Total Quality Control (TQC)

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The Role of Total Quality Control (TQC) in the Technical

The Role of Total Quality Control (TQC) in the Technical

In the current times, quality is the key word in industries, government and public agencies, often in the concept of total quality or total quality control. The proliferation of Total Quality Control (TQC) has produced a debate. The debate lies between the argument of TQC advocates, who consider it as a distinct and effective method to improve organizational performance, and those who just consider it as another organizational fad. The controversial debate pits TQM advocates against expert scholars who are well- informed of the TQC root methods. More specifically, TQC advocates make use of TQC to develop a position upon which they can scrutinize academic work by failing to examine the concept thoroughly despite the fact that academicians should be able to understand the concept deeply more than advocates, as TQC makes use of technical methods that scholars have been examining for many years. The aim of the present study was to arrive at the common TQC understanding in the technical.
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Total Quality Control for Manufacturing of Plastic Woven Laminated Bags Using Six Sigma

Total Quality Control for Manufacturing of Plastic Woven Laminated Bags Using Six Sigma

Draw stretch ratio is one of important process parameter for quality of plastic woven bags manufacturing. As the draw ratio increase tenacity increase and percentage of elongation decreases. To obtain a tape with good combination of mechanical properties, non- fibrillation and curl free tapes. The stretch ratio is also determining initial cross section of the slit strip/non filaments which is required for obtaining final width of the tape or size of monofilaments. However draw ratio increase the alignment of the polymer molecules. For this study a special team was established to check the stretch ratio. The company was using stretch ratio of 3:1 to 5:1. This stretch ratio was completely manipulated with new feed back Table 5.4 shows the different stretch ratio for different weeks. For our study we have changed the stretch ratio 3:1 to 7:1 and get the results. After getting optimum result a standard stretch ratio was set to the machines. For this study the machine no. M03 was selected, and after optimizing results we have set this stretch ratio to all for machine, that was selected for this study. Figure 8 shows the defects for every weeks and stretch ratio. First four weeks were the stretch ratio implemented for optimizing effects on defects. The figure 8 shows that the third week has the stretch ratio 5:1 to 6:1 and it has the minimum defects. This stretch ratio (5:1 to 6:1) was implemented for all the weeks and all the machines.
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Existing Project Management Systems and Its Effect on Total Quality Control in Major Construction Projects

Existing Project Management Systems and Its Effect on Total Quality Control in Major Construction Projects

Ahmed S. Agha (2011) pointed out the latest studies which focused on increase the business quality through implementing TQM in construction industry and its suitable applications in the different phases of project construction such as Planning & develop a conceptual design of small and large scale projects and Construction and implementation of small and large scale projects. The conclusion made was the reason behind the late arrival of TQM in construction industry is that the construction professionals unaware of the TQM principles and techniques. To bring these benefits to the construction industry, more efforts must be made to spread the culture of TQM among the construction professionals and TQM courses must be in the engineering under graduated programs.
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Implementing Quality Management in Organisation: 

Implementing Quality Management in Organisation: 

emphasise on quality control. By comparing with the pre-industrial era, the quality assurance is now being shifted back to the producers instead of the buyers (customers). In 1910s, Ford Motor Organisation initiated quality inspection on its car to determine the quality. Those cars with poor quality were sold at a lower price, write off and modified [8]. During the period of 1920s and 1930s, Walter A. Shewhart developed Statistical Quality Control to “identify problems earlier and control the manufacturing process, instead of rejecting or repairing afterwards” [9]. In 1924, Shewhart invented the control chart to prevent non-conforming items being produced. In 1950, the Deming Cycle of quality control was introduced to examine business processes to identify the sources of deviation by placing it in a continuous feedback loop for managers to identify faults and improve the processes as required [10]. The Juran Trilogy was established in 1951 focussed on quality planning, quality control and quality improvement. According to Juran, he emphasizes the “importance of system thinking and laid the foundation for transition from Statistical Quality Control SQC to Total Quality Control (TQC) in Japan” [11]. Feigenbaum introduced the concept of Total Quality Control requiring the involvement of all functional areas of the organisation to manage the quality of manufactured products. According to him “The underlying principle of total quality control is that, to provide genuine effectiveness, true quality control management must start with the design of the product and end only when the product has been placed in the hands of the customer who has remained satisfied…(thus) quality is everybody's job in a business” [12]. As for quality assurance, it concentrates on pre-production activities and relies on quality standards and directives. This can provide support to processes by reducing errors and risk of failures. The development of quality discipline in the 20 th century can be illustrated in Figure 1.
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View of Qualitative Information Analysis on Managing Quality Service: Issues and Challenges
							| Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies

