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Combined Production of Three Bioenergy Resources  from Nannochloropsis sp. Microalgae

Combined Production of Three Bioenergy Resources from Nannochloropsis sp. Microalgae

hydrolysis temperature (37°C). After warming 5 g raw algae (sequence-1) or lipids-extracted algae (sequence-2) and the desired CTV enzyme quantity were added to the bottle and the contents shaken in the water bath at 300 rpm for 6 hours. Enzymatic treatment was terminated by boiling the glass bottles containing enzyme immediately for exactly 5 minutes in a water bath at kept at 95-100°C. The bottles were then cooled to room temperature, filtered using fine strainer, and centrifuged (Centurion 8000, UK) at 6,000 rpm to settle and recover the solids residues for either lipids extraction or biogas production. The supernatants were used for measuring total sugars using the phenol-sulfuric acid method [31] and reducing sugar according to the DNSA method [32]. Duplicates and triplicates were used to ensure accuracy and to obtain enough residues for lipids extraction or biogas production. The experiment was repeated three times with nearly identical results and the average value was reported.
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Article: Biochemical and phytochemical evaluation of Stevia rebaudiana

Article: Biochemical and phytochemical evaluation of Stevia rebaudiana

1 ml extracted solution was taken in the test tubes and 4-5 mL freshly prepared anthrone reagent was added slowly into the tube. The tube was placed into an ice-bath to prevent the loss of water by evaporation. After cooling, the tube was heated in a boiling water-bath for 10 min and was cooled again in running tap water. The test tubes were incubated for 20 min., at room temperature (25º C). Blank was maintained with distilled water and reagents. The absorbance of the green solution was measured at 625 nm on a spectrophotometer. Total sugars were estimated by comparing the absorbance of sample with the absorbance of gallic acid standard.
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Post Harvest Physicochemical Properties of Soursop (Annona Muricata L.) Fruits of Coast Region, Tanzania

Post Harvest Physicochemical Properties of Soursop (Annona Muricata L.) Fruits of Coast Region, Tanzania

Abstract: The physicochemical composition of harvested soursop (Annona muricata L.) fruits from Coast region, Tanzania, during open-air storage was determined. The ash, titratable acidity, crude fat, crude fiber, moisture and sugars content were determined by proximate analysis. Ascorbic acid contents were determined using the 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol dye method while macro-nutrients and heavy metals were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS). The fruits were harvested at the mature ripe stage and kept in open air storage over several days. The determinations were done immediately after fruit arrival at the laboratory and thereafter at intervals of two days from the day of harvest. The results showed that soursop fruits had high moisture content (73.1% – 82.1%), low titratable acidity (0.10 – 1.25% ca), low crude fat (0.42 mg/100 g-fw), moderate ash content (0.87 mg/100 g-fw) and crude fibre content (6.09 mg/100 g-fw), high ascorbic acid content (34.0 – 19.7 mg/100 g-fw), high total sugars content (34.3% – 45.3%), reducing sugar content (18.9% – 39.2%) and sucrose content (15.5% – 30.0%). Of the macroelements Na, Ca and K, the average content were 895.6, 870.3 and 367.5 mg/100 g-fw respectively. Heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd) content was very low in the soursop fruits, ranging between <0.0015 mg/100 g-fw for Cd and 0.82 mg/100 g-fw for Fe. During storage, the moisture content, titratable acidity level and sugars content in the fruit were all increasing whereas the ascorbic acid content was decreasing. There were no significant changes during storage for levels of crude fat, fiber, ash, mineral elements and heavy metals. The findings from this study suggest that this fruit from coast region of Tanzania can contribute nutritionally to the health of the consumer.
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Effect of replacing sucrose with fructose on the physico chemical sensory characteristics of kinnow candy

Effect of replacing sucrose with fructose on the physico chemical sensory characteristics of kinnow candy

(P ≤ 0.05) increase in reducing and total sugars with advancing storage for all the candies prepared. A similar increasing trend in total and reducing sugars during storage was reported by Mehta and Bajaj (1984) in citrus peel candy from kinnow and blood red cultivars and in apple candy (Sharma et al. 1971). Moisture loss and inversion of sucrose were considered by the above authors as major reasons for this increase in total and reducing sugars.

