This paper has adopted content analysis of the literature on tourism, destinationbranding, place branding and rural tourism destinations to support the arguments that a single case study is mostly used by tourism and destinationbranding researchers and practitioners alike. Content analysis is widely used to analyse journal articles and written communication that uses a set of systematic procedures which assists the researcher to make valid inferences in terms of interpreting meaning from the content of text data . Similarly, content analysis have been used in tourism and destinationbranding by past studies such as [7, 21-24]. Moreover, the following criteria were used for the selection of extant literature review. First of all the researchers read the titles, abstracts and subtitles within the selected articles. The title of the literature must be focused on tourism, place branding, destinationbranding, rural tourism destinations and more importantly with themes suggestive of case studies and SCS respectively. Additionally, research notes and book chapters were not considered. In other words, only full journal articles were selected and reviewed. This is so in order to benefit from the methodological approaches used in journal papers.
Tourism brand is the key competitive factor of tourismdestination (Ritchie and Grouch, 2000) . Tourismdestinationbranding is a process that an area forms a unique identity and individuality (Morrison and Anderson, 2002) . Its main content is to build a positive destination image to distinguish and high- light somewhere (La, 2002) . The personality brand, the flagship construc- tion and the festival brand are the most important regional brand marketing techniques (Kawaratzis and Ashworth, 2005) . Hankinson points out that the destinationbranding is also a continuous process from the perspective of planning (Hankinson, 2007) . General marketing always starts from a new product, but the tourismdestination marketing always starts from an old prod- uct. The tourist activities mostly depend on the local and original customs, geo- graphical environment, etc. The production is almost not influenced by the market, and is usually carried on disorderly. Destination needs to be conti- nuously planned and developed, in order to satisfy the interests of a large num- ber of stakeholders and autonomous organization.
“A Destination Brand is a name, symbol, logo, word mark or other graphic that both identifies and differentiates the destination; furthermore, it conveys the promise of a memorable travel experience that is uniquely associated with the destination; it also serves to consolidate and reinforce the recollection of pleasurable memories of the destination experience.”  To build a strong brand, a good strategy is needed to achieve the goals perfectly. Brand strategy can be interpreted as an activity to manage all elements to build a brand . In tourism, destinationbranding as a branding strategy is important because the strength of a brand represents character, strength, market and stakeholder acceptance, and appreciation of a destination of a region. Communication is the key to create awareness of consumers (tourists) on the values instilled by a brand. So, a branding should be able to communicate the positioning of a brand. According to Kotler and Amstrong, positioning is an activity that will distinguish a product and a brand from their competitor in the mind of a consumer through their attributes and benefits . The focus of tourism marketing communication is not only selling, but informing tourism products to segmented potential tourists. Instagram page @pesonajawabaratku is a communication media chosen by Disparbud Jabar to support destinationbranding Pesona Jawa Barat Indonesia. A social media platform, Instagram is currently popular and widely used by Indonesian people. Started in 2010, it is now has 400 million active users globally—only nine months after reaching 300 million. Of the last 100 million, more than half live in Asia and Europe . This indicates that the growth of Instagram users has far surpassed other social media. Now, the popularity of Instagram rivals that of Facebook—a platform with the most users in the world. In 2012, Facebook officially acquired Instagram. One reason that made Facebook do it is the rapid growth of Instagram users every year, including in Indonesia . In 2017, Indonesia was named the country with the largest Instagram users in the Asia Pacific region. Instagram is an application that allows users to take photos and videos, apply digital filters, and share them to other users and other social networking sites. Disparbud uses this application to promote West Java Tourism. Based on these facts, this paper seeks to describe the use of @pesonajawabaratku to make a successful destination _____________________
The second section of the Tourist category in the Conceptual Framework is satisfaction, which seeks to address whether tourists with similar motivations are satisfied with the experience. After the tourist has experienced the holiday, they evaluate the trip to ascertain if the vacation met the expected requirements of the experience (Snepenger and Snepenger 1993). Tourism satisfaction is related to tourism behaviour because it can determine whether the initial travel motivation has been fulfilled; if a tourist is motivated to visit a destination and the experience is what they had hoped for, they will be satisfied (Dunn Ross and Iso- Ahola 1991; Mannell and Iso-Ahola 1987). By satisfying the tourist, destination managers has a strong potential to create a repeat customer which brings a steady source of income with limited extra marketing expenditure (Manente 2000; Oppermann 2000; Swarbrooke and Horner 1999). It also suggests that the destination is correctly positioned. Recently, studies have been conducted to determine whether tourists have been satisfied based on their push and pull motivation being fulfilled. These are listed in Table 5. Whilst Yoon and Uysal (2005) recently examined both push and pull factors at a Cyprus destination, the majority of tourism studies have only evaluated the tourist’s satisfaction with the destination attributes. Further, Yoon and Uysal (2005) did not seek to segment tourists into groups with similar motivations. There is little evidence to determine whether tourists with similar push and pull motivations are similarly satisfied with the tourism experience. A third Research Question has been proposed to categorise the satisfaction of tourists with similar motives.