View of Qualitative Information Analysis on Managing Quality Service: Issues and Challenges | Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies

A2: Garvin (1988) explains, TQM may also be viewed functionally as an integration of two basic functions, i.e. total quality control and quality management. Quality has been defined in a variety of ways, such as ―fitness for use‖; ―conformance to requirements‖; ―the amounts of un-priced attributes contained in each unit of priced attributes‖, among many others. Total quality control is a long-term success strategy for organizations. Customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, product quality assurance in all its stages, and continuous improvement and innovation, are the main ingredients of total quality control; whereas quality management is a way of planning, organizing and directing that will facilitate and integrate the capabilities of all employees for continuous improvement of anything and everything in an organization to attain excellence. Thus, TQM in an organization brings all the people together to ensure and improve product-process quality, the work environment and working culture.
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Total quality management and comsumer buying behaviour

Total quality management and comsumer buying behaviour

Total quality management has been defined as a way of ensuring customer satisfaction through the involvement of all employees in learning how to reliably produce and deliver quality goods and service. According to Tobin (2006) total quality management can also be defined as the totally integrated effort for gaining competitive advantage by continuously improving every facet of organizational culture. But Feigenbau (2004) define total quality management as total quality control’s organizational impact. Total quality management is an important task in today’s business activities that aims at customer’s satisfaction. Achieving a high quality product either enables a firm to differentiate its products or move close to product differentiation. The Nigeria market is full of poor product quality .This has been a major concern for many consumers. The reality is that, firms that adopt total quality management improved firms organizational performance (Agus, A & Hassan, Z. 2000). The important consideration is that, modern environment attaché’s great importance to the role of market competition in the determination of company’s profitability and generally creates unrest to the management personnel. This is due to the facts that understanding the marketing environment such as number and size of competitors, government policies and economic situation including the level of demand is essentials. It is also due to the fact that freedom of marketing personnel in the aspects of controlling over price is greatly reduced in some situation (perreauts and McCarthy, 1996). The USA department of defense (Saylor 2003) however, defines total quality management as both philosophy and a set of giving principle that are the foundation of a continuously improving organization. Generally, TQM embodies ten classified basic principle; namely:
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Comparison of different methods for preparation and characterization of total RNA from cartilage samples to uncover osteoarthritis in vivo

Comparison of different methods for preparation and characterization of total RNA from cartilage samples to uncover osteoarthritis in vivo

ECM: extracellular matrix; gDNA: genomic DNA; MD: microdismembrator (ball mill); OA: osteoarthritis; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; QC: quality control; RT-PCR: quantitative Real-time-PCR; RA: rheumatoid arthritis; RIN: RNA integrity number; RS: rotor-stator; RT-PCR: reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; RT: room temperature; SC: scalpel.

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Total Quality Management (TQM) of the Clinical Laboratory; Improving Patient Care

Total Quality Management (TQM) of the Clinical Laboratory; Improving Patient Care

To provide a fully developed system and framework for managing quality, the QI and QP component must be established [14,15,16]. QI provides a structured problem-solving process for identifying the root cause of a problem and also for identifying a remedy for the problem. Quality Planning is necessary to (1) standardize the remedy, (2) establish measures for monitoring performance, (3) ensure that the performance achieved satisfies quality requirements and (4) document the new QLP. The new process is implemented through QLP, measured and monitored through QC and QA, improved through QI, and re-planned through QP. These five components working together in a feedback loop, illustrate how continuous QI is accomplished and how quality assurance is built into laboratory processes. The “five-Q” framework also defines how quality can be managed objectively using “Scientific method” or the PDCA cycle (plan, do, check, act). QP provides the planning step, QLP establishes standard processes for doing things, QC and QA provide measures for checking how well things are done, and QI provides a mechanism for acting on these measures. For objective management decisions, we apply methodology we use in scientific experiments.
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Total Quality Management: West and East

