In this paper we discussed the Quality of Service constrains in WSN by identifying various quality constraints by analyzing various earlier contributed multicast routing algorithms and protocols. In order to minimize the link cost utilization we designed a novel Quality of service multicast routing protocol, which adopts Steiner tree model to minimize the utilization rate to discovery feasible path. Based on the fairness rate calculation rate results the optimal route selection strategy discovered a feasible path , which minimized the rate utilization which are derived using Lagrangian Relaxation Method. The simulation results clearly show the performance improvement on different scenarios
of the destinations in the right order in which they are visited in the path, and then placing this sorted list in the header of the message . Tree-based multicast algorithms attempt to deliver the message to all destination nodes in a single multi-head worm that splits at some routers and replicates the data on multiple output ports . Tree-based routing has an essential feature that it does not require any arranging of header flits. Furthermore and from the source node, the subpaths to each destination are all optimal. The major impediment of tree-based routing is its high deadlock probability, which can negatively affect performance. Deadlock probability is high since all subpaths must be concurrently allocated to a message in order for data flits to be transmitted. In the interconnection network, deadlock happens when a group of messages is blocked forever because each holding one or more resources needed by another message in this group . Two main parameters used to evaluate multicast routing are the latency takes to deliver the message to all destination nodes and the traffic which refers to the total number of channels involved .
A promising solution to increasing busty traffic over the Internet can be Optical Burst Switched (OBS) networks with scalable and efficient multicast support. The efficiency of multicasting in OBS networks depends on: the burstification process, the multicasting schemes, tree sharing strategies, construction of shared trees, multicast schemes for dynamic sessions and membership. In this article, the contributions of various researchers are studied thoroughly and compared to survey the various approaches and problems of multicasting in OBS networks and outline several future research directions in terms of applications in business, especially in Business-to- Business (B2B) and Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Models, through optimal resource utilization of QoS aware multicasting in OBS networks.
Just like IP unicast, the unicast makes the router inherently unreliable. It is only through the use of TCP at Layer 4 (or some other higher layer protocol) that IP unicast data streams can be made reliable. “ IP multicast packets typically use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which is best-effort in nature. Therefore, an application that uses IP multicasting must expect occasional packet loss and be prepared to either accept the loss or to somehow handle this at the application layer or via a reliable multicast protocol layered on top of UDP. Studies by Dr. Deering state that during periods when paths are being changed immediately due to a topology change, multicast packets that are in flight has a lower probability of reaching their destinations than the unicast packets. This is due to the fact that even if erroneous unicast forwarding information exists at some routers in the network during a topology change, the network may eventually succeed in forwarding the packet to the destination due to the availability of destination IP address in the packet, even while the network topology is in transition, though the actual path may be somewhat circuitous. The forwarding mechanisms of IP multicast, on the other hand, are based on the source IP address, and to prevent loops, the packet is discarded if it does not arrive on the interface that would lead back to the source.
the procedure of multicasttree systems of support, we add a jump component to figure out if to redesign a shorter tree limb. The redesign operation can give a shorter way from a gathering part to the gathering pioneer. Therefore, a fitting way from a gathering part to the gathering pioneer can be guaranteed. Hypothesis 2. The jumps from gathering individuals to the gathering pioneer in other course instrument enhanced conventions are at least that in MAODY. In the wake of including the redesign operation of tree limbs, the bounces from gathering individuals to the gathering pioneer in MAODY-BB are not exactly or equivalent to that in MAODY. Evidence. Use decrease to foolishness. We expect that the bounces from gathering individuals to the gathering pioneer in other course system enhanced conventions are not as much as that in MAODY.Base on the guideline of MAODY, we can presume that it is a base bounce convention. Anyhow, this is in inconsistency with the suspicion .In MAODV-BB, if a shorter way to the gathering pioneer is recognized amid the procedure of multicasttree systems for upkeeps, the hub will overhaul the multicasttree limb. Subsequently, the enhanced convention MAODY-BB upgrades the tree structure with shorter branches amid the period of multicasttree support
With an integrated stateful firewall built into the Aruba controller, it is able to detect and prioritize not only multicast video but also TCP video (Air Video) over best effort FTP traffic. Ciscoʼs solution does prioritize multicast video traffic, but has no mechanism to identify TCP video used for streaming to iPads in a mixed traffic environment and hence the video
Another perspective that must be considered is the use of multiple copies of MHealth simultaneously on the same MBone session. Other than requiring a setuid of root for running the mtrace tool on Unix systems, there are no special requirements for running MHealth on any session. Since it is the intention to release MHealth as a freeware tool, the possibility exists that many copies of MHealth could be run simultaneously on the same session from dif- ferent locations without knowledge of each other. In an ex- treme case of a small number of participants and/or a large number of MHealth users, every router in the tree could po- tentially need to respond to mtrace requests on an almost constant basis. The approaches for reducing mtrace conges- tion discussed from a stand-alone perspective above could be applied in this situation as well. Two additional solutions also have been considered. The first is to integrate MHealth into a web browser. The second is to make MHealth pas- sive and collect statistics by listening to others conducting traces. Both of these schemes are described in the next sec- tion.
