Totatal Quality Management in the ready made garments industry of Bangladesh

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A Research Framework of Supply Chain Management in Ready Made Garments Industry of Bangladesh

A Research Framework of Supply Chain Management in Ready Made Garments Industry of Bangladesh

Abstract: This exploratory study addresses a conceptual supply chain management (SCM) model for ready-made garments (RMG) industry of Bangladesh. As different parties i.e. the suppliers, manufacturers, buyers etc. are involved in different phases of supply chain of this industry, every stage (procurement, manufacturing, replenishment, customer order) is conflicting with its next stage with the goals and objectives. In this conceptual model, attempts have been taken to create the layout and design of the procurement of raw materials, work-in-process, inventory and finished goods from various sources to the ultimate consumer in this garment business. This framework provides the opportunity to integrate and optimize the supply chain process of RMG industry of Bangladesh. The proposed conceptual framework for the RMG industry provides a novel approach for decision makers of supply chain components to review and appraise the performance toward fulfillment of ultimate goals, i.e. producing high-quality garments product, and reducing the wastage of human labor, time and money.
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Counter Productive Work Behavior, Health and Safety Management System in the Ready Made Garments Industry of Bangladesh

Counter Productive Work Behavior, Health and Safety Management System in the Ready Made Garments Industry of Bangladesh

A behavior will be considered as deviant if it has the potential to harm the well-being of members and the organization as well [10]. Kelloway et al. [11] suggests that counterproductive behavior includes both individual and collective behaviors. Workers are involved in counterproductive behavior when they willingly occur any act in order to harm the other workers within the organization as well as the organization [7].There are different stakeholders in RMG sector like owners of the firms, garment labors, buyers, NGOs, government, labor union, civil society members, and others. Among all stakeholders, low costlabor is the most important strength of the RMG sector of Bangladesh. But unfortunately, labors of RMG industry have been demonstrating their arrogance for few years. The industry experienced severe labor chaos for the first time in 2006 for increasingtheir wage which has been continuing almost every year [3].RMG workers have been involving different counterproductive behaviors because of their job dissatisfaction [12].A great deal of researches have concentrated on poor and hazardous working environment [13]. Researches demonstrate that health safety and security management situation in RMG sector of Bangladesh is inadequate [14]. Injuries, death, and disability of workers from fire, and collapses of building are very frequent in the country [8]. Sarker and Afroze [12] stated that labor unrest in RMG sector of Bangladesh is one of the major problems which causes business prospect and profit losses. RMG sector of Bangladesh is also an example of violating international labor standard [15]. Most of the garment factories in Bangladesh do not follow the labour law and ILO conventions [16]. Enforcement of Health and Safety regulations never gets priority by management or government in Bangladesh [17].
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Deadly Incidents in Bangladeshi Apparel Industry and Illustrating the Causes and Effects of These Incidents

Deadly Incidents in Bangladeshi Apparel Industry and Illustrating the Causes and Effects of These Incidents

Bangladesh is a country with poverty and overpopulation. It can utilize its overcrowding as human resource to overcome the poverty by itself. Ready-made garments sector is one of the most acceptable areas where the overpopulation can be utilized. It can be characterized by focusing some essential factors such as low material cost, low workforce cost, fast production with a lot of cheap labor and price competitiveness from the competitors. But day by day the economic and surrounding environment of ready-made garments industry become a human right challenge because of some deadly incidents. Sometimes it seems that different incidents are the common phenomenon in this sector. There are lots of factors that made the RMG sector challenging negatively. It is important to make the Bangladeshi apparel industry safe for the workers. The safe working environment will help to reduce the future uncertainties of different hazards. Different hazards are not only caused for life killing incidents but also the big issue of production damage and losses. These incidents impact negatively on sustainability and profitability. In this case, the rights for a safe working place are treated as international standard. Some causes are pushing negatively forward to unsafe working pace. But why
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Corporate Social Responsibility: Its Importance and Practices in the Ready-Made Garments Sector of Bangladesh

Corporate Social Responsibility: Its Importance and Practices in the Ready-Made Garments Sector of Bangladesh