Total Quality Management: West and East

During the last decades quality became one of the most im- portant concept in management. Quality of products deter- mines priorities in market, it provides stable development of nation, preservation of environment, health and human well- being. Total Quality Management (TQM) is one of the new- est theories of management which principles and methods are directed on quality improvement. As competitiveness of an organization depends on quality management admin- istration of organizations observes stability in a debugged quality management corresponding to the international standards. An organization that successfully applies total quality management in its everyday practice gets advantage because by applying TQM an organization differentiate its products from other companies, quality of products increas- es and consumers give preference to quality products. Thus, consumers get high quality products and producer makes profits. Based on the above-mentioned statement we con- clude that organizations which apply TQM principles in their practice are profitable ones. The main idea of TQM is that a consumer and consumer’s needs satisfaction is a corner- stone in doing successful business. In order to realize TQM it is necessary to carry out different transformation within an organization as TQM covers an organization in a whole - from input quality to consumer’s satisfaction.
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Total Supply Chain Quality Management: A Viable Integration of Supply Chain 
              Management And Total Quality Management

Total Supply Chain Quality Management: A Viable Integration of Supply Chain Management And Total Quality Management

Both concepts of SCM and TQM have seen their respective implementations side by side since their introduction into the industry, but have very rarely, or even consciously, been integrated as one total, complete process. There may have been instances, ad-hoc in nature, when both concepts were looked into as one process, but as far as being ad-hoc goes, it is but a temporary measure used only during a limited timeframe to solve a particular issue. We have yet to see both SCM and TQM being integrated as a whole and this is where the organisation’s these days are sadly lacking. It makes perfect business sense to conform to an integrated process of SCM and TQM, where the benefits far outweigh the cons in the long run. This integrated concept would also go far in ensuring the sustainability of an organisation in this dynamic environment.
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Total Quality Management Implementation Challenges

Total Quality Management Implementation Challenges

Lack of long sightedness when introducing TQM indicates a tendency of organizations to introduce TQM even when they do not have a comprehensive understanding of what it entails – they are motivated by the desire to look legitimate as opposed to efficiency or economic gains [24]. In a similar vein, Abdirad and Nazari have argued that the pressure for certification, as opposed to quality, is often a motivation to adopt a quality management system [14]. Such an approach often results in reduced management commitment, loss of interest in TQM on the part of employees, and even premature abandonment of the TQM program [10, 14]. Whereas appearing legitimate in terms of quality management may be important, limited understanding of TQM and what it should achieve in the long run may limit the extent to which it may positively influence organizational performance. The decision to adopt TQM should be based not on the “everyone is doing it” craze, but the understanding that TQM implementation guarantees valuable efficiency and economic gains in the long term. D. Lack of Front Line Managers’ and Employee
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Total quality at palestinian universities: Theory and practice

Total quality at palestinian universities: Theory and practice

Based on the literature related to the concepts of ‘ total quality management,’ TQM, and total quality of education at the university in particular, we can draw the following conclusions: First: The administrative processes of planning, organizing, supervising, financing and staffing, the criteria for selecting students, the quality of educational programs, and the quality of performance evaluation, can all be achieved only through university management (leadership) that understands the meaning of total quality, and believes in its application. The leadership can then guide the university according to the concepts and visions of TQM, seeking to reach the concept (zero defects) in each step of the higher education process. This would bring about high quality from each university production. Teaching process: This can be seen through the student, who is able to play the role required from him or her after graduation. Scientific research: This can be evaluated through the support of the university toward applicable research, and the ability of faculty members to do quality research. Finally, Community service: This is the third function of the university's duties. In other words, the university administration is responsible first and foremost to achieve total quality at the university. In this context, Vileeh (2003, p. 340) says that "Joseph Juran considers that most of the problems of quality are caused by the administration, and the misuse of administration may cause 90% of these problems".
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A rapid and high-quality method for total RNA isolation from Haematococcus pluvialis.

A rapid and high-quality method for total RNA isolation from Haematococcus pluvialis.

To optimize our modified RNA extraction method for H. pluvialis, the effects of cell wall broken ways, algal strains, and cell growth status on RNA extraction were investigated. The results are shown in Figure 2. The RNA extracted from cells treated with liquid N 2 and subsequent grind has the best quantity and quality (Figure 2B, lane 5). In contrast, the RNA extracted from cells broken by FastPrep-24 was the worst (Figure 1, lane 2). The RNA examination using NanoDrop also showed the same results (Table 2). There were no differences among RNA extracted from four H. pluvialis strains (Figure 2A). All the RNA has an A 260 /A 280 ratio over 1.8 and an A 260 /A 230 ratio over 2.0, and a high concentration over 1.5 mg/ mL (Table 2). RNA isolated from cells cultured in Mix medium exhibited the best quality; the 28S rRNA band was brighter than that of 18S rRNA, and 5S rRNA band was weak (Figure 2C, lane 1). RNA purity and concentration were also determined by NanoDrop, showing that RNA extracted from cells grown in Mix medium has the highest A 260 /A 280 and A 260 /A 230 ratios (Table 2).
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Evaluation of health related quality of life after total hip arthroplasty: a case control study in the Iranian population