Abstract-Energy is one of the main issues to be discussed in MANET Sensor network. Since each sensor node is powered by a battery which is not rechargeable and it is not possible to change the batter. Prior creation of a multicasttree is required for the multicast routing protocols. The each sensor nodes has to maintain its state information. When there is a network which is dynamic in nature where long periods of silence are expected between the burst of data, an overhead will be developed. Thus to overcome this , we propose a stateless receiver based multicast protocol that uses a list of the members of the multicast. The list contains addresses, embedded in packet headers. And here we propose a lossless compression algorithm using which secure data transfer can be made, which also increases the energy efficiency / battery life of each nodes(sensor nodes) in the multicast communication. Key words: MANET, RB protocol, WSN, Energy efficiency simple lossless compression algorithm.
Each cluster is controlled by a cluster-head, which is reachable to all nodes in its cluster, either directly or over multi-hop paths. Nodes that have links to peers in other clusters would serve as gateways. The presence of gateways between two clusters implies that the heads of these clusters are reachable to each other over multi-hop path and that these two clusters are considered neighbors. If a node moves out its current cluster and joins another, it is assumed that the associated cluster-heads will conduct a handoff to update each other about the change in membership of their clusters; other cluster-heads will not be involved in the handoff events outside their clusters. Mobility is not the focus of this project; however, prior studies have shown that clustering is advantageous for multicast routing in mobile environments.
In a previous paper , we studied the problem of scheduling multicast trac in broadcast- and-select networks employing WDM. We found that in this environment we must balance two conicting objectives: low bandwidth consumption and high channel utilization. Bandwidth con- sumption can be high if a multi-destination message is always replicated and transmitted separately to each recipient. On the other hand, attempts to coordinate the addressed nodes so that a single transmission of a multicast packet be sucient can lead to low channel utilization; in other words, it is possible that only a small number of channels carry transmissions ,t any given time, defeating the original purpose of a multi-channel environment. In  we introduced and studied the concept of a virtual receiver which can be used to provide a good balance between the two objectives.
Sending multiple copies of packet to different nodes is called Multicasting. Wired and infrastructure –based wireless networks are supported by many multicast routing protocol. But applying this concept in Mobile Ad hoc wireless networks (MANNETs) is a big challenge. Problem in ad hoc networks are scarcity of bandwidth, short life time of the nodes due to power constraints and dynamic topology due to mobility of nodes. Multicasting gives wireless networks more efficient, reliable and secure communication than unicast routing. There exist a lot of multicast routing protocols, some works with wired network and some work with wireless, some protocol deal with both wired and wireless network. In this paper we will develop a protocol that is known as WMDPQ which will help the over come of issues of routing protocol like problem in ad Hoc network are the scarcity of band with sort life time of nodes due to power constraints and dynamic topology due to mobility of nodes . To pursuit for an existing multicasttree outside the zone, constrained directional forwarding is used which ensure a good reduction in overhead in comparison to network wide flooding for search method. The protocol employs local connectivity technique and protective route reconfiguration on the basis of the current status of the nodes are being proposed which reduces the overhead, power and bandwidth requirement and try to increase the reliability and performance.