The purpose of the study is to discuss the CSR activities in the ready-made garments industry in Bangladesh. In particular, the study focuses on present situation of CSR practices in the ready-made garments industry of Bangladesh. The study also investigates how to engage the stakeholders to encourage the suppliers to be a CSR followed company in Bangladesh. The study takes a qualitative approach undertaking secondary information to understand the importance and CSR practices in Bangladesh. The study found that, currently CSR is not practiced properly in all the suppliers’ factory where it is recommended to initiate local collection action among the stakeholders and in some cases to form multi-stakeholder relationship to encourage the suppliers to practice CSR in their companies to maintain a healthy relationship with the buyers. This paper is unique in nature as the previous studies of CSR all are done in the European context, very few are available in the developing countries such as Bangladesh, therefore, this paper is going to make some contribution towards CSR studies of developing countries.
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Total Quality Management (TQM) Adoption in Bangladesh Ready Made Garments (RMG) Industry: A Conceptual Model

Total Quality Management (TQM) Adoption in Bangladesh Ready Made Garments (RMG) Industry: A Conceptual Model

Bangladesh Ready-Made Garments (RMG) sector shows remarkable growth and sig- nificant contribution in the country’s economic development though product and service qualities are yet a considerable problem to worry about. RMG companies in Bangladesh are not fully aware about the impacts and value of Total Quality Man- agement (TQM) implementation. Actually they mostly give emphasis on ISO 9000 execution and various researches show that application of this only enhances prob- lems. Researchers argue that effective implementation of TQM practices is a main criteria and predictor of gaining sustainability in business. So, for being competitive in the long run, RMG industry in Bangladesh should focus more on TQM practices rather than taking advantages out of the cheapest labors. As, it is notable to mention that in case of Bangladesh RMG sector, most of the existing literatures give more emphasis and discuss about the infrastructural and strategic matters whereas TQM and Human Resource Management (HRM) practices in an attempt to improve sus- tainable competitive advantage are still a debate both theoretically as well as empiri- cally. In this aspect, literatures proved that, no previous studies were conducted to verify the association among practices of TQM, sustainable competitive advantage as well as the role of HRM as a mediator to build TQM climate in Bangladesh RMG sector. In order to bridge this gap and to generate a more comprehensive argument, this paper further proposes and aims at providing a tool, a procedural framework, to enhance TQM in various RMG companies operating in Bangladesh via the develop- ment of appropriate TQM model which will ensure organizational sustainable com- petitive advantage where HRM practices will consider as mediating variable. Pro- posed research direction and conclusion are discussed in conclusion of this research.
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Magnitude of Supply Chain Management on Ready Made Garments to the eventual Buyer

Magnitude of Supply Chain Management on Ready Made Garments to the eventual Buyer

Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the vital issue for the Ready Made Garments (RMG) sector around the world. Bangladesh garment industry development is most wanted in reducing the supply time required to manufacture and fulfill the orders placed by foreign companies. One way to decrease the supply time required for producing RMG is to increase domestic linkage extension way we can have deep level improvements in the readymade garments industry too. Supply time refers to the time required for supplying ordered garment products after the export order has received. Using modern fast and effective machinery can reduce time taken to deliver the order. The implementation of SCM had been beneficial as this helped in improving the communication channels, production and services of the companies. Considering the important role of apparel manufacturers within the global chain, we conducted a research on the Bangladesh garments industry and focus on several important supply chain operational issues. The objectives are to analyze apparel supply chain matters such as new orders, raw materials supply, production processes and logistics related to finished goods delivery. I will analysis to shows how apparel manufacturers can supply the readymade garments to the buyer responsively for proper growth. I will identify related supply chain practices influencing the industry, set guidelines for improvement and offer recommendations for sustainability of RMG.
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The Critical Factors Of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) That Contribute Towards Consumer Behavior In The Ready-Made Garments (RMG) Industry Of Bangladesh

The Critical Factors Of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) That Contribute Towards Consumer Behavior In The Ready-Made Garments (RMG) Industry Of Bangladesh