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Studies on Toxicity of Dimethyl Sulphoxide on the Indian Major Carp, Cirrhina mrigala

Studies on Toxicity of Dimethyl Sulphoxide on the Indian Major Carp, Cirrhina mrigala

In the present study, the fingerlings of mrigala showed changes in the total sugars (Table 2&3), total proteins (Table 4&5) and total lipids (Table 6&7) under the influence of different concentrations of DMSO on the different days of exposure. Total sugar content in the muscle and liver tissues of fish exposed to DMSO was reduced compared to their respective controls. Liver being the site of metabolism, the carbohydrates tend to accumulate for metabolic processes to occur. The fish not exposed to toxicant showed a normal trend with 26.24 mg/g on zero day, 32.54 mg/g on 4th day and reduced to 25.88 mg/g on 7th day. This reduction may be attributed to utilization of carbohydrate source available, with replenishment of sources not possible due to starvation.
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Effect of CO2 treatment on dormancy duration, sprout growth and sugar content in two potato cultivars: Short communication

Effect of CO2 treatment on dormancy duration, sprout growth and sugar content in two potato cultivars: Short communication

and sugar content, observations were started when the tubers had 0.5–0.9 cm long sprout (0 day) and thereafter observations were recorded after 7, 15 and 30 days during storage at 18–20°C and 90–95% RH. Reducing sugar content was determined by the method of NELSON (1944) and total sugars were determined by the Anthrone method (VAN HANDEL 1968). Statistical analysis was done using MSTAT (4.0 C) package.

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PERIODIC METABOLIC CHANGES.AS INFLUENCED BY IBA INDUCED RHIZOGENESIS IN SAND PEAR (PYRUS I'YRIFOUA BURM)

PERIODIC METABOLIC CHANGES.AS INFLUENCED BY IBA INDUCED RHIZOGENESIS IN SAND PEAR (PYRUS I'YRIFOUA BURM)

of 20.12 per cent in untreated cuttings was associated with maxium starch content, higher total nitrogen and the lower level of total sugars, C/N ratio and total .i>h[r]

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Artificial symbiosis for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation from alkali extracted deshelled corn cobs by co-culture of Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium cellulovorans

Artificial symbiosis for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation from alkali extracted deshelled corn cobs by co-culture of Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium cellulovorans

sugars accumulation during the first 24 h; nevertheless, solventogenesis was triggered 12 h earlier, owing to a shortened duration of pH control, which together made for a shorter fermentation time of 80 h. Earlier recovery of C. beijerinckii due to large inocula as well as a shorter runtime of pH control slowed the accumulation of total sugars and thus promoted the utilization of AECC. The feeding of AECC provided more adhesion sites for C. cellulovorans to colonize and extra enzymatic do- main for cellulosomes [35], which thus increased the total cellulase activity and the supply of carbon sources for C. beijerinckii . With the slowing down of AECC degradation after 60 h, the accumulated sugars began to be consumed. Although C. beijerinckii can utilize hexoses and pentoses simultaneously [21], the uptake of xylose and arabinose was rather poor and inefficient (Figure 4C) [29], which limited significantly the supply of ATP for organic acids transformation to solvents [27], hence there were some pentose, butyrate and acetate residual in final broth.
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<p>Habitual sugar intake and cognitive impairment among multi-ethnic Malaysian older adults</p>

<p>Habitual sugar intake and cognitive impairment among multi-ethnic Malaysian older adults</p>

The limited human studies investigating high sugar intake also concurred that sugar consumption could have a signi fi cant impact on one ’ s cognitive abilities. A population-based study among Puerto-Ricans aged between 45 and 75 years old found that total sugars, added sugars, sucrose, glucose, added fructose, and sugar- sweetened beverages were each signi fi cantly inversely asso- ciated with cognitive function as assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). 15 Additionally, in a dietary pat- tern study, Gustaw – Rothenberg investigated the dietary pat- tern of Alzheimer ’ s disease (AD) patients characterized as having a high intake of meat, butter, high-fat dairy products, eggs, and re fi ned sugar as compared to the control. 16 Similarly, Power et al, in a community-dwelling of an elderly Irish cohort found that the consumption of a high glycaemic diet was associated with impaired cognitive performance as assessed by the MMSE. 17 Recently, a double-blind, placebo- controlled, cross-over experimental study was undertaken suggesting that the ingestion of glucose and sucrose led to lower performance of cognitive tasks, ie, simple response time, arithmetic, and Stroop interference. 18 Most studies used a single test to determine the cognitive functions. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine the association between sugar intake and cognitive functions as measured by a series of cognitive tests ie digit span, Rey ’ s auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT), MMSE, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), digit symbol, and visual-reproduction test (VR) among multi-ethnic Malaysian older adults.
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“Leaf Quality Evaluation of Ten Mulberry (Morus) Germplasm Varieties through Phytochemical Analysis” by V.N.Yogananda Murthy, H.L.Ramesh, G.Lokesh, Munirajappa, B.R.Dayakar Yadav, India.