Secure multicast communication is a significant requirement in emerging applications in adhoc environments like military or public emergency network applications. Membership dynamism is a major challenge in providing complete security in such networks. Some of the existing algorithms like OMCT address the critical problems using clustering approach like 1-affects-n phenomenon and delay issues. Therefore an attempt is made to reduce the end to end delay and improve the fault tolerance as node increases by using an approach of efficient Cluster Based MulticastTree algorithm for fault tolerant multicast communication. This algorithm uses Mobility aware Multicast version of DSDV routing protocol for electing LCs. The proposed efficient CBMT is tested and the entire experiments are conducted in a simulation environment using network simulator NS2. The results are formed to be desirable and the proposed method is efficient and more suitable for secure multicast communication dedicated to operate in MANETs.
Overlay multicast (also known as application-layer multicast) implements the multicast functionality at end hosts rather than routers. It uses a virtual overlay network topology based on the underlying unicast mechanism to transport data between end hosts. This may require more overall bandwidth than IP multicast because duplicate packets travel the same physical links multiple times, but it provides an inexpensive, deployable method of providing point-to-multi point communication. One example application using overlay multicast is live media streaming, which constructs a delivery tree at the application layer from the source to all participating end hosts. Usually it lasts for a long period of time and needs significant bandwidth constantly. We consider making overlay multicast dependable as a key factor that will determine whether it will be accepted as a fundamental infrastructure for group communications. The specific aspect of dependability we will study in this paper is resilience to failures and unexpected events. In overlay multicast, a node may fail or simply leave the multicast session voluntarily. The key issue is how to reconstruct the overlay tree after these unexpected events. The time to resume the data flow after a node departure (failure or leave) is important for multicast applications such as live media streaming. In traditional network-layer multicast, the non-leaf nodes in the delivery tree are routers, which are relatively stable and do not leave the multicasttree unless there are no downstream nodes. End hosts join the multicasttree only as leaves, and their departures do not require restoring the delivery tree. However, this is not the case for overlay multicast. When a non-leaf end host leaves the multicast session, all the nodes in the sub tree rooted at it are affected.
This paper addressed the scalability problem of group key management . We identified two problems with individual rekeying: inefficiency and an out-of-sync problem between keys and data. We proposed the use of periodic batch rekeying to improve the key server’s performance and alleviate the out-of-sync problem. We devised a marking algorithm for the key server to process a batch of join and leave requests, and we analyzed the key server’s processing cost for batch rekeying. Our results show that batch rekeying, compared to individual rekeying, saves server cost substantially. We also show that when the number of requests is not large in a batch, four is the best key tree degree; otherwise, key star outperforms small-degree key trees. The hierarchical key-tree approach is an efficient way to achieve logarithmic rekeying costs for secure multicast key management given that the underlying tree is balanced. We have developed an NSBHO tree. Unlike the B-tree scheme , our NSBHO tree does not use node splitting to balance the tree. As a result, the worst-case rekeying cost of our NSBHO tree for a new member joining is 2h, while that of the B-tree scheme is (m+2)h, where h is the corresponding tree height and m is the order of the tree. For a member leaving, the B-tree scheme and our NSBHO-tree scheme have the same worst case rekeying cost. Our results confirm that the NSBHO tree is superior to the B-tree in
interconnected system of mobile hosts without a fixed infrastructure. In MANETs, each mobile host has multi-hop transmission capability, and it has to serve as a router. Owing to the dynamic topology and limited resources of mobile hosts, the routing scheme in MANETs presents an important challenge. In this study, a Optimized Ternary TreeMulticast Routing protocol for MANETs is proposed. In the proposed scheme, all nodes are randomly classified into two types, group-1, group-2 and group-3. To achieve the load balance, two multicast trees (tree-A for group-1, tree-B for group-2 and tree-C for group-3) are constructed. Thus proposed system outperform AOMDV version of AODV in term of Performance evaluation metrics such as packet delivery ratio, control overhead , Network life time, Normalized delay.
