While the survey sheds light on some of the psychological aspects of students’ educational experiences in colleges, we are less concerned about producing an abstract deﬁnition of transformative teaching and learning than on elucidating the different components and contextual factors that contribute towards its realization. While the work of Mezirow (1990) and Illeris (2013) among others seeks to present a set of universal principles that underpin transformative learning, our work sees context as a vital component in any understanding of what transformative teaching and learning means. Our usage of the term ‘transformative teaching and learning’ in relation to further education emerges from and refers back to the contextual frame we outlined at the beginning of this report. It is a policy context in which further education has been denuded of its broad educational and social value and instead been re-cast in reductive and instrumentalist terms. It is also a context in which the age-staged tyranny of achievement matrices that structures schooling in the UK (Mansell 2007) seems to be having a negative effect on the mental health of young people and appears to stigmatise those who come away with low levels of achievement. Both the qualitative and the survey data provide evidence of the importance in transformative teaching and learning of a strong emphasis on building conﬁdence to renew learning identities as a consequence of the ‘symbolic violence’ many students have experienced in their schooling.
76 Read more
Finally, further education in England bears the marks of OECD knowledge production and policy-think - what Grek calls the ‘new technology of the governance of the European education space through indicators and benchmarks’ (Grek 2008: 215). It isn’t hard to view the impact of PISA data and the influence of the OECD in general as ‘deeply penetrating and consciousness-moulding’ (ibid.). One consequence of this is the continued reification of the abstract space conjured into being by the term ‘FE sector’. This abstract language not only disguises the hugely heterogeneous nature of the different contexts in which teaching and learning take place but is also a totalising strategy that enables policy interventions that impose neoliberal meanings on what is better thought of as local educational provision. To move away from the abstraction of ‘FE’ is to assert that there is no singular experience of further education; just as there are multiple compulsory educations that ‘work’ better for some individuals and social groups than others, in the same way, there are multiple further educations. Within a broad canvas in which the structures and cultures that shape further education have been decisively governed by an instrumentalist agenda, spaces still exist in which transformative teaching and learning takes place. But TTL depends on an ethos which does not seek to objectify students within a ‘skills discourse’. While TTL may see a student’s social class as a starting point, it doesn’t use that background to label, impose restrictions and limit expectations. TTL by definition is about overthrowing the institutionalised symbolic violence which seems to be so much a part of the neoliberal conceptualisation of education/employment. TTL as experienced by adults is also strikingly individual, following distinctive and by definition not-standard pathways. In many ways it can be regarded as a necessary compensation for an overly normative compulsory education system.
17 Read more
The Transforming Lives research project sought to gather learners’ narratives, and to understand these against the backdrop of wider socio/economic/political and historical contexts (Goodson & Sikes, 2001, Duckworth 2013, Duckworth and Ade-Ojo 2016; Duckworth and Smith 2016, 2018). The research cut across the grain of the skills policy discourse providing evidence that despite the instrumentalisation of the curriculum in further education, transformative teaching and learning is (still) taking place. Recognizing the power of education to reproduce rather than challenge social inequality offers a frame for understanding learners’ narrative accounts of their educational and personal journey against the backdrop of the structural inequalities they have faced. Importantly, while these narratives might connect with employment and/or career progression, they are not defined by this. Rather, they centre on personal development, the enhancement of student agency and hope and they are underpinned by the primacy of human dignity and the flow of this into students’ families and communities. In short, they work against the instrumentalist turn and in the place of the ‘choice’ offered by market fundamentalist policies, offer a choice rooted in students’ enhanced agency.