Evaluation of health related quality of life after total hip arthroplasty: a case control study in the Iranian population

With the growing number of individuals living with a hip prosthesis, the patients’ expectations after THA have also increased, which has led to an increased interest toward the identification of the predictors of quality of life following the THA. While conventionally clinical parameters have been used to assess the outcomes of patients after THA, a recent consensus states the patient- reported Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a better indicator of patients’ outcome and should be primarily used in due researches and clinical setting as well [8]. Ac- cordingly, a wide range of studies has been devoted to the evaluation of HRQoL after THA [9]. Yet, the results of the HRQoL assessment after THA vary considerably be- tween studies [9]. In addition to the patient-related factors such as age, gender, comorbidity, and preoperative func- tional status that have been associated with the results of HRQoL, the role of other factors such as individual ortho- pedic surgeon have also been noticed [10]. Thus, a thor- ough evaluation of HRQoL of patients after THA is still encouraged.
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A quality management training system on ISO standards for enhancing competitivenessof SMEs

A quality management training system on ISO standards for enhancing competitivenessof SMEs

With tight budgets and the international competitiveness increasing, SMEs are looking for additional ways to create and sustain organizational knowledge. The continuous training, related to the aspects of quality management, it is fundamental because this field is subject to several shifts and implementations related to procedural aspects and legislative changes. Such situation mostly interests the SMEs, in how much very often managed by people with a reduced knowledge in this field. Absurdly, such subjects don’t perceive the added value that a good QMS can introduce to their activities. In fact they often consider it, as expensive rules that stiffen their organizations. In this field it is important, therefore, not only an initial training, to awaken employees to adopt methodologies for the achievement of quality, but it is necessary to make available instruments to make possible a process of continuous training for an effective management of the competences. This implicates that won’t be more necessary, above all for the SMEs, to periodically remain without collaborators or workers, because busy for the training activity and often in geographically far-away places. At the same time, simply using own personal computer, employees will be facilitated, and perhaps induced to learn and know the main quality principles. Thanks to these technologies, it is possible to acquire knowledge in small doses (divided in more parts linked among them, usable in few minutes). This activity don’t reduce productivity of the workers because they stay on the place of job. With the rapid increase in corporate of high-speed Internet connections and a younger workforce that has grown up using computers, e-learning has become a very cost effective and efficient training method. This modality allows people to explore interactive simulations and test various scenarios on the screen, making the training much more realistic and understandable than typical classroom training. These repeatable simulations provide also privacy for the learner, so that a person can feel free to repeat sections and to try different simulations. E- learning has become a very effective training method that can reduce costs and improve the effectiveness of training courses. It is not a panacea, and it will never replace traditional training methods in all situations, but it is another way to produce sustained learning, and most organizations should have it included in their training activities. Many benefits can be identified for the business:
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Total Quality Management in Higher Education

Total Quality Management in Higher Education

JULY, 2012, Vol. – I, Issue-I www.srjis.com Page 62 Quality management has been a very important factor for the leaders in higher education. The application of business related quality activities have been a success story for many leading institutions. In this era of extensive competition, quality education is a major concern (Koslowski, 2006). The statement of quality education has been attracting many internal and external stakeholders. As in the 21 st century the stakeholders are educated and they require answers from the institution (Fuhrman & Elmore, 2004). The stake holders previously were more concerned about the nature of programs being offered by the institution and other factors such as fees and location. Now the level of compromise has decreased. In such condition the institutions will continuously be inspected by the customers until and unless proper evidence is not provided (Koslowski, 2006). This leads to the challenge faced by the institutions, as the increasing demand of stakeholders has lead the institutions to bring changes in the programs and curricula (Longanecker, 1995). Even back in 1972, Mortimer has stated that the institutions would eventually adopt the business strategies to increase the effectiveness in the long run (Bogue & Bingham-Hall, 2003). Edler 2004 states that “The infusion of quality management concepts such as total quality management (TQM) and continuous quality improvement (CQI) in higher education is optional, but external accrediting bodies may soon mandate institutions to provide evidence of quality principles in action”. Thus if the institution provides such quality measure before the external education committee, then the institution would have an edge in the industry. According to Spanbauer (1995) “TQM is a management philosophy which puts systems and processes in place to meet and exceed the expectations of customers”. However it is very much obvious that most of the institutions avoid such quality measures as it leads to the changes in the traditional set up of the institutions (Baba, Kamibeppu & Shimada, 2001; Montano & Utter, 1999; Sirvanci, 2004). Thus there is always a second thought in the mind of the administration when changing the system of the institution.
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Impact of Total Quality Management on Managin...