“Leaf Quality Evaluation of Ten Mulberry (Morus) Germplasm Varieties through Phytochemical Analysis” by V.N.Yogananda Murthy, H.L.Ramesh, G.Lokesh, Munirajappa, B.R.Dayakar Yadav, India.

Total sugars were estimated using anthrone reagent. 5 25mg of dry leaf powder was crushed thoroughly in 10ml of hot ethanol using a mortar and pestle. The leaf tissue was exhaustively extracted twice or thrice using small quantity of ethanol cooled and filtered through a whatman filter paper. The final volume of filtrate was made to 10ml either by adding or evaporating the ethanol. 1ml of ethanol extract was pipetted into a test tube and 4ml of anthrone reagent was added and mixture was incubated at 100 ° C in a boiling water bath for 10minutes. Then mixture was removed, cooled to room temperature in running water, and absorbance of resultant blue-green solution was measured at 625nm. Amount of sugar present in the extract was calculated using a standard curve prepared from glucose.
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Antioxidant activity and mechanism of Rhizoma Cimicifugae

Antioxidant activity and mechanism of Rhizoma Cimicifugae

The total sugars were evaluated according to the phenol-sulfuric acid method [30]. A 40-μL aliquot of sample solution (1 mg/mL) was placed in a flask, then 210 μL distilled water, 250 μL phenol solution (5%, w/v) and 250 μL concentrated sulfuric acid were added. After incubation for 20 min at room temperature, the absorbance of reaction mixture was measured at 490 nm (Unico 2100, Shanghai, China). The measurements were performed in triplicate, and the calculations were based on a calibration curve obtained with glucose. The result was expressed as glucose equivalents in milligrams per gram of extract.
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Nutritional Composition of Orange Juice: A Comparative Study between French Commercial and Home Made Juices

Nutritional Composition of Orange Juice: A Comparative Study between French Commercial and Home Made Juices

The study aimed to compare the nutritional composition of commercial and home-made orange juices with a fruit content of 100%, i.e., without dilution with water and without addition of sugars or any other sweeteners. Orange juice samples (n = 12 for both types of juice) were representative of the French market and of French consumers’ habits as determined by a consumer survey. The results showed that both types of juices contained the same concentrations in total sugars and po- lyphenols and had low levels of dietary fiber (P > 0.05 for all parameters). Commercial orange juice contained less vitamin C (P = 0.035) and folate (P = 0.002) than home-made juice (15% and 27% less, respectively), probably owing to the vitamin degradation that may occur during indus- trial production (e.g., during pasteurization) and storage of commercial orange juice. The ob- served differences were of relatively small magnitude overall, however, and within the expected ranges for vitamin loss due to pasteurization and storage at ambient temperature. Indeed, com- mercial orange juice contained 85% of the vitamin C concentration measured in home-made juice, showing that vitamin C was well preserved in commercial juice. Another study with a larger num- ber of samples would be needed to confirm these observations.
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BIOCHEMICAL STANDARDIZATION OF STEM BARK OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM (ROXB.)

BIOCHEMICAL STANDARDIZATION OF STEM BARK OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM (ROXB.)

Pterocarpus marsupium (Roxb.) is an important medicinal plant in diabetes management. In the present study different stem bark samples (Apical bark, Middle bark and Mature inner bark) were analyzed with respect to phytoconstituents total reducing sugars, total sugars, amylose, amylopectin, starch, crude fibers, crude protein, total polyphenols, water soluble tannins, total flavonoids, total alkaloids, nitrates, total oxalate and total ash value. The concentration of constituents except oxalate and total ash was found higher in the apical stem bark than the middle and mature inner bark. The oxalate and total ash were higher in the mature inner bark than the apical stem bark and middle bark samples. Preliminary Phytochemical analysis indicated presence pharmacologically active phytoconstituents phenols, tannins, flavones, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and cardiac glycosides. The saponins were found absent in all the three bark samples.
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Nutritional Contribution of Some Senegalese Forest Fruits Running across Soudano Sahelian Zone