17 Read more
The scheme was introduced in the institution in 2011. Previously an internal student experience survey had identified a few hundred members of staff who students had named in a free-text comment box. However, there was no formal mechanism within the survey to encourage students to explain how their staff nominee made a transformative or inspirational impact on their student experience. The ethos behind the introduction of the student-nominated inspirational teaching awards was based on positive psychology (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000), whereby celebrating and recognising contribution raises the bar and recognises individuals who would not have been noticed or identified through the annual, sector-wide National Student Survey and course-specific module evaluations. This echoes the sentiments expressed by Chism and Szabo (1997, p. 183) in that teaching awards are there to 'affirm individuals and assure them that the energy and effort they invest in teaching is recognized and valued', to encourage teaching excellence and 'to promote the value of teaching as an academic activity at the institution'.
20 Read more
Notably, Freire objects to the popular understanding of his pedagogy as "open education" that gives up on academic efforts or social and moral commitment. On the contrary, he stresses the rigorous demand of dialogic pedagogy, which requires profound, active involvement in the issues inquired into or the texts read in class. Thus, dialogic pedagogy is transformative because it empowers pupils, providing them the motivation, courage and tools to transform their societies. Interestingly even today, nearly fifty years after Freire's "classic" work about critical pedagogy , Freire is still read as a source of inspiration for educators who are committed to social change. The following are just a few examples of issues and notions that apply Freire's pedagogy as foundations for transformative education in various domains: eco-pedagogy , adult education, transforming communities through sports education , and empowering students through theater and through art .
teaching and learning involves remedying the damage caused by the internalisation of negative labels and expectations from students’ compulsory education. It is in this sense that transformative teaching and learning is an enactment of differential space as ‘politicised-democratic space’ (Leary-O’whin 2015). Duckworth and Smith (2018a) argue that teachers play a vital role in establishing an environment or space and set of relationships in which students can validate their socially situated knowledge and value the knowledge generated from their lived experiences. They also shift from positioning the motor of transformation (only or primarily) within individuals, seeing it instead as an effect that is consciously produced through interaction between teachers and students through ‘dialogic care’. The kind of care underpinning transformative teaching and learning is not demeaning or passivizing but instead is orientated towards fostering student engagement, autonomy and choice.
29 Read more
Other frames of reference are of course possible but trans- formative learning interested me as it has traditionally been concerned with subjectivity and intersubjectivity, in ways that drew parallels to some aspects of academic journaling. Moreover Freire, a key figure in transformative learning, had a life long interest in literacy which offered to throw light on the potential of transformative practice using social media. Transformative (along with paradigm shifting) is of course used widely in discussing the intro- duction of ICT (see policy documents such as DfES, 2005; US Department of Education, 2010, but academic report- ing also, say, Harasim, 2000, or, in the context of blogs, Williams & Jacobs, 2004) but this had left me unconvinced. I wanted to take as my reference point the earlier literature
The approach to analysis was interpretive. It sought to look in detail at participants’ accounts, and, as outlined by Miles and Huberman (1994), to code these inductively, noting patterns and themes, looking intuitively for sense and meaning, then clustering themes to create coherent connections. Themes were sought “across the entire data set” (Braun & Clarke, 2006, p. 81) so that following initial identification of themes there was a “verification mode” to “qualify or confirm the finding” (Huberman & Miles, 1998 p. 186). At the same time we acknowledge that “interpretation is an art; it is not formulaic or mechanical” (Denzin, 1998, p. 317) and indeed “interpretation is transformative. It illuminates, throws light upon an experience.” (p. 322). So, although the approach was thematic and inductive, and did not begin with a pre-existing template, codes and themes were inevitably influenced by Jarvis’s own frame of reference and the final interpretive framework was necessarily shaped by her pre-existing theoretical interests, including her interest in transformative learning.