Articulating a generic definition of CSR has been a challenge across all academic disciplines [2]. Initially in 1998, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) defined CSR as the ‘continuing commitment by businesses to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of its work force and their families as well as the local community and society at large’, however, WBCSD revisited the definition again in 2002 and rephrased it to ‘the commitment of business to contribute to sustainable economic development, working with employees, their families, the local community and the society at large to improve their quality of life’ [2, 4] Furthermore, on a symbiotic note, Hopkins regards CSR simply as the concern of business to treat their stakeholders in an ethical and responsible manner where the terms ‘ethical or responsible’ refer to practices that are deemed acceptable in civilized societies [7]. Consumer behavior on the other hand is the study which accentuates on the process of why people buy what they buy or what are the factors impacts their decision making process [8]. Empirical evidence supports the linkage of CSR and consumer behavior leading to sustainable growth of firms and long run success. Researchers believe that this positive linkage is mostly derived from the understanding that CSR activities have a direct impact on the firm’s image, distinguishing it in the industry and leading to value creation in the perception of consumer [9]. In practice, firms pursuing prolonged CSR activities are considered wiser since this establishes an image of benevolence and is thereby effective. Short-term, high paced CSR campaigns are often believed as opportunistic attempts. Henceforth, CSR practices should be approached from strategic perspective rather than tactical [10].
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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RMG SECTOR THROUGH GREEN FACTORIES

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RMG SECTOR THROUGH GREEN FACTORIES

attract foreign buyers freshly. And workers will get international quality facilities. The factory will have all the latest technologies, open environment; there will be various facilities including all security facilities. Although this type of factory is expensive, it is profitable and positive for the garment industry. As a result, industry entrepreneurs are thinking that the life of the workers will change as well as the economy. A significant feature of the Green Factory concept is the protection of the environment. Although it is considered a difficult challenge to continue the production process in environmentally friendly, electricity, water and gas- saving, health-conscious environments, it is possible to deal with this challenge through the implementation of green factory concept. Worldwide, now everyone needs to pay attention to environmental protection. Garment goods and buyer countries and international organizations, groups now enforce environment-friendly, labor-friendly conditions in the garment manufacturing process. The foreign buyers have played an important role in the growing popularity of green factory ideas. If the introduction of green factories in the garment sector in Bangladesh, foreign buyers will be more vulnerable to the purchasing of ready-made garments in the country. Millions of garment workers in this country will change their lives. Currently, the challenges we face in our garment industry are possible through green factories.
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An AHP Based Approach to Identify and Eliminate Most Severe Risks of the Internal Supply Chain of Ready Made Garments (RMG) Industries: A Case Study

An AHP Based Approach to Identify and Eliminate Most Severe Risks of the Internal Supply Chain of Ready Made Garments (RMG) Industries: A Case Study

The Readymade Garment Industry is a significant and essential business sector in the economy of Bangladesh as the majority portion of her foreign currency are being earned by this sector. But with the increase of the competition level, the amount of risks is also increasing day by day. So RMG sector must have its own method to overcome those risks. And to be more competitive in the Global market, Bangladesh needs to maintain standard supply chain management procedures by analyzing the whole process. This paper has shown a way to identify the most severe risks of the internal supply chain. Here root cause analysis has also been performed to find out the main causes behind the risks and also some corrective actions have been suggested to overcome the risks.
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Waste Minimization Using Lean Tools in a Selected Ready Made Garments Factory in Bangladesh

Waste Minimization Using Lean Tools in a Selected Ready Made Garments Factory in Bangladesh