Research on destination personality is relatively new in the study, which is still in the exploration stage. Ekinci and Hosany (2006) were the first researchers to examine the dimension destination personality. Using the brand personality scale (BPS) by Aaker (1997) and applied to the destination. According to Ekinci & Hosany (2006:127), citing Pike and Ryan (2004) that "Global competition top tourist destination is an important factor and is a task for the" Destination Marketing Organizing "(DMO) to attract tourists". This requires DMO to seek to embrace the brand destinations that initiatives such as the use of the slogan and logo of interest, in order to attract tourists to any destination (Ekinci and Hosany, 2006:128). Furthermore Ekinci and Hosany (2006:127), citing Caprara, Barbaranelli, and Guido, 2001; Crask and Henry 1990; Morgan, Pritchard, and Piggott, 2002, Triplett 1994 said that "as a tourist destination that always strives to be distinctive, destination personality is seen as a metaphor worthy in order to understand the perception of tourists going to the destination and to arrange identity tourist destination unique. Referring terminology Aaker (1997), according to Ekinci & Hosany (2006) that the brand personality, where the destination personality is also defined as a set of human characteristics associated with a tourist destination. In the tourism literature, has been growing rapidly study of destination image over the past three decades, while the destination personality most rarely investigated. Arguments supporting the successful destinationbranding is Cigdem Unurlu and Selin Küçükkancabaş (2013: 83), citing Chen and Phou (2013: 271) in which the combination between destination personality and destination image has been used as a marketing strategy destinations which aims to differentiate a destination brand from competitors. These conditions indicate the need to examine this study considered destination personality on the national park of Bunaken and Wakatobi to know the character of this destination. By some
Tourism can be a effective development tool, creating economic development, expanding the economy, contrib- uting to poverty improvement and also creating backward and forward relations to other manufacture and ser- vice sectors. In Madagascar, where rural deficiency is extensive and where the poor put pressure on the natural resource base, tourism could produce positive externalities. First, because the resources cover throughout the is- land, tourism generates pockets of economic growth in areas that have no substitute sources of income and oc- cupation. In remote regions, mostly, tourism helps to ease poverty by expanding income sources. Second, tour- ism, properly accomplished, can help to preserve the environment, whether for ecotourism or for resort-based tourism. Madagascar’s natural resources of flora and fauna and its coastal zone are among its most important but fragile economic assets. The assessment of Madagascar’s assets for tourism undertaken for this report suggests that the current small size of the sector reflects substantial unrealized potential. In the past, tourism has been considered at worst as a residual to conservation, or at best a way of partially funding conservation. But tourism is complex and requires its own analysis, mainly as it is one of the major in the world and rapidly joining into a few large players. More needs to be done to build an active partnership between business and preservation, in credit of the fact that a sound business plan for tourism, an actual environmental plan, and a framework for so- cial presence are equally strengthening and that absenteeism of one may put the others in risk.