30 Read more
tem change. Our paper examines this theory con- sidering traditional Haudenosaunee teachings and contemporary thought. Despite the potential for food system transformation, transformative learn- ing theory—grounded in Western thought—can not lead to a truly decolonized food system because it offers the Indigenous learner little to rebuild that which was deconstructed. Although transformative learning theory and Haudenosaunee ways of knowing are incompatible, transformative learning could help Indigenous learners to chal- lenge implicit colonial narratives as part of the pro- cess of decolonization. Transformative learning theory may also have value for cultivating allies in non-Indigenous contexts. We are designing our Indigenous food systems program according to traditional Haudenosaunee principles such as
14 Read more
Recognising this means we need to move away from seeing sexual violence in war as extraordinary events addressed separately from the social, economic and political context. Rita Shackel and Lucy Fiske present their initial findings from their on-going research in Kenya, Uganda and DRC (this issue) to suggest that gender- based violence and social, economic and political marginalisation are not only intertwined, but mutually constitutive. They show how gender, poverty, and political (often ethnic) status make some women more vulnerable to violence than others, and that this violence also further entrenches marginalisation and poverty. To a certain extent, this echoes B (2014) with regard to the reproduction of race, class and gender hierarchies through sexual violence in Peru. Such findings clearly indicate that policies aimed to end sexual violence in conflict need to look beyond individual acts of rape in war to address the broader structures of inequality. T Transformative Gender Justice , as set out in this issue, explicitly intends to move away from a singular vision of women as victims of conflict-related sexual violence towards a more relational approach. Increasing calls to bring perpetrators to account via international law, specifically in the ICC but also in national courts and tribunals, have done little to actually bring perpetrators to account or provide redress for victim-survivors (Viseur Sellers 2007, Londras 2010, Ní Aoláin, Haynes and Cahn 2011, Brouwer et al 2013). This is in part because of practical and procedural problems around evidence and testimony, but is also related to institutional bias and hierarchies of harm. For example, as Solange Mouthaan shows in this issue, the ICC has difficulty understanding and effectively dealing with the gendered experiences of child soldiers. In part this is because of the limited interpretation of what it is to be a victim or perpetrator of sexual violence, and the inability of legal systems to deal with multiple harms, ambiguous victim-perpetrator status, and the agency (and demands) of victim-survivors. On the other hand, the emphasis on women as victims of sexual violence in public processes may further stigmatise women when they ultimately fail to provide justice. Feminist legal scholars such as Karen Engle (2005) and Katherine Franke (2006) argue that the emphasis on criminal accountability for perpetrators of sexual violence exposes victim-survivors to a scrutiny that is personally traumatising, and collectively
13 Read more
The data of the digital diaries was analysed with a codebook. When coding, quotations were assigned to codes listed in the codebook. Part of this codebook was established before coding (deductive coding, Staa & Evers, 2010) and is based on the codebook of Wood (2007). The three elements of transformative learning were listed in the codebook: Critical Self Reflection, Reflective Dialogue and Reflective Action. The operationalization of these three constructs is based on the information in the theoretical framework and is shown in Table 2 in the results section. The second part of the codebook was established during coding (inductive coding, Staa & Evers, 2010). During the year in the incubator program, the respondents reported several instances of transformative learning with numerous triggers for this learning. The triggers were coded, and when none of the existing codes were applicable for the quotation a new code was added to the codebook. Examples of the triggers are mentors/business coaches, trainers, expert panel members, fellow participants of the incubator program etc. Interaction with parties outside the program can influence the decision or be the trigger for learning. Examples of those external triggers are investors, business partners and family.
21 Read more
An Coppens states that one always learns better when the experience is FUN. Santhosh Kumar adds: ‘We, human beings, are natural “gamers”!... This, as we know, is basically because games are fun, engaging, challenging, and, above all, motivating’. According to Anya Andrews, gamification has the ability to transform the learning process. Transformative gamification isn’t about ‘just a little more fun’. Instead, ‘its most effective uses will always be those that enable a significantly positive change to meet the needs of a particular learning environment’. Karl Kapp articulates the fact that gamification has the elements of challenge, mastery, fun and socialisation – elements that a lecturer can leverage to promote learning. Mario Herger refers to his children who ‘touch, explore and play’ with everything and have fun. Normal tuition destroys their natural curiosity, making them totally unengaged and cynical. This is why gamification is the answer.