Impact of Total Quality Management on Managin...

This not only reduces the time needed to fix errors, but makes it less necessary to employ a team of quality assurance personnel.Another positive result of TQM isreduces unnecessary and unproductive tasks, which means employee duties can be altered to reduce wasteful spending. Another positive result of TQM is happier employees. By analyzing employee data, a business will be able to understand the strengths of each employee and capitalize on them. Understanding this information will make it possible for managers to place employees in appropriate positions to maximize their skills. This usually makes for happier employees because they are treated as individuals and not merely as tools for mass production. When employees feel like they are playing a serious part in their company, then morale typically improves .As a result, the overall quality of their work and the products they make is likely to improve as well. However, TQM works best in an environment where it is strongly supported by management, it is implemented by employee teams, and there is a continual focus on process improvement that prevents errors from occurring.
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Total Quality Management in Educational Organ...

Total Quality Management in Educational Organ...

There is a growing body of knowledge becoming available for quality practice, yet many interested Indian companies are struggling for its implementation. There is no single proven recipe that can be followed. Each company must devise its own approach on its strengths and weaknesses. Typically a combination of a) total people involvement, b) effective quality systems and procedures and c) judicious use of quality techniques can help move on the TQM path. All of these are essential and weakness in any one can severely constrain the overall efforts. This thesis has studied a Service Enterprise striving for quality methods of TQM. It has a good quality system and People at management levels are relatively well involved it is identified that an improved knowledge of quality techniques application can therefore boost the TQM efforts .The research paper described various quality techniques their importance and difficulties in their implementation through a case study conducted at Organization. Education institutions, as part of service industry, have to adopt the TQM universal philosophy of continuous improvement to enhance its status to World Class Excellence. Education provider’s had to work on outward- looking policy of finding the expectations and needs of the students. As a result, the education system is to be modified to fulfill their requirements. Improvement in education system and its work environment is a continuous process through feedbacks from all the associates. This is the formal TQM practice in an Engineering Institution, which has resulted in generation of an excellent 'Action Plan' for future improvement. Other Engineering Institutions of the country can follow such best practices and work on improvement plan to achieve World Class excellence status. Survey was used as a data collection tool. Data collection is required in order to assess satisfaction level of customers and identify problems of service delivery process. Recommendations are compiled for process improvement. Survey is conducted at the 4 th year of a B. Tech Degree Engineering course to get information of the 'customer needs/expectations'. However, continuous feedback is obtained during the course from students to improve the process of service provision. Excellent customer's service is a mean of existence for an education institution. Customer satisfaction can be achieved through fulfilling their needs and expectations. It should be the endeavor of every institution to continuously improve their processes of service provision. It takes time and resources to build image and reputation for a service, but can be lost in a moment.
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Total Quality Management in Libraries: An Overview

Total Quality Management in Libraries: An Overview

Libraries are ideal places to implement TQM.This paper has discussed the implementation of total quality management and its application to libraries. TQM demands time and persistence. To succeed in an organization there must be support at the very top and commitment at all levels. It is necessary that all groups of people in an organization are included in the process. TQM implementation requires patience and tolerance as it is a time-consuming process and, of course, it is not easy to change an organization. Therefore, implementation of TQM is not a guarantee of the highest quality but it is a step in the right direction.The process of implementing TQM in libraries involves a conceptual change in library
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TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IS A JOURNEY, NOT A DESTINATION

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IS A JOURNEY, NOT A DESTINATION

What is TQP? TQP is Total Quality People– people with character, integrity, good values, and a positive attitude.Don’t get me wrong. You do need all the other programs, but they will only work when you have the right foundation, and the foundation is Total Quality People. For example, some customer services programs teach participants to say “please,” and “thank-you,” give smiles and handshakes. But how long can a person keep on a fake smile if he does not have the desire to serve? Besides, people can see through him. And if the smile is not sincere, it is irritating. My point is, there has to be substance over form, not form over substance. Without a doubt, one does need to remember “please” and “thank-you,” the smiles, etc.–they are very important. But keep in mind that they come a lot easier when accompanied by a desire to serve.
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