Abstract Ready Made Garments (RMG) industry plays an important role for the economic development of Bangladesh. This industry has promoted our country in the world through the motto ‘Made in Bangladesh’. But this sector has got a number of formidable challenges for the sustainable future growth. The phase out of export quota system has made the trading environment severely competitive. Moreover, in today’s fast fashion, customer wants to get products of low cost and short lead time. To sustain in this competitive market, there is no alternative to adopt lean philosophy in every sphere of apparel industry for the sustainable development. The concept of lean is to eliminate the wastes that don’t add value for the products and to reduce the lead time. This study focused on the reduction of lead time by minimizing the wastes that are responsible for longer lead time by using lean tools. Data was collected using time study method. Some data were also collected from interviewing with management. Then the current state of the value stream mapping was drawn. Wastes were identified by using value stream mapping. Pareto analysis was used to rank the wastes which were playing significant role for long lead time. Then root cause analysis was used to identify causes behind the wastes. Lean tools like Kanban, Single Minute Exchange of Die and Total Productive Maintenance were used to minimize the wastes. Then the future state of the value stream mapping was drawn that depicted the improvement. Finally, this study suggested some recommendations for minimizing wastes and making their processes more efficient and leaner. This study extracts the common scenario of the garments sector of Bangladesh by depicting the existing pictures of the value stream. It is high time apparel industry of Bangladesh fully absorbed lean philosophy and walked through the path of continuous improvement.
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Apparel Merchandiser Skills Requirement Analysis in Branded Ready Made Garment Industry

Apparel Merchandiser Skills Requirement Analysis in Branded Ready Made Garment Industry

The work force of a readymade garment manufacturing unit is hired in terms of direct labour, management and support staff. Direct labourers are those employees who work at the production of garment such as cutting, sewing and finishing. They add value to products and convert materials into finished products. Skills augmentation helps work force to compete in the global market and in increasing productivity of the employees. At present, the production rate of the readymade garments has not been able to cater to the rising demand in the domestic and international market. In the past, it has been observed that the training given to the staff members is as an effective tool in increasing the productivity and enhances the quality of the produced garments to meet the quality standards in the domestic as well as the international market. With the process within the apparel manufacturing industry becoming a major industry in the organized sector, there is a need to procure and develop the staff members to enable the organizations to sustain the tough competition within Indian and international brands. The training also increases the enthusiasm among the staff members and reduces the rate of absenteeism and turnover.
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The Impact of Green Human Resources Managerial Practices on Environmental Sustainability: Evidence from Garments Industry of Bangladesh

The Impact of Green Human Resources Managerial Practices on Environmental Sustainability: Evidence from Garments Industry of Bangladesh

As it is seen from the above literature, garments organizations in Bangladesh are not attracted to CSR as it includes losses of some profits. However, it is said that GHRM is the technique through which an organization can implement practices that will assist CSR of the organizations without forgoing profit. Because GHRM initiates environment friendly HR practices that reduces environmental pollution with growth of profit by decreasing cost and wastage. Thus, GHRM should be implemented in factories. Besides, there are additional benefits of GHRM. The above literature show that ‘green employee participation’ and ‘green training and development’ is statistically significant to employee engagement. These consequences suggest that green HRM practices are significant resources to make the employees engage towards their jobs. It also has shown the effect of GHRM practices on Environmental Performance of Ready-Made Garment industry in Bangladesh context. Also, it recognizes the variables that could affect the GHRM implementation. Statistical analysis revealed that there is a statistically positive and significant relationship between GHRM practices and Environmental Performance. The organizations make and apply green human resource management practices to attain competitive advantage. In green human resource management literature, green competencies have grown to an important concept in the recent years. Today, GHRM has become an important issue for human resource departments of companies that are eager to go green.
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TQM Practices And Utilization Of Technology In The Ready Made Garments (RMG) Sector Of Bangladesh

TQM Practices And Utilization Of Technology In The Ready Made Garments (RMG) Sector Of Bangladesh

Technology can bring a revolutionary changes not the organization only but the world. Garments is the regular and basic need of human being. Changing trends is the nature of human being and only the invention of technologies can people cope with the changes. The Ready Made Garments (RMG) is the largest exporting industry in Bangladesh that experienced remarkable growth during the last 30 years at large. It dominates an exceptional position in the Bangladesh economy. Organizations worldwide have been investigating approaches to enhance business practices to gain a competitive edge. In today's worldwide rivalry and financial liberalization, quality has been considered as an imperative component for attaining playing point. The utilization of value administration got to be boundless among associations amid the last decades (Hansson, 2003). Quality in many associations is a movement parallel to the way a company's behavior, it day by day business. Keeping up a client center is one of the most important components in today's business market. Different components, for example, cash, assets and labor and so forth, are unmistakably paramount, however, these components can't make an ideal development if the customers are not satisfied (Karim, 2009). Customer prerequisites ought to get the first priority. Firms are more worried about client fulfillment on the grounds that they have now more options than some time recently. Associations have understood that survival is just conceivable through customer satisfaction, and fulfillment will deliver the best quality merchandise and administrations with the lowest possible cost.
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Readymade Garments Sector and COVID-19 in Bangladesh