15 Read more
As focus groups are “particularly useful for exploratory research where little is known about the phenomenon of interest” (Stewart & Shamdasani, 1990, p. 15), they were ideally suited to my inquiry. Menstruation and birth are not usually regarded as spiritual phenomena in Western culture, and there is very little research into either domain. Conceptualizing them as spiritual gave other women permission to voice their experiences and enabled those experiences to be explored and interpreted beyond the physiological events. This approach is significant for several reasons. A cultural reform of attitudes toward female body processes can alleviate oppression in women’s ordinary lives; for example, by dismantling shame associated with menstruation or by promoting a spiritually respectful birth practice. The groups gave me an overall perspective on some of the features of this unexplored terrain. In addition, I discovered that they fostered transformative change right in the midst of my data collection.
15 Read more
Whereas grieving the losses in my life due to chronic pain was an essential human process, I came to the realization that suffering could be negotiated with myself. My recommendations for people who live with chronic pain is to find their own gift. To explore new possibilities through reflecting, accepting, learning and thriving with the help of others including specific learning theories and, in my case, the hermeneutic wager. 8 This is my transformative gift to
One of the keys to improving health globally to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)  is adoption by mothers of healthy home practices for better nutri- tion and illness prevention. Interventions to improve health literacy are recognized as essential for reaching the SDGs . The challenge is acute in settings where access to health information is poor, educational levels are low, and traditional beliefs are strong. Customarily, mothers are taught health lessons that even if simplified are hard to remember. Especially in traditional low-resource settings, a transformative method for applying cultural competence in health promotion efforts is needed to achieve sustainable change of health knowledge and behavior that will improve maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) [3, 4].
Careful reflection on pedagogical issues seems to be side-lined in higher education practice generally. Often, these matters are confined to those academics in Education departments specialising in pedagogy, or else the responsibility for everything that has to do with the how of teaching falls to an Academic Support Services desk providing short training sessions to lecturers interested enough to attend. There appears to be an unspoken ‘hands off’ agreement between lecturers, where each lecturer is free to teach in whatever way suits her or his preference, as long as it conforms to some external basic requirements and student satisfaction measured by some evaluation form. What is lacking is sustained communal reflection, self-evaluation and a buzzing evaluation by peers with a shared vision. For teachers at higher education institutions with secular or pluralist identities such a gap can present an opportunity to invite colleagues – and perhaps students too – to reflect with them on teaching strategies that encourages students’ (and their own) transformative engagement with their context. Such a focus point is relevant to more than just Christian lecturers. Whilst concrete issues can invite shared initiatives in spite of differences of belief, the normative nature of such an investigation naturally leads to questions of trust, hope and religion. This offers Christians a chance to show Christ’s love in concrete ways rather than remaining stuck in debates on issues of belief and whether faith has a place at an academic institution. It is also a superb occasion for Christians to learn
11 Read more
work. Such uses can easily be declared transformative because of the very different purposes served by the original work (generally an aesthetic or entertainment purpose) as opposed to the borrowing work (a scholarly or critical purpose). A work of genuine scholarship in this realm is almost never a serious threat to the market value of the original work because there is little chance of any substitution effect between the works. Thus, the first and fourth fair use factors are generally quite favorable to the borrower in this scenario (Gerhardt & Wessell, 1990). The third factor (amount borrowed) may be an issue, but if future courts follow the reasonably generous assumptions of the Fourth Circuit in Sundeman, it would require a tremendous amount borrowed (either quantitatively or qualitatively) to tip the third factor toward the plaintiff. This particular constellation of favorable factors make it very difficult to envision a case of this type in which a fair use finding is not a strong possibility.