Nutritional Contribution of Some Senegalese Forest Fruits Running across Soudano Sahelian Zone

As a good food supply for the local people in various Senegalese regions, the forest fruits are becoming very important. They are using between foods or main condiment for dishes in many part of Africa. These fruits represent non negligi- ble sources of vitamins, carbohydrates and minerals. Instead of more commercialized species such as Adansonia digi- tata L., Detarium senegalensis J. F. Gmel., Saba senegalensis (A.DC.) Pichon, Tamarindus indica L., this article fo- cused on nutritional values of other fruits with little interest or neglected. These species were Ficus gnaphalocarpa, L., Cordyla pinnata (Lepr. ex A.Rich.) Milne-Redh and Icacina senegalensis, harvested in soudano-sahelian zone; while Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E. A. Bruce belongs to Sudanese zone. The fruit pulps were isolated and freeze dried before analysis. The results showed that acidity, vitamin C and total minerals were significantly different from one fruit to another. S. latifolius with the highest acidity content (402.43 mg/100 g) and best vitamin C content if 1488 mg/100 g were found. Also as results, S. latifolius provided high protein content nearby the 20%. The caloric contributing (kcal/100 g) were 102.5, 177 and 132 respectively for F. gnaphalocarpa, C. pinnata, and S. latifolius. The ash contents were the same for all species (4.5%), indicating the richness in mineral elements. Furthermore, all species in this study were good sources of iron, copper and zinc. However, small amounts of sodium were noticed in all samples. Analysis of total sugars and their profile showed that I. senegalensis and C. pinnata were more appreciated. These results pre- dicted the useful incomes for forest fruits in human being. Lot of medicinal virtues has been recognized from these fruits. The increase in value and the preservation of the biodiversity are necessary particularly for C. pinnata which presents a serious threat because of the strong income for wood production.
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Changes in Antioxidant and Biochemical Constituents in
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Fruit cv. Apple Colour during
Development and Ripening

Changes in Antioxidant and Biochemical Constituents in Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Fruit cv. Apple Colour during Development and Ripening

Changes in antioxidant and biochemical constituents were studied in guava fruit cv. Apple colour to determine the optimum time of harvest. Fruits were analysed at 15 days interval at 30, 45, 60, 90, 105,120, 135 and 150 days after fruit set. Continous increase in TSS content was observed in guava cv. Apple Colour at different growth intervals (30 to 150 days) . Ascorbic acid content in guava varieties exhibited peculiarity, which firstly, increased from up to 120 days and then decreased at 150 days while titratable acidity in guava varieties increased from 30 days to 150 days and then decreased from 120 days to 150 days. Total sugars, reducing sugars and total carotenoid showed continous increasing trend from fruit development till ripening in guava cultivar. While anthocyanin content increased from 105 days to 150 days only.
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“COMPARATIVE CARBOHYDRATES STATUS IN LEAF
DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF CLEOME
SPECIES” by Vishal T. Aparadh and B. A. Karadge, India.

“COMPARATIVE CARBOHYDRATES STATUS IN LEAF DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF CLEOME SPECIES” by Vishal T. Aparadh and B. A. Karadge, India.

Reducing  sugars  content  (fig  2)  is  the  highest  in  the  senescing  leaves  of  Cleome  simplicifolia,  while  it  is  the  lowest  in  the  senescing  leaves  of  C.  chellidonii.  In  C.  gynandra and C. chelidonii the reducing sugars are stored  more in the mature leaves. The pattern of reducing sugars  content  ML  >  YL  >SL is exactly  opposite  to  that  observed  by  Thombare 5  in  Portulaca  quadrifida  and  Aptenia  cordifolia.  However, in C. simplicifolia the reducing sugars  appear to  be  stored  more in senescing and  young  leaves  than  that  in  mature  leaves.  Similar  observations  were  made  by  Jamale  and  Joshi 6 ,  Karadge 7   and  Deshpande 8  respectively  in  mangroves  (Sonneratia  acida  Linn.  Excoecaria  agallocha  Linn.  and  Lumnitzera  racemosa  Willd.),  Portulaca  oleracea and  Cajanus cajan.  Kataoka et 
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Effects of Organic Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Placement on Yield, Quality, and Chemistry of Flue-cured Tobacco

Effects of Organic Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Placement on Yield, Quality, and Chemistry of Flue-cured Tobacco