Heterogeneous multicast is an eﬃcient communication scheme especially for multimedia applications running over multihop networks. The term heterogeneous refers to the phenomenon when multicast receivers in the same session require service at diﬀerent rates commensurate with their capabilities. In this paper, we address the problem of resource allocation for a set of heterogeneous multicast sessions over multihop wireless networks. We propose an iterative algorithm that achieves the optimal rates for a set of heterogeneous multicast sessions such that the aggregate utility for all sessions is maximized. We present the formulation of the multicast resource allocation problem as a nonlinear optimization model and highlight the cross-layer framework that can solve this problem in a distributed ad hoc network environment with asynchronous computations. Our simulations show that the algorithm achieves optimal resource utilization, guarantees fairness among multicast sessions, provides flexibility in allocating rates over diﬀerent parts of the multicast sessions, and adapts to changing conditions such as dynamic channel capacity and node mobility. Our results show that the proposed algorithm not only provides flexibility in allocating resources across multicast sessions, but also increases the aggregate system utility and improves the overall system throughput by almost 30% compared to homogeneous multicast.
Abstract: This paper deals with the spatial mining of the GPS logs for finding optimal shortest path between every source & destination. The optimal route finding is based on the fuzzy logic based on shortest path calculation. The fuzzy logic is used for finding the optimal route based on various constraints like real time traffic, traffic intensity and the path with the optimal travel cost between the source to the destination. This paper is GIS based implementation of finding the optimal path with fuzzy logic and it is the comparison with the other GIS based tools for finding the shortest path between every source & destination. This fuzzy logic based shortest path algorithm is better than the classical Dijkstra’s algorithm for finding the shortest path. This fuzzy logic based shortest path algorithm outperforms all the other shortest path algorithms.
Network Simulator (NS)-2  is used to simulate our proposed Secure MulticastTree construction using Bacterial Foraging Optimization protocol. In this simulation, as shown in Table 1, the mobile nodes are moving in a square region of 1000 m × 1000 m for 50 seconds simulation time. Let us assume that each node moves independently with the same average speed. All nodes have the same transmission range of 250 m. Random Way Point mobility model is used. The simulated traffic is Constant Bit Rate (CBR). This protocol uses the Distributed Coordination Function of IEEE 802.11 as the MAC layer protocol. The DCF notifies the network layer about link breakage. The channel capacity of mobile nodes is set to the value of 2 Mbps and the number of flows is 8.
shared-tree in high mobility network In a low mobility ad hoc network, the network topology remains relatively stable. Therefore link breakage due to the change of the network topology does not occur frequently. Occasional broken link repairs can meet the demand of the network maintenance. In MAODV, when a link breaks, the downstream node of the break is responsible for repairing the link. The down- stream node initiates the repair by broadcasting a joint RREQ. A node on the multicasttree re- sponds to the RREQ by unicasting a RREP back to the initiating node. Subsequent route activa- tion is handled as described in Section 2. The above repair procedure is not efficient in a highly dynamic ad hoc network. In a highly dynamic ad hoc network, nodes move faster and thus can quickly move out of their prior trans- mission range. This will cause communication link to break frequently. Hence, receiver-driven route discovery will happen very often. When a node loses its prior communication link, the node itself and all of its downstream member nodes flush away their current routing table and initiate the route repair procedure. In a high mobility network, it is possible that a number of communication links break at the same time. Therefore, a number of member nodes may ini- tiate new route discovery simultaneously. Such behavior can invoke too many joint RREQs to be flooded within the network. It also causes in- crease in control traffic for the network and can further causes channel contention and network congestion. In our second proposed method, we use periodic RREQ originated from the source node, to avoid the above shared-tree problem and improve the network throughput.
As an emerging paradigm of wireless communication for mobile nodes, ad hoc networks have received considerable attention in recent years due to a rapid expansion of wireless devices and the interest in mobile communica- tions. In an ad hoc network [1–3], mobile nodes want to communicate with each other, but have no fixed links like a wire infrastructure network. While acting as a router, each node is responsible for discovering dynamically other nodes in a transmission range . The emergence of ad hoc networks poses a challenge for maintaining the security of a group multicast since mobile ad hoc networks diﬀer from conventional wired networks. Security is thus a priority concern in wireless networks, especially for security-sensitive applications. Computer security attributes of confidentiality, integrity, availability, authentication, and nonrepudiation are crucial to protect communications in ad hoc networks. More- over, the network topology of an ad hoc network changes frequently and unpredictably, explaining why security is