25 Read more
Abstract: We examine issues to consider when reframing conservation science and practice in the context of global change. New framings of the links between ecosystems and society are emerging that are changing peoples’ values and expectations of nature, resulting in plural perspectives on conservation. Reframing con- servation for global change can thus be regarded as a stage in the evolving relationship between people and nature rather than some recent trend. New models of how conservation links with transformative adaptation include how decision contexts for conservation can be reframed and integrated with an adaptation pathways approach to create new options for global-change-ready conservation. New relationships for conservation science and governance include coproduction of knowledge that supports social learning. New processes for implementing adaptation for conservation outcomes include deliberate practices used to develop new strategies, shift world views, work with conflict, address power and intergenerational equity in decisions, and build consciousness and creativity that empower agents to act. We argue that reframing conservation for global change requires scientists and practitioners to implement approaches unconstrained by discipline and sectoral boundaries, geopolitical polarities, or technical problematization. We consider a stronger focus on inclusive creation of knowledge and the interaction of this knowledge with societal values and rules is likely to result in conservation science and practice that meets the challenges of a postnormal world.
11 Read more
Transformative pedagogy (TP) has meant different things to different scholars. Inspired by the pioneering work of John Dewey (1986) and continuing with the contemporary scholarship of bell hooks (1994), Paulo Freire (1970), and Gary Howard (2006), research on Transformative Pedagogy has developed to the point that we now have meta-analyses (Cranton, 2002; Taylor, 1997, 2007). Though there is a lack of consensus about what Trans- formative Pedagogy is or is not, we believe that the essence is captured by Jack Mezirow’s (2000) description of emancipatory knowledge. For Mezirow, transformation involves a process of increasing awareness and con- sciousness. This process relies on the free expression of “distortions, prejudices, stereotypes, social context, and lack of knowledge” and the acquisition of “emancipator knowledge” which derives from critical reflection and self-reflection (Cranton, 1994: p. 27). When this new knowledge and information directly challenges established beliefs and practices individuals frequently respond with resistance. Critical examination comes about when in- dividuals are able to freely exchange opinions, ideas, and beliefs in an environment that supports self-examina- tion and the exploration of alternative viewpoints. Transformative learning occurs when these alternative views and experiences prompt individuals to recognize their own limitations, biases, stereotypes, false beliefs, and are encouraged to form new understandings (Cranton, 2002: p. 64). Although it is difficult to determine exactly what leads to transformation, the outcome is much clearer. In the words of Mezirow, “Transformation refers to a non-reversible shift in a person’s meaning perspective towards greater inclusiveness, discrimination, openness or permeability (to other ideas), flexibility, reflexiveness and autonomy.” (Mezirow, 1978, 1991, 2000).
11 Read more
It could be argued that critical pedagogy and critical legal thinking complement each other, both gearing towards achieving a sense of ‘seeing things differently’ by challenging the way ‘things’ have been understood so far. Greene talks about how this sort of education allows us to encounter ‘alternative possibilities of existing, of being human, of relating to others, of being other’, and how this in turn, ‘open[s] new perspectives on what is assumed to be “reality”’ (italic original, 1993, 214). Moreover, on the one hand, critical pedagogy opens up the possibility to actively and critically produce knowledge rather than receive it, as defined by ‘authority’ (Kember 2001); while on the other hand, critical legal education enables ‘bringing to consciousness the taken for granted in and about law’ (Thomson 1990, 194) so that authentic understanding and critical reflection can be produced. In the teaching of criminal law, this approach should come naturally, not least because the doctrine of criminal law is intrinsically moral and socio-politically constructed; whilst the English common law in itself is shaped by slowly evolving social and political standards aimed at the safeguarding of security, it is arguable whose interests and morals the law attempts to reflect. Indeed, the empowerment gained through this challenging of knowledge and the ways it may be formed can be deemed ‘transformative’ (Meyer and Land 2005). Pedagogical theory suggests that such an approach can bring about ‘a fundamental growth in the person of the student’ (Barnett 2008, cited in Blackie et al. 2010, 639). This is what Barnett calls
22 Read more