the stage of formation (2001 – 2007), the tourism associations have continued with their activities. New partnerships were established with the aim to realize specific projects in destinations supported form public resources. However, after the project was finished, these associations stop to perform their activity (Gajdošík and Gúčik, 2015). The stage of growth (2008 – 2011) is characterized by establishment of tourism clusters. In comparison with tourism associations, the aims of tourism clusters were mostly concentrated on increasing of destinations’ competitiveness, product development and cooperation with research institutions and universities as well. The weaknesses of tourism clusters in Slovakia were primarily indifference of key stakeholders in tourism destinations towards membership in clusters and unwillingness to cooperate (Belešová, 2009). In 2012 (stage of concentration) the Tourism Support Act no. 91 / 2010 Coll. was introduced. The aim of the act is systematic implementation of destination marketing management into a practice of Slovak tourism destinations. This act has enabled establishment of local and regional DMOs on the basis of public‑private partnership. DMOs mostly focus on development of tourism products as a chain of complementary services and destinationbranding.
The quality of tourism services is connected with customer satisfaction. A customer is satisﬁ ed if he or she has got what he or she has expected, possibly even something more. The immaterial character of services and their variability signiﬁ cantly inﬂ uence customer satisfaction and complicate maintain- ing required quality. Nowadays when competitive pressures are so intense the strategies of traditional tourist destinations are based primarily on the quality of services. Ensuring the quality in a destina- tion requires the cooperation of subjects that participate on tourism development in the destination with their activities. Creating and implementing the system of quality that has a certain conception and internal rules is a tool for reaching the quality of a destination. Integrated quality management (IQM) is a suitable system. The objective of the article is to specify the preconditions of a destination for implementing IMQ and to demonstrate the possibilities for using the methodological approaches of the Qualitest tool in the tourist destination of Znojemsko and Podyjí. The obtained results show problematic utilization of Qualitest in full extent and the necessity to modify it for its use in the con- ditions of the Czech Republic destinations.
A diverse range of agencies and companies are partners of the destination marketers in the process of developing the brand identity (Qu, Kim, & Im, 2011). This range of organizations could include local and national government agencies, environmental groups, chambers of commerce, trade associations, among others. These agencies and organizations bring with them political pressures in their quest of reconciling their local and national interests. Consequently, this brings the challenge of achieving a balance between the development of creative advertising and public relations and managing local, regional and national politics (Morgan et al., 2002). According to Olins and Hildreth (2011) another challenge could be the constant misunderstanding of nation branding among experts and government officials due to the lack of knowledge of the former. Government officials are interested in nation branding because of the benefit of internal cohesion and economic and political developments externally but they ignore how the “nation branding takes place” (p. 57). Paucity, brings another challenge, which is to work with minuscule budgets to create global brands and compete not only with other destination brands. To be able to compete in this situation, destination brands should be very smart in their budget spending (Morgan et al., 2002). These two challenges are more visible in the DMO’s than in private tourism businesses. During the past years, there has been a reduction in the contribution of public funding to DMO’s, hastened by the financial crisis experienced throughout the world (Fyall, 2011). This reduction will force destinations to do a reflection on their experiences, face their lack of resources and be more thorough in their mechanisms and management processes adopted to develop destinations to their maximum potential. Destinations should also try to maximize their resources to develop a “sustainable reputation in the minds of all stakeholders and their respective markets” (Fyall, 2011, p.101).
However, in the concept of tourism, place-making has been adopted in tourism destinations, which has become a strategy to reimage a destination or create identities for places that are aimed to make tourists return to the destination after their first visit . Destination image is also associated with marketing of tourism destinations, which is developed through the study of material in placement of marketing and tourismdestination . In addition, destination image is a reflection of what is in the destination visited. Thus, destination image is defined as a combination of perception, knowledge, thoughts, ideas, feelings, and expressions of tourists and potential tourists to a destination .
Observations: It is observed that colors lend personality to the logo. The logos come across as stark, sleek, playful, youthful or relaxed, depending on the colors used. Colors help to communicate the essence of the travel experience or the unique features of the destination. The type of logo dictates color choices. For example, the crystalline, mathematical and colorful look of the logo of West Bengal communicates the idea of a rainbow of travel experiences. The simple black and white of the Rajasthan tourism logo is minimalistic and it has charm and impact due to that. It is the only logo that has used negative space to its advantage. Maharashtra, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh have used one colour in their logos.
