Translation and Philosophy

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A Study on Academic Influence of the Chinese Translation Version of On the Philosophy of Higher Education by John S. Brubacher

A Study on Academic Influence of the Chinese Translation Version of On the Philosophy of Higher Education by John S. Brubacher

Abstract: Using bibliometrics, this study analyzes the articles citing the Chinese translation of John S. Brubacher’s seminal text, On the Philosophy of Higher Education. The purpose and significance of this study is: through a comprehensive description of the academic influence of the Chinese version in China, to provide research hotspots and shortcomings for the researchers in this area, to seek scientific cooperation with the core authors, to provide reference for building and perfecting the philosophy system of higher education. So, this study includes a discussion of their academic influence by year, source, author and institution; and finds that the book has become a time-honored research classic cited or elaborated or questioned by scholars of higher education in China, Huazhong University of Science and Technology is greatly influenced by the Chinese translation version, and Wang Jianhua from Xiamen University Higher Education Institute is much more affected than other authors. In addition, this paper examines the high frequency keywords and their co-occurrence in these citing articles to investigate the hotspots of academic influence and focus of this influential book. The hotspots of citing articles mainly include academic freedom, university autonomy, general education, professional education, university culture, value orientation, education fairness, administrative power, government, university organization, professorship, liberal education, etc. A content analysis is used as well to sort the main ideas of his research and evaluate the impact of On the Philosophy of Higher Education in China.
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Exploring the translation of feminist philosophy :
Simone de Beauvoir’s Le deuxième sexe

Exploring the translation of feminist philosophy : Simone de Beauvoir’s Le deuxième sexe

Chevallier say that ‘Beauvoir occasionally—but rarely—uses femme without an article to signify woman as determined by society [...]’, and consequently quote ‘on ne naît pas femme’ to illustrate their point, they overlook the fact that de Beauvoir is merely using femme without an article in French because she follows a linguistic norm, namely the way French state verbs are used. The example of such a translation shows that an abusive foreignization is detrimental to rendering the core philosophy expressed by de Beauvoir. Therefore, the translation ‘one [...] becomes woman’ is not adequate because of the variations between French and English language norms, and due to the anti-essentialist message in de Beauvoir’s original sentence. The new translation of that compelling statement sounds ungrammatical in English, because it does not follow the usual pattern implied by the verb to become, so it might puzzle the reader, whereas Parshley’s version is pertinent and conveys a specific flow, which gives the same effect as the French original statement. In French, de Beauvoir resorts to the repetition of the pronoun ‘on’, thus giving a parallel aspect to her sentence, and by separating the two clauses with a comma, she lays emphasis on the second part of the sentence (‘on le devient’). The same effect is rendered by Parshley’s translation because of the added conjunction ‘but’ which stresses the opposition between being born and becoming. Moreover, putting ‘a woman’ at the end of the sentence enables the translator to highlight de Beauvoir’s then innovative concept of femininity as a social construct.
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Introduction: philosophy as translation and the understanding of other cultures

Introduction: philosophy as translation and the understanding of other cultures

to the effect that translation is the condition of education, in the discussion the. complicated differences between the panelists come to the fore[r]

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GRADUATE COURSES IN ENGLISH

GRADUATE COURSES IN ENGLISH

Textual Practices Fiction Workshop Translation Keyworks of Transnational Cultural Studies Staging Empire Early or 19th C American Victorian Novel Feminist Rhetorics Tragedy, Philosophy, [r]

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GRADUATE COURSES IN ENGLISH

GRADUATE COURSES IN ENGLISH

Textual Practices Fiction Workshop Translation Keyworks of Transnational Cultural Studies Staging Empire Early or 19th C American Victorian Novel Feminist Rhetorics Tragedy, Philosophy, [r]

