Wireless powertransfer system has been attempted many times throughout the last past centuries. The concept ideas were began from the experimented of Heinrich Hertz and Nikola Tesla around year 1890’s and has continued until this day. Although Nikola Tesla was confident with his hypothesis to transferpower and nobody has been able to validate the idea. Nowadays, wireless powertransfer is largely exhibited through induction. Although the functional of wireless powertransfer through induction is constrained to a very small distances. In this chapter provides a literature review of history of wireless powertransfer.
IPT is using coil that will produce magnetic field to transferpower while CPT is using capacitive plate that will produce electric field to transferpower. High frequency is needed to generate a magnetic field, usually in 10 kHz to 10MHz in IPT system. This can cause a large electromagnetic interference and magnetic field coupling technology required will depend on easily covered by some metal conductors with small resistance rate. Eddy current losses greater can also be formed, therefore, the IPT technology based on magnetic coupling used in a metal environment is very limited.
Wireless powertransfer (WPT) technique is able to provide energy in a cordless way so that it brings new progress and convenience in our life. Electromagnetic induction, coupling, and radiation are three main methods for wireless powertransfer [1–3]. The electromagnetic coupling method has the features of high eﬃciency, low cost, and being able to transferpower in a longer distance than the induction method [2– 4]. In a WPT system of electromagnetic coupling, coupling coeﬃcient between the resonators is a key parameter because the power is transferred via electric and magnetic couplings between transmitting and receiving resonators. Therefore, it is essential to keep the coupling at a certain level for a coupling WPT system. In addition to the coupling coeﬃcient, other parameters including Q value of the resonator, impedance matching, etc. must be designed carefully [5–7].
The classification of WPT is divided into two categories that are near-field WPT and far-field WPT. Moreover, the near-field technique can be divided into three sections namely as inductive powertransfer (IPT), acoustic powertransfer (APT) and capacitive powertransfer (CPT) . In near-field powertransfer, the IPT is using a coil that will produce the magnetic field to transferpower while CPT is using the capacitive plate that will produce an electric field to transferpower. Next, APT is using sound waves to wirelessly convey energy .
The system efficiency and input and transferred power are plotted versus resonance frequencies in Fig. 5. It is seen that the transfer efficiency drops gradually with the increasing transferpower. Therefore, there is a conflict between high efficiency and high transferpower. However, in high power applications like Maglev both high efficiency and high transferpower are essential. As a result, a compromise between high efficiency and high transferpower is needed. It is wise to consider the knee of the efficiency locus of Fig. 5 as an acceptable operating region. This is shown in Fig. 5 by a rectangular zone. Choosing a desired frequency on the acceptable region, the primary and secondary capacitances are obtained from (11) where L 1
The IPT system utilizes magnetic fields to transferpower, and the CPT system makes use of electric fields. In this paper, IPT and CPT are combined to obtain maximum powertransfer. IPT is most commonly used and is applicable to many power levels and gap distances. CPT is only applicable for powertransfer applications with inherently small gap distance due to the constraints on developed voltage. The coupling coefficient is a parameter which decides performance of the system.
In order to raise fishes at home, an aquarium needs several electrical appliances in the tank. To provide better environment for new habitat of these fishes, air pump, water pump, and lights are some necessary electrical appliances used in the aquarium . Thus, this situation leads into presence of plug extensions use for power up multiple devices as well as presence of a lot of wires that might cause unpleasant sight and risk of short circuit. By having WPT technology replaces the wired technology, the wires usage as well as power outlets can be reduced for these devices. Besides that, cleaning the aquarium becomes less hassle if WPT is implemented to the aquarium. Due to incapability of inductive approach to wirelessly transferpower through metal shielding environment and acoustic approach to have lowest efficiency amongst the near field approach, capacitive approach is selected to be the most suitable for WPT system in the aquarium. Yet, the capacitive approach have issues need to be solved to have a good performance in transferring power that are plate distance and misalignment. So, the WPT implementation using capacitive approach in the aquarium and the system performance are done for the project.
This IPT system is based on the fundamental of Faraday and Ampere law. This is function of alternating magnetic fields to transferpower from a primary winding to a secondary winding. Other than that, in order to protect and preserve the world natural resources the power source can be replaced with the solar source. Usually energy that has been produced is everywhere and anywhere in the surrounding, which is solar energy are categorized as natural energy sources where it used in high power application such as actuate a solar panel car, factory and etc. The illustration of process of WPT is shown in Figure 1.1.
