zealand

Berman and Volcani ( 1 960 ) found large variations in c oat charact eristics b etween groups of t he daught ers of dif fer ent sires . These varia t ions c ould make it possible to s elect a uniform breed of c ertain c oat c harac t eristic s . But t hey suggest ed that because of the n egative r elationship b etween light coloured c oat and thyroid activity , and because o f the lat t er ' s positive relationship with milk yield , s el ection for a light c oat might have a negativ e affect o n milk prod­ uction .
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Antioxidant capacity and fatty acids characterization of heat treated cow and buffalo milk

Antioxidant capacity and fatty acids characterization of heat treated cow and buffalo milk

Buffalo milk is contributing 12% of the total milk pro- duction in the world. About 80% of total buffalo milk is produced in India and Pakistan [1]. In subcontinent, buffalo milk is preferred over cow milk due to white color, higher fat, protein, total solids contents and creamy taste [2]. Buffalo milk is highly suitable for the manufacturing of wide range of value added dairy prod- ucts, such as, yoghurt, mozzarella and cheddar cheese [3]. Buffalo milk is healthier than cow milk in terms of lower concentration of cholesterol and higher magnitude of un- saturated fatty acids [4]. Fat content of buffalo and cow milk ranges from 6 to 7% and 3.5–4.5%, respectively [5]. Protein content of buffalo and cow milk is 3.8–4% and 3.2–3.3%, respectively while ash content of buffalo and cow milk is 0.82% and 0.72%, respectively. The viscosity of buffalo milk is also greater than cow milk [6]. In addition to the normal nutritional perspectives, certain milk con- stituents have functional value. Antioxidants are chemical substances than scavenge/neutralize the free radicals and foods should contain enough concentration of antioxi- dants to prevent oxidative stresses. Uninterrupted reactive oxygen species can lead to diabetes, atherosclerosis, accel- erated ageing, breakdown of DNA and several essential biochemical compounds [7]. Increased incidences of meta- bolic diseases have led the consumers to make healthy choices of foods and demand for functional foods is mounting across the world. Changing life styles have led the food industry and researchers to develop functional foods and determine the functional value of traditional foods. Increased knowledge in free radical biology has led the consumer to consume functional foods containing natural antioxidants. Casein, whey, sulphur containing amino acids, selenium, zinc, catalase, glutathione peroxid- ase, superoxide dismutase, vitamin E, C and beta-carotene has antioxidant activity in milk [8]. Concentration of vitamin E in buffalo and cow milk is 5.5 and 2.1 mg/ 100 ml, respectively while the amount of vitamin C in buffalo and cow milk is 3.66 and 0.94 mg/100 ml, respectively [9]. Buffalo milk has higher magnitude of sulfur containing amino acids, selenium and zinc as compared to cow milk [10]. Concentration of beta- carotene in cow milk is more than buffalo milk. Due to the difference in the concentration of antioxidant sub- stances, buffalo and cow milks may have different antioxi- dant capacity. Antioxidant capacity of few fermented dairy products is reported in literature. Antioxidant capacity of goat milk based kefir was investigated by 2-Diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl assays and antioxidant capacity of kefir was more than native milk [11]. Antioxidant capacity of pro- biotic yoghurt was studied in cow, goat and camel milk using Pediococcus pentosaceus and it was observed that fermentation improved the antioxidant capacity of pro- biotic yoghurts [12]. Pasteurization is one of the most
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CONSIDERATIONS UPON MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCT PRODUCTION IN THE U.S.A.

CONSIDERATIONS UPON MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCT PRODUCTION IN THE U.S.A.

The paper aimed to present the evolution of milk production and dairy products in the USA during the period 2004-2006, based on USDA Statistics. The USA is a top produce of milk and dairy products in the world. Milk production accounted for 181,798 Millions Pounds in the year 2006. Its continuously increase during the last years has been positively influenced by the increasing number of dairy cows and average milk yield . The top states are California, Wisconsin, New York, Idaho and Pennsylvania, which all together achieve about 54 % of the country milk production. Over 99.37 % of Milk Production is marketed. Considering all milk marketings, Million USD 23,422 cash receiptscould be obtained from a dairy farm in the year 2006. The average return per Cwt was about USD 13 in 2006 . Milk is processed by about 1,000 manufacturing plants in a large variety of dairy products. Cheese production was about 9.5 Billion Pounds in the last analyzed years. The US also produces important amounts of butter , yogurt, ice cream etc. About 8.3 % of the US dairy products are exported, the most markets being Japan, Mexico and Canada.
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THE ROLE OF BREEDING AND GENETICS IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION IMPROVEMENT IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