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Contributors

Contributors

George Rossolatos is an academic researcher and marketing practitioner with experi- ence in advertising, marketing research and brand management. He holds a BA (Hons) in Philosophy from the University of Essex, an MSc in Marketing from Manchester Business School and an MBA from Strathclyde Business School, and has conducted research in the field of Brand Equity and Integrated Marketing Communications. He is currently a PhD candidate in the field of Semiotics of Brand Equity. Major publica- tions include Interactive Advertising: Dynamic Communication in the Information Era, Applying Structuralist Semiotics to Brand Image Research, Towards a semiotics of brand equity and the translation of Financial Times Publications’ Mastering Marketing. His research interests rest with effecting intertextual cross-fertilizations between mar- keting and semiotics discourses with an applicable managerial orientation, informed by disciplines such as accounting and finance, brand valuation, branding, advertising effectiveness, consumer behavior, phenomenology, deconstruction, psychoanalysis, an- thropology, communication theory, cultural studies.
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Confrontations of philosophy, management and politics

Confrontations of philosophy, management and politics

In the academy today we might presume constraints on the seeable and sayable are long gone (assuming Vice Chancellors, Dean, Heads of Department, research committees are benevolent souls which, of course, they are). We must however remain aware that it is all too easy for people to try to squash the “free-ranging and reckless spirit” that makes academic debate so interesting. This can be achieved through the invocation of “rules and standards that you know – and in other contexts would admit – are arbitrarily imposed for the sake of administrative convenience” (Fuller, 2005b: 4). Or, we might add, for intellectual convenience. But equally I wonder whether there is something in Burrell’s suggestion that despite claims otherwise, disciplines in academia are not about dialogue, “Conversation and gossip possibly, but dialogue is eschewed” (Burrell, 2001: 18). Now while I am not convinced that any incommensurability between paradigms necessarily results in wholesale translation failure between paradigmatic specialities (Tadajewski, 2004a), I remain sceptical with regard to the extent to which dialogue does take place, and the implications of attempting to subject knowledge claims to empirical test based on the critical tenants of Popperian rationalism. These and related issues were highlighted in one particular paper at the conference and deserve close attention precisely because subjecting knowledge claims to evaluation seems so reasonable and this is what makes it dangerous.
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GRADUATE COURSES IN ENGLISH

GRADUATE COURSES IN ENGLISH

Textual Practices Fiction Workshop Translation Keyworks of Transnational Cultural Studies Staging Empire Early or 19th C American Victorian Novel Feminist Rhetorics Tragedy, Philosophy, [r]

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Varieties of Untranslatability Exploring a potential system of classification for the discussion of untranslatability in literary texts

Varieties of Untranslatability Exploring a potential system of classification for the discussion of untranslatability in literary texts

to include the necessary contextual information. This could be done in- text, or in a footnote or addendum. However, as well as raising multiple issues of style, this solution may become unfeasible if the gap in cultural understanding is too great to be filled by attaching additional information to the text. Thus the detailed translation of foundational concepts such as space, time, being, consciousness etc. may become practically impossible within a language pair separated by considerable cultural difference. The difficulty of bridging conceptual differences between cultures in translation reaches its ultimate form in the translation of philosophical terminology and texts. In the introduction to the Dictionary of Untranslatables: a Philosophical Lexicon, Cassin describes the difficulty of translating the language of philosophy even when the frames of understanding appear to match: ‘…from one language to another, neither the words nor the conceptual networks can simply be superimposed. Does one understand the same thing by ‘mind’ as by Geist or esprit, is pravda ‘justice’ or ‘truth’, and what happens when we render ‘mimesis’ as ‘representation’ rather than ‘interpretation’?’ 23 Apter locates the source of this difficulty in ‘the
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Discourses on the existence of african philosophy

Discourses on the existence of african philosophy

Besides, there was also an intense discourses in the nature and existence of African philosophy with professional philosophers; these professional philosophers making a scholastic disputation through two groups. The first group was represented by the universalists and they believed that, the thought of philosophy in terms of its methodology and content should be similar regardless of place and race. For them, African philosophy does not depend on a tradition of writing and does not analyze abstract conceptual issues. The proponents of this view were Hountondji, Wiredu, Appiah, and the like. While the second groups were represented under the particularists and they strongly believe that different cultures encompass different forms of philosophy. Thus, Africans’ must have a philosophy that is different from others philosophies. The proponents of this view were Sodipo, Gyekye, Ayoade, and others 2 (Roux, 2003). As we have noticed in the above, both Universalist and the particularists debate in the nature and existence of African philosophy from different points of view. One against the others points of view, but for me, are not possible to reconcile these two different views rather than conflicting to each other or antagonizing? The particularists were incorrect when they are asserting that different societies encompass different forms of philosophy and reality; because truth is independent of any culture, tradition and way of life. For example, prior to the Copernican revolution people thought that the sun revolves around the spectators. However, after the Copernican revolution scientists thought that the sun is at the center and other planets revolve around it. This shows that truth
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Language, Mind, and Cognitive Science: Remarks on Theories of the Language-Cognition Relationships in Human Minds