Readymade Garments Sector and COVID-19 in Bangladesh

Covid-19 is now not only a global health crisis, but also the deep impact of economic crisis and labor market (Mckeever, 2020). The pandemic has already made shut down all kind of economic sectors like public transportation, airlines, luxury goods sector etc. (Macksoud et al. 2020, Muro et. al, 2020). Though still now people in Bangladesh don’t affected roughly as Italy or America but the numbers are still increasing which turned to shut down most of the factories (Sen et. al., 2020). On the other hand, different buyers and importers are cancelling their orders. The last year apparel export on the same month is US$ 26.24 billion (4.8%) more than this year and only in February, the export has decreased US$3.32 billion than last year (Perera, 2020). An interview concludes that if this situation continues for a longer time it can affect global supply and demand, where loss revenue could reach US$4 billion (Amit, S. 2020). Export Promotion Bureau said, this year, Garments earnings fell by 14.08%, Woven garments earnings by 14.31% and Knitwear exports by 13.85% during July-April period of FY 20 than last year (The Financial Express, 2020). In the contribution of economy in Bangladesh, Garments industry remains the largest exporting industry which increased phenomenal growth during the last two decades (Mia et. al. 2020). The garments sector has provided employment opportunities to workers from the rural areas that previously did not have any to be the part of formal workforce. Eventually, it helps to poverty alleviation, women empowerment and social development. An indirect locked down was imposed first on 26 March 2020 and extended it 6 times till 30 May 2020 considering the corona pandemic situation in Bangladesh. Schools, Colleges and factories as well as transport, industrial and agricultural facility were shut down (AA News, 2020).
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Influence of temperature management deficiences during postharvest on the quality of sea exported blueberries : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Horticultural Science at Massey University,

Influence of temperature management deficiences during postharvest on the quality of sea exported blueberries : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Horticultural Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

From the psychrometric knowledge is possible to calculate that fruit absolute humidity should have risen from 0.0036 kg kg -1 to 0.005 kg kg -1 between 0°C and 4°C, respectively, whereas the ambient value was designed to remain unchanged at 0.0034 kg kg -1 for both conditions, resulting in an increase of the moisture content gradient of 8 fold (0.0002 kg kg -1 to 0.0016 kg kg -1 ) between conditions. This difference in absolute humidity gradient should have been reflected in the rate of weight loss, which, although showed an increased value for 4°C, presented differences of just 2 fold between both temperatures (Table 3-1). As mentioned previously, the use of clamshells results in the environmental conditions to which the fruit are subjected to within the clamshell being potentially different to that supplied outside the clamshell. Enclosed fruit packages help to maintain the moisture of fresh products by acting as extra physical barriers against vapour diffusion, in addition to limiting air flow within the package. Water vapour from produce transpiration tends to accumulate within the package, increasing the humidity and hence reducing subsequent product weight loss (Wills et al., 2007). The package used in this study corresponds to vented polyethylene clamshells used as standard by the industry, which has been evaluated to decrease effectively the weight loss of different species of berry fruit (Singh, 1992). Consequently, it is likely that during this experiment the final RH within the clamshell was an intermediate situation between the environmental conditions applied to the clamshell and the equilibrium condition due to the design of the clamshell.
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The relationship between conversion factors and health: evidence from the ready-made garment workers in Bangladesh