Segmentation is useful for planning marketing strategies. Middleton and Clarke (2001) noted that a tourism market can be segmented by (1) purpose of trip, (2) buyers’ needs, motivations, and benefits sought, (3) buying and using characteristics, (4) demographic and economic profiles, (5) psychological segmentation, (6) geo-demographic, and (7) price. Tourists with different purposes for their trip presumably have different needs, wants, and travel behaviours (McIntosh & Goeldner, 1986). Some tourism studies have examined the relationships between socio-demographic characteristics and benefits sought (Gitelson & Kerstetter, 1990; Heung, Qu, & Chu, 2001; Suh, 2001), and travel information sources consulted (Fodness & Murray, 1999; Luo, Feng, & Cai, 2004; Suh, 2001). Most studies, however, have focused on age, gender, income level, educational level, and occupational classification. Fodness and Murray (1999) have also investigated the relationship between trip purposes and travel information sources used. Goodrich (1978) suggested that tourists from different regions valued attributes of vacation spots differently. Those previous studies have focused on limited variables relating to the benefits sought from travelling and travel information sources consulted. Tourists with different ages, genders, incomes, educational levels, occupational classifications, countries/regions of residence, and trip purposes, seem likely to seek different benefits of travelling. They may also be led to search different travel information sources. To explore these issues, this study utilises a comparative approach based on all of those socio-economic characteristics and purposes of trip, factoring in consumption values and travel information sources.
The state of Rajasthan has emerged as a number one destination for international and domestic tourists. Tourism is one of the most flourishing industries in Rajasthan. The numbers of tourists arriving in Rajasthan in 2010 alone were 26822400, out of which 1278523 were foreigners. A total of 5938300 of tourists have already visited Rajasthan by March 2011. Tourism accounts for 8% of Rajasthan's total GDP. Though tourism aids the state to a large extent commercially; it also is an important tool to promote culture in Rajasthan. Thus numerous heritage hotels have been opened in the state to serve the purpose of tourism and to provide glimpses of Indian culture. Rajasthan with its historical cultural and natural heritage, coupled with colourful fair and festivals and friendly people has become a favourite destination for tourists from all over the world. Except a sea-beach and snow-clad mountains, it offers everything to the tourists. Some of the tourism products of Rajasthan have become internationally famous and popular among the tourists such as palace on wheels, heritage hotels, camels safaris, and wild life sanctuaries/national parks. The impact of tourism on society is a complex and varied subject. There are many different kinds of tourists and a great variety of society as well. The paper focuses on the community perceptions of the economic and socio-cultural impacts of culture and heritage tourism in particular and examines the extent to which they coincide with the tourism impact literature. The paper uses Rajasthan as an example to illustrate the multifarious impact of tourism. Data obtained from the questionnaire cum schedule and interviews are the main sources of inputs for analysis. The residents perceived tourism development from both positive as well as negative perspectives. However, the dominant view reaffirms that Rajasthan represents an optimistic side of tourism.
Tourism industries are always searching for new segment of customers. For example, over the last decade the tourism industry has witnessed many firms in the industry catering to the needs of special groups such as elderly tourists, disabled tourists and gay tourists . However, one relatively unexplored segment is the ‘Religiously conscious’ tourists. It is no wonder therefore that some researchers in this field insist that catering to the religious needs of any faith in this expanding industry is essential . Although the relationship between tourism and religion has been addressed in the literature on tourism, there remains a shortage of theoretical publications in the area of destination attributes in the context of Islam. When it comes to the relationship between tourism and Islam, the lack of literature is more obvious, especially regarding Islamic norms and practices related to tourism at the destination and their impact on the needs of Muslim tourists. Thus, the objective of study is to test the relationship between tourism motivations and tourist satisfaction, and to test how ‘Religion’ moderates the relationship.