BMW 535i vehicle driven at 130 km/h. 33,34 The benchtest of BSST’s cylindrical TEG, designed for the Ford Lincoln MKT and the BMW 96, reported electrical power generation exceeding 700 W. 35 General Motors noted that achieving 350 W and 600 W is possible in a Chevrolet Suburban under city and highway driving conditions, respectively, with an average of 15 kW of heat energy available over the drive cycle. 36 Meisner outlined the progress by General Motors in the development of various phases of TEG prototypes using Bi-Te and skutter- udite modules in the Chevrolet Suburban vehi- cle. 7,37 Numerical models 38–40 have been developed to assess TEG performance at various engine oper- ating conditions using plate-fin heat exchangers and commercial Bi 2 Te 3 -based modules. Crane
Voltage multiplier method cannot transfer large power because many capacitors are only used for voltage division not for transfer of power, because only first and last capacitor terminal connected to the load and source. So to get more efficient powertransfer modified voltage multiplier circuit was used to step up the input voltage and also convert the input AC to DC voltage.
In this chapter, we shift our focus on a point-to-point SWIPT system adopting practical M-ary modulation, where the receiver leverages the received RF signal for both RF EH an in- formation detection. We take into account the fact that the receiver’s radio-frequency (RF) en- ergy harvesting circuit can only harvest energy when the received signal power is greater than a certain sensitivity level. For both power-splitting (PS) and time-switching (TS) schemes, we derive the energy harvesting performance as well as the information decoding performance for the Nakagami-m fading channel. We also analyze the performance tradeoff between energy harvesting and information decoding by studying an optimization problem, which maximizes the information decoding performance and satisfies a constraint on the minimum harvested energy. Our analysis shows that (i) for the PS scheme, modulations with high peak-to-average power ratio achieve better energy harvesting performance, (ii) for the TS scheme, it is desirable to concentrate the power for wireless powertransfer in order to minimize the non-harvested en- ergy caused by the RF energy harvesting sensitivity level, and (iii) channel fading is beneficial for energy harvesting in both PS and TS schemes.
has better improvements from year to years, where the battery is introduced. This battery has been found since 1936 near Baghdad, while constructing a railway. The labourers from that construction company have discovered the ancient battery known as Parthian Battery. This battery is believed to be 2000 years old. On the other hand, in 1800, Volta discovered when used a conductor, a certain fluid can generate a persistent stream of electrical power. Due to that the first voltaic cell is invented and it known as battery .
Wireless powertransfer (WPT) technology has many applications by virtue of its intrinsic safety and convenience characteristics. This is particularly so when the WPT systems are used in conjunction with implanted medical devices, as they can greatly reduce the pain of patients and their financial burdens. In previous researches, the optimal system mainly focuses on the design of the coils which includes the transmitter coil and the receiver coil. In this paper, the WPT system will be optimized to include also the power source circuit and the load circuit, in addition to the coils, as an integral system. A simple circuit which converts the DC source into AC excitation as the feeding circuit is included in the WPT system. In this convert circuit, there are two inductors which can be formed by coils. In the WPT system, the two coils in the convert circuit are transmitter coils. In addition, the receiver coil should be optimized. Thus, the WPT system is constructed by the three coils. In this paper, the parameters in the convert circuit are considered along with the coil parameters in the optimization study.
Powertransfer characteristics among N parallel single mode optical fibers have been investigated using coupled mode theory (Wang et al, 2007). The analysis shows that powertransfer of N fibers is periodical during coupling among parallel single mode optical fibers. NXN optical directional couplers with a linear array arrangement have been studied by assuming that the coupling coefficient is constant (Pan et al, 2000).