Both Nature Safe and Nutrimax provided enough nitrogen for comparable yields as conventional tobacco, however 100% banding produced the highest yields in 2013. Yield differences observed are most likely due to the timing and amounts of rain fall of each year. Although rainfall during both years was above average, 2012 received very little rainfall early in the season while 2013 received a high amount of rainfall early. Under normal conditions broadcasting all of the organic fertilizer can achieve similar yields to banding, however, if high amounts of rain are received early in the season, a banded application allows nutrients to be more slowly released providing a higher yield and more balanced leaf chemistry. The benefits of banding and split applying organic fertilizers is also observed in leaf nitrogen at flowering, nitrogen in cured leaf, total alkaloids, and total reducing sugars in which banding all or half of the fertilizer produced more favorable chemical constituent levels than broadcasting. Higher levels of nitrogen at layby in the 100% broadcast application in 2013 also confirm that mineralization occurred more rapidly under the conditions.
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Ecophysiological studies of three desert plants growing in two different habitats, central region, saudi arabia

Ecophysiological studies of three desert plants growing in two different habitats, central region, saudi arabia

Organic solutes known as compatible solutes include sugars, glycerol, fatty acids, amino acids and other low molecular weight metabolites, serve a function in cells to lower balance the osmotic potential of intracellular and extracellular ions in resistance to osmotic stress (Alkhail and Moftah, 2011). The present data showed that T. aphylla and A. monosperma had higer soluble sugars content and chlorophyll content than Z. coccineum. The higher accumulation of soluble sugars with corresponding higher chlorophyll content means that the increase in soluble sugars was the results of higher photosynthetic activities. The higher soluble sugars concentration may be an adaptive response which involves adjustment of osmotic potential that facilitates the maintenance of favorable water balance (Pelag et al., 1984; Gadallah, 2001; Kamel, 2007; Chen and Jiang, 2010; Sayed et al., 2013). Soluble protein, total lipids and total nitrogen contents in the three studied plants species were higher than the free fatty and amino acids. Protein and lipids accumulation in leaves and roots are associated with improved drought tolerance (Premachandrea et al., 1992). In Z. coccineum plant species, the free fatty and amino acids reduced notably under drought (Tables 4 and 5). Therefore, amino acids especially proline may be the major osmotic solute in the osmotic adjustment of all species in drought environment. On the contrary, free fatty and amino acids contents were higher in T. aphylla and A. monosperma collected from Al-Thomamah and Al-Derayah habitats. Accumulation of free fatty and amino acids under such conditions can be explained by enhancement proteolysis of proteins, inhibition of fatty and amino acids incorporation in protein synthesis or both (Merewitz et al., 2011). Accumulation of fatty and amino acids under water stress may be actually a part of an adaptive process contributing to osmotic adjustment and has been taken as an index for determining the drought tolerant potential of many plants species (Duby, 1994; Gadallah, 1995; Ramanjulu and Sudhakar, 1997).
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Antioxidant activity of Sesbania grandiflora (pink variety) L. Pers.

Antioxidant activity of Sesbania grandiflora (pink variety) L. Pers.

The total phenolic content was determined according to the method described by (Siddhuraju and Becker 2003). Aliquots of each extracts were taken in test tubes and made up to the volume of 1ml with distilled water. Then 0.5ml of folin‐ciocalteu phenol reagent (1:1 with water) and 2.5ml of sodium carbonate solution (20%) were added sequentially in each tube. Soon after vortexing the reaction mixture, the test tubes were placed in dark for 40 min and the absorbance was recorded at 725 nm against the reagent blank. The analysis was performed in triplicate and the results were expressed as the tannic acid equivalents (TAE).
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Association among agro-industrial traits and simultaneous selection in sweet sorghum.

Association among agro-industrial traits and simultaneous selection in sweet sorghum.

While selecting for multiple traits, one important statistical parameter to be considered is the correlation. In this study, in order to describe the interrelationship of traits, we used the genotype-by-trait biplot. The first two principal components explained 80.5% of the total variance. This relatively high percentage of variation reflects the precision of the interrelationships between the variables measured. Figure 2 shows that the traits FLOW, PH, TSH, TSS, TBH, TRS, and EY showed medium to high positive correlations. The variable EXT showed low correlation compared to all the other traits, which is associated with low variation observed among the genotypes for this trait. The positive and high correlations found between the traits FLOW, PH, TSH, TSS, TBH, and TRS with EY indicates the possibility of indirect selection.
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