The relationship between conversion factors and health: evidence from the ready-made garment workers in Bangladesh

category. Marital status is found to be an important factor for determining health condition, with a higher percentage of divorced workers reporting poor health compared to other categories. We also found a gender difference among those who reported poor health – 54.11% of female and 33.95% of male workers reported poor health status. A previous study that examined the association between poor health and psychologically adverse working conditions found that 67.9% of female and 56.6% of male workers were in poor health (Paul-Majumder, 2003). This may partly be explained by the impact of some recent developments in the sector, such as changes made to the minimum wage law (which was amended three times) and continuous international pressure on health and safety issues in the RMG industry. These factors appear to have made wages and working conditions more favourable compared to the past.
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Impact Of EU GSP Facilities On Export Growth Of Bangladesh: Especially On Readymade Garments Industry

Impact Of EU GSP Facilities On Export Growth Of Bangladesh: Especially On Readymade Garments Industry

Bangladesh is a under developed country. But she is going to develop that shows some indicators. Readymade Garments (RMG) export growth is one of them especially to EU countries by using EU GSP facilities under Everything But Arms (EBA) scheme. As growing ratio of export are increasing especially RMG that affects to the Countries Domestic Product (GDP). RMG industry is one of the key drivers in registering growth to the economy of Bangladesh. Nevertheless, it is also necessary to point out that Bangladesh RMG’s success is the direct outcome of the two international contributing factors – Multi Fiber Agreement (MFA) quota provided by the USA and Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) scheme offered by the European Union [1]. If EU GSP suspend, RMG product will lose the EU market position and price of RMG will increase in EU market. It is important to note that over the past 15 years, earnings from RMG export have increased by more than 8 times with an exceptional growth rate of 16.5% per annum [2]. The success of Bangladesh’s RMG exports in a part attributable to availability of cheap labor, preferential treatment received from the European Union (EU) under the GSP scheme: and substantial quotas available in the USA (as against quota restrictions imposed on its principal competitors, e.g. China, India, Pakistan, Srilanka, and Thailand [3]. Bangladesh became a beneficiary of the EU-GSP scheme for LDCs when it was initiated in 1971. The EBA, which provides duty-free and quota-free access exclusively to LDCs, was put in place in 2002 and Bangladesh became a beneficiary of that scheme as well. Under EBA,
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Marketing Strategies of Readymade Garments Industry in India

Marketing Strategies of Readymade Garments Industry in India

The present study is concerned with Marketing Strategies of Readymade garmentsindustries in India. The marketing practices of garments units, problems faced bythem in implementing the marketing strategies and measures needed to solve these problems, come under the purview of this study. The main focus is on the marketing strategies used by the various sectors in the area of production, promotion, distribution and pricing.

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Microbiological Quality of ready-to-eat food from Dhaka, Bangladesh

Microbiological Quality of ready-to-eat food from Dhaka, Bangladesh

In this study, different kinds of “Ready-to-eat” food including sugarcane juice, lemon juice, kata pitha, chetoipitha (traditional rice cookies), carrot halwa, Nakshipitha (sweetened dissert), nan (bread), potato chips, singara, egg chop, potato chop, spring roll, chicken meatball, chicken samusa (fried snacks), burger, jhalmuri (Spicy puffed rice), borhani (spiced yogurt drink), hog plum chatney (pickle) were analyzed. The total viable count and total coliform count from these foods are given in Fig.1. Some specific food like spring roll, sugarcane had both spoilage flora and bacterial pathogens as stated by others before. 25,26,27
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Marketing Strategies of Readymade Garments Industry of India

Marketing Strategies of Readymade Garments Industry of India

The present study is concerned with Marketing Strategies of Readymade garments industries in India. The marketing practices of garments units, problems faced by them in implementing the marketing strategies and measures needed to solve these problems, come under the purview of this study. The main focus is on the marketing strategies used by the various sectors in the area of production, promotion, distribution and pricing. In a layman language the term strategy is a term related to „warfare or a plan to win a war‟. But in the business world it refers to plans relating to marketing, financing and manufacturing operations. Executives of different business organizations concentrate their efforts to win the biggest possible share of the targeted market. The field of strategy planning is much wider. It deals with the adjustment of controllable factors, viz, production, physical distribution,
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