Wireless powertransfer (WPT) has been demonstrated using various WPT systems, such as Acoustic , ; Light ; Microwave ; Laser ; Capacitive ; and Inductive . The basic layout of all WPT systems is similar. They all consist of a transmitter connected to a primary electronic circuit and a receiver connected to a secondary electronics circuit. The ‘medium of powertransfer’ between receiver and transmitter makes them different from each other. It has been established that an inductive WPT system has the potential to be applied for medium and high power applications, and particularly for the charging of batteries. This method of powertransfer has also been referred, contactless powertransfer (CPT), contactless energy transfer (CET), inductively coupled powertransfer (ICPT), resonant inductive powertransfer (RIPT) and inductive powertransfer (IPT). Resonant inductive powertransfer (IPT) is not a new concept, and many attempts have been made in the past to transmit power wirelessly, most notably by Nikola Tesla (1856 –1943) in the late 1800s and early 1900s. He was inspired by the work of Heinrich Hertz (1857–1984) who first confirmed the existence of electromagnetic radiation in his experiments in 1888. Tesla reported several experimental setups of his WPT
Efficient AC-DC power conversion has been of much interest in recent years with the wide increase in electronic devices which demand clean DC power supplies. Today’s industries aim to provide AC-DC adapters with very small form factors for portable applications. The improvement in device technology has led to efficient and high power density devices. This has created tremendous improvement in AC-DC converter size and efficiency. Power factor correction (PFC) stage followed by a DC-DC stage. A two stage approach mostly uses a boost PFC circuit for the first stage. This is because of the good PFC capability and high efficiency provided by this circuit. The consequence of using it in the first stage is the high voltage output which requires a capacitor with high voltage rating resulting in increased size and cost. Recently many single stage converter architectures have been reported. The single stage architectures combine the PFC and-DC stage into a single stage reducing the control complexity. The PFC correction can also be done and is called bridgeless PFC. This circuit combines the operation of the bridge rectifier with the DC-DC converter into a single circuit. The aim is to reduce the number of components and the size of components to obtain an energy efficient power supply design. This thesis briefly reviews some of these architectures that can satisfy the requirements of the standards and provides a comprehensive review of the pros and cons of each. It also provides a feasibility study of one of the transformerless architecture to achieve a small size power converter for portable applications. The recent architectures in AC-DC conversion and provides a comparison, pointing to the important issues in power supply design that these architectures are aiming to solve.
In this study, the goal of the project was to design a wireless powertransfer system charging multiple devices via inductive coupling were achieved. It was observed that these factors has direct effect on the powertransfer as follows: separation of coil (distance), oscillating frequency, number of turns, length of coil, cross sectional area of coil determines the power efficiency. Also the results shows that there was an exponential decrease for voltage versus distance of separation, from analysis at 0cm separation of distance, the power transferred was most efficient as seen by the brightness of the test lamps but after a distance of 8cm the power transferred drops significantly, result analysis clearly shows that inductive coupling can be used to deliver power wirelessly to each receiving device simultaneously.
Abstract—A novel method to determine the transfer functions of power line networks is presented. Although a number of the evaluation methods have been proposed, the major drawbacks are on approximation, complexity and intuitiveness. The presented method overcomes those by making use of backward impedance transfer and forward voltage transfer techniques. Additionally, the method oﬀers an extra feature that transfer functions at any points throughout the network can be determined in one implementation. This paper ﬁrst reviews some major existing methods. Then, the method of impedance and voltage transferring is derived and fulﬁlled with an implementation algorithm and mathematic description. Lastly, an implementation of the method on a sample network for the transfer function is demonstrated. Channel capacity is adopted as the measure for the quality of the channels.
Portable power supply is machine that can be very useful to human. Consumers can get electrical power supply anywhere and anytime they want. This product focuses on green technology which uses battery that can recharge by the solar energy. But, the problem is the battery inside the product become hotter while being used or being charger. There is temperature limit for each component inside portable power supply to function properly. The increment of the temperature inside the machine could cause the machine to failure or damage and make it not safe to be used. CFD model are develop to study the heat flow in portable power supply. There are few elements that being used as manipulate variable such as battery position, window position and the present of blowing fan in order to optimize thermal performance and improve the reliability of the product. Besides that, experiment also will be conducted during this project in order to study heat flow in PPS thoroughly.
From the above discussion, various researchers’ done the experimental on the circular tube inserting the various geometries of twisted tape, Wire coiled that promotes the swirl of the fluid and then occurs the mixing. The fluid travelled towards the heated wall following curvilinear path this will very important in the heat exchangers applications for better heat transfer rate. Mostly use of louvered strip insert using various arrangements and the small pipe insert in a circular heat exchanger tube shows great improvement in heat transfer rate when co mpared with other geometries used by various researchers. Friction factor is also affected due to the surface geometry alteration.