THE ROLE OF BREEDING AND GENETICS IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION IMPROVEMENT IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

As most cattle strains in the developing countries have not been subject to systematic selection for milk yield, most breeding programs aimed at increased milk yield should invol[r]

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The effect of patent Dictyocaulus viviparus (re)infections on individual milk yield and milk quality in pastured dairy cows and correlation with clinical signs

The effect of patent Dictyocaulus viviparus (re)infections on individual milk yield and milk quality in pastured dairy cows and correlation with clinical signs

reinfection of (partially) immune animals, while low levels of larvae excretion can occur [19]. The suspected low BTM ELISA sensitivity in the field is thus attributable to the shortened seropositivity period of previously infected ani- mals. Indeed, longitudinal field studies on lungworm- positive dairy farms showed that the majority of individual as well as BTM ELISA samples were positive for one or two consecutive months only [8, 19]. These findings cor- roborate with the results of the presented field study, where a positive individual milk ELISA result (≥ 0.573 ODR; [8, 17]) in autumn was detected in only one of the seven cows which were excreting larvae in summer. This ELISA- positive animal was recently acquired by the farmer. Add- itionally, it showed the highest level of larvae excretion in summer (8 weeks before serological testing), but no larvae excretion in autumn. No reliable statement can be made whether this cow was primary infected after introduction into the herd, since ELISA was exclusively carried out in September. Regarding BTM ELISA, no farm was tested positive. These findings are in accordance with findings by Schunn et al. [8], who stated that a within-herd-prevalence of 20% is required to reliably exceed the cut-off value of 0.410 ODR in the BTM ELISA.
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Effect of parity and stage of lactation on milk yield, composition and quality of organic sheep milk

Effect of parity and stage of lactation on milk yield, composition and quality of organic sheep milk

caused by the inadequate production of green mass on pasture as a result of low rainfall from May to July. Ploumi et al. (1998) also point to the fact that long- term droughts and high temperatures lead to a drop in milk yield. Contents of TS and TP increased with advancing lactation, the same trend of L.S.M. values of TS and TP published Sevi et al. (2000; 2004) and Jaramillo et al. (2008) in their experiments. On the contrary, F content in our study gradually decreased during the lactation period, which is not in line with the results published by Aganga et al. (2002), Sevi et al. (2004), Sahan et al. (2005) and Novotná et al. (2009). The content of L was relatively well balanced during the whole observation; this conclusion corresponds with results published by Pugliese et al. (2000), Kuchtík et al. (2008) and Novotná et al. (2009). According to the Table I, we can see that the milk protein was the most variable component in comparison with the other components of the milk. Finally, it is necessary to complete that the interaction of PA x SL had a signifi cant eff ect on DMY, TS and TP contents; on the other hand this factor had no eff ect on F and L contents. By contrast,
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The Effect of Ambient Temperature on Conception and Milk Performance in Breeding Holstein Cows

The Effect of Ambient Temperature on Conception and Milk Performance in Breeding Holstein Cows

The non‑pregnant cows also reached higher mean daily milk yields in the temperature interval 20.1. to 27.0 °C. These results are absolutely contradictory to the results of West (2003) and Bouraoui et al. (2002), who confirmed that heat stress affects the amount of milk produced. Stádník (2003) states that milk production and reproduction of cows are influenced by the type of housing. The author concluded that the dairy cows transferred from tethering to free housing achieved higher mean daily and yearly milk yield. Their reproductive parameters improved as well. The effect of housing and climatic conditions on milk production was studied also by Lambertz et al. (2014). They compared results from four types of housing (warm free housing with access to pasture, warm free housing without access to pasture, cold free housing with access to pasture and cold free housing without access to pasture). They found a negative effect of temperature and relative humidity on milk production.
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Effect of Stat1 Variants on Milk Production Traits in Esfahan Holstein Cows