The development and management of tourismdestination products from tourism resources plays an important role in the economic - culture - society development of the Phu Quoc island, Kien Giang province, Vietnam. Developing destination products and tourismdestination products management in a sustainable way means restructuring the economy, create jobs and contribute to poverty reduction and improved livelihoods families. Although abundant tourism resources and diverse natural landscape with beach, coast systems, streams, islets create unique tourism product of this places, along with tourism resources of human to the cultural and historical monuments, the cultural intangible and cultural intangible values created panorama of development tourism products here. Therefore, the Phu Quoc Island has tourismdestination products management in tourism development plan of destinations, and need to building tour routes as followed:
Hence, since tourism relies strongly upon the goodwill of the local people, and their support is essential for its development, successful operation and sustainability, understanding their perceptions and attitudes regarding the impact of tourism development in their place of residence and in their everyday life, can minimize unwanted reactions and maximize the success of the targeted communication actions (Coccossis & Tsartas, 2001). In examining the impacts of tourism on local residents, research tends to focus on a number of areas including: culture (opportunities to learn and understand other people and cultures, cultural facilities and activities in the community, variety of entertainment in the area, opportunities to restore and protect historical structures), society (attitudes of residents towards tourists, customs and moral values), economy (tourism related income for residents, standard of living, shopping facilities in the area, cost of living), environment (urban planning, architecture, quality of natural environment, usage of public space, recreation and sport facilities, traffic congestion, noise and pollution) (Tatoglu, Erdal, Ozgur & Azakli, 2002, p. 89-90).
The Internet is playing an increasingly crucial role in destination marketing and it is used as a major marketing tool among National Tourism Organizations (NTOs). Website design is influential for consumers’ Website preference and destination selection. This study is to understand the application of image-based technology by the major National Tourism Organizations (NTOs) through the collection and comparison of static images and dynamic images presented in their official tourism Websites. Data collected from the sampling of the world’s top 25 tourismdestination nations reveals that all National Tourism Organizations (NTOs) use either static images or dynamic images for their Websites, but the use of static images are far more popular than that of dynamic images.
With an aim to generalize the findings on tourists’ perspection on community based tourism in Malaysia, the population of the present study consists of tourists who visited the various community based tourism destinations in Sarawak, Malaysia. Sarawak been chosen to represent Malaysia due to the popularity of Sarawak state for its nature tourism and diverse culture heritage attractions as compare to other states in Malaysia (Weaver, 2010). A total of 200 questionanires were distributed in 34 sites of rural tourism destinations in Malaysia (Lo et al., 2013) community based tourism destinations in Sarawak, Malaysia. From 124 completed questionaires, 114 sets of questionnaires were collected back from 14 community based tourism in Sarawak, Malaysia. Among these, near to 90% of the survey was taken from site of Kampung Santubong, Kampung Anas Rais, Borneo Heights, Gunung Gading, and Kampung Bako. The sites are the important topical area with a high potential for effective strategic market differentiation for local community- based tourism destinations that still remains unexplored in Malaysia. The destinations have been gained popularity among local and international tourists as community-based tourism destinations in the country. The destinations are surrounded by unpopulated natural environment and resources which shared the most common and unique features for tourism activities. These community-based tourism destinations are owned and operated by the local communities.
Many of the above concerns do not readily apply in the case discussed here because of local geography and history. The four traditional golf courses in St Andrews (Old, New, Jubilee and Eden) of seven courses in total, are all what are known as “links” courses, that is, they have been developed on coastal sand dunes, and such modification that has taken place has been relatively minor and mostly undertaken a century or more (five hundred years in the case of the Old Course) ago (Price 1989). The right to play golf on the links at St Andrews were granted by the Archbishop of St Andrews in 1552 (Willshire 2003 p. 31), and royal patronage of the golf links can be traced back at least as far as Mary, Queen of Scots, who visited the town and played golf there in the sixteenth century (Lewis et al 1998). Thus unlike many settlements with golf courses, the town has developed with golf as an established part of life and with the golf links/courses belonging to the town and its residents, a very different situation to that found in many other locations, where golf courses are oftenprivately owned and exclusive to members, few of whom may be local residents. This undoubtedly explains to some degree, the general support for the existence of the golf industry in St Andrews and the special arrangements that have been made to maintain control of this major tourism attribute. The relationship between the town, its golf courses and tourism is long established and had continued relatively unchanged, with the town having responsibility for the management and maintenance of the courses, until the 1970s. At that time, the United Kingdom underwent local government reorganisation, and as part of that process, St Andrews appeared to be heading for a general loss of autonomy, being potentially in a new region with headquarters in Dundee. The potential loss of control over the golf courses implied by such a re-