Effect of Stat1 Variants on Milk Production Traits in Esfahan Holstein Cows

STATs are a family of latent transcription factors that reside in the cytoplasm of resting cells. The STAT1 transcription factor gene located on the chromosome 2 at interval 60 to 63 cM. This factor upon stimulation with INF gamma, dimerizes and translocate to the nucleus where mediates transcriptional regulation. In this study, we estimated the allele and genotype frequencies of STAT1/Pag1 gene polymorphism and examined the association whit milk yield (305-day milk yield) and milk component (fat and protein percentage) traits. DNA was isolated from 317 Holstein cows of five different herds. A 314 bp fragment in STAT1 gene was amplified and the animals were genotyped using RFLP-PCR technique. Seven genotypes including DD (89 animals), BB (25 animals), CC (11 animals), AC (15 animals), BC (9 animals), CD (164 animals) and BD (4 animals) were identified. Frequencies of A, B, C, and D alleles were estimated to be 0.021, 0.101, 0.332 and 0.546, respectively. Association of STAT1/Pag1 genotypes with percentage of fat in the milk was relatively high (P < 0.05); the DD genotype was superior to other groups. But corrected milk production for 305 days and protein percentage of the milk did not differ among all groups (P > 0.01). We concluded that this marker should be considered for milk component (fat percentage) selection in Holstein dairy cows.
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An evaluation of traits other than production and its association with the survival of dairy cows milked once a day in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of AgriScience at Massey University,

An evaluation of traits other than production and its association with the survival of dairy cows milked once a day in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of AgriScience at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

In New Zealand, dairy cows have traditionally been milked twice a day (TAD) in a pasture- based system. However, there can be high labour inputs and lifestyle issues associated with the twice daily routine of paddock mustering the herd and harvesting the milk (Borges & Woodford 2005). In the last decade, some farmers have changed from the traditional TAD to the once a day (OAD) milking system (Verwoerd & Tipples 2007). Some of the reasons for OAD milking include the herd expansion and to avoid the effects of predicted feed shortfalls in particular months of the year. However, the main reason to change to full season OAD milking is the extra time, which allows farmers to build capital, increase labour flexibility and overall improve their quality of life (Bewsell et al. 2008). Hence the OAD system is seen as a strategic (long-term) option for full lactations, or as a tactical (short-term) response to adverse seasonal conditions (low pasture availability and high supplementary feed prices) within a lactation (Armstrong & Ho 2009; Stachowicz et al. 2014).
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Seasonal influences on milk yield and composition dynamics during a normal lactation in dairy cows. Milk lactose, solids non fat, total dry matter percentage

Seasonal influences on milk yield and composition dynamics during a normal lactation in dairy cows. Milk lactose, solids non fat, total dry matter percentage

The daily rate of decline in the lactose percentage from milk (parameter c) was the lowest from cows that have calved in autumn, only 0.00006 %, then increasing the value of 0.00007% in cows that calved in summer and winter. The biggest daily percentage drop rate of lactose was obtained from cows that have calved in spring (0.00008%). From Figure 1 it is found that cows that calved in winter and spring were selected curve similar in appearance. That is, the initial rate of lactose was low (4.58% and 4.68% winter spring) which then increased sharply in the second control to 4.75% 4.80% winter and spring. The highest percentage of lactose was recorded at 154 days of lactation in winter and 103 days of lactation in spring, because at
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SOME FACTORS AFFECTING DAIRY SHE-CAMEL PERFORMANCE

SOME FACTORS AFFECTING DAIRY SHE-CAMEL PERFORMANCE

suckled ad-libitum from their dams during the first 3 months according to traditional Saudi camel breeders. The trial started after weaning of camel- calves. Dams had been divided to four groups, 5 animals each, according to age and their weight at last parturition. Average animal age and body weight in each group was similar. Group (A) received diet with 13% Crude Protein (CP) and 2.4 MCal Metabolisable Energy (ME). Group (B) received diet with 13% CP and 3.0 MCal ME. Group C, and D received diet with 15% CP and 2.4, 3.5 MCal ME respectively. Diets compositions are presented in Table (1). Animals’ individual feed intake was calculated after 14 days of adaptation period. Feed offered and orts had been recorded daily and continue up to entire experimental period of 10 months. Animals had been fed diets contain 35:65 (roughage: concentrate, respectively). The choice of such ratio is due to the fact that milk yield in lactating animals and camel in this trial is dependent on energy, energy is the driving force for milk production. There is inverse relationship between milk yield and milk fat, as milk yield goes up, fat percentage goes down. Therefore, she-camel milk yields from this trial still lower when compared with cow milk yield. Thus, more energy is needed from concentrate to support higher milk yield. Roughage and concentrate were in one pellet. Effective fiber from ad libitum roughage can be met whether particle size in long hay or ground particles in pellet. Hence the milk fat within acceptable ranges is regarded as indicator to good rumen function.
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