Language, Mind, and Cognitive Science: Remarks on Theories of the Language-Cognition Relationships in Human Minds

language, cognition, thought, dual-process theory, architecture of mind, cognitive architecture, concepts, philosophy of psychology, philosophy of mind, philosophy of science.... iii.[r]

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Culture as Philosophy of the First Order  Activity

Culture as Philosophy of the First Order Activity

Philosophers often offer piecemeal definition of their subject. People confine this definition within the branch of philosophy in which they are tutored, the age in which they live, or their moral or cultural bias. Others, in undue haste to answer the question or for lack of knowledge define philosophy merely by its tools or method of inquiry often highlighting the difficulties inherent in both. For example, Wittgenstein and his school of thought emphasized logical clarification of language as a mere description of philosophical method than a definition. Another example is the criticism of criticisms of John Dewey which merely describes the critical nature and ar- gumentative tool of philosophy. Consequently it cannot serve as a penetrative and elucidating definition. Henry Sidgwick (1902: 105) raises this problem of definition in a loud tone. He frames it: “this lack of consensus of experts as to the method and main conclusions of philosophy is I fear, strong evidence that study of it is still— after so many centuries—in a rudimentary condition as compared with the more special studies of the branches of systematized knowledge that we call sciences”. However, Russell (1959: 93-94) has assured us of the inher- ent value of philosophy by contending that:
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A New Task for Philosophy of Science

A New Task for Philosophy of Science

Philosophy of science is a meta-discipline, studying science. It is not the job of philosophers of science to tell scientists how to do science. Stand anywhere on the aim-oriented empiricist side of the watershed, and all this changes. Philosophy of science needs persistently to develop and critically assess new possible metaphysical assumptions, inherent in new possible aims for physics, in an attempt to improve the assumption that is accepted, the aim that is pursued. In doing this, philosophy of physics thereby seeks to improve associated methods of physics (methods employed in deciding what theories are to be accepted and rejected, along with empirical methods). As we have seen, this activity of attempting to improve problematic aims and methods of physics, partly in the light of improving scientific knowledge and understanding, is almost bound to have major implications for physics itself. Indeed, philosophy of physics construed in this way—the enterprise of attempting to improve problematic aims and methods of physics—is a vital, integral part of physics itself,
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Political ethics about the phenomenon of politics in its interaction with morality

Political ethics about the phenomenon of politics in its interaction with morality

Dubko writes, political ethics, or moral and political philosophy in the old transcription, is a relatively young science, bordering on the philosophy of morality, the philosophy of hist[r]

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A Scientometric Study Of The Journal Of Philosophy Of Education

A Scientometric Study Of The Journal Of Philosophy Of Education

This study introduces a bibliometric analysis of the Journal of Philosophy of Education, a journal of the field Education and Educational Research which has had presence in the Journal Citations Index (JCR) during the last 20 years. Collaborations between authors, countries and its gender distribution have been analyzed. Low values of Collaborative Index and Degree of Collaboration have been found, compared to other Social Science journals. Geographical collaboration is analyzed, where the network of countries pivots around United Kingdom. An increase of female authorship in the journal is noticed over the years, as well as higher levels of collaboration when at least one of the authors is a woman.
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An Investigation into the 11th Grade National Philosophy Curriculum in Turkey

An Investigation into the 11th Grade National Philosophy Curriculum in Turkey

The description of the first attainment of the first unit, "The effects of the understanding of being, knowledge and values on the birth of philosophy in Sumerian, Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Chinese, Indian, and Iranian civilizations are mentioned" is problematic (MEB, 2018b, p. 23). Although emphasizing the contributions of different cultures and civilizations to the birth or origins of philosophy can be regarded as positive, where philosophy was born (or emerged) is controversial in philosophy literature (Keklik, 1978, pp. 153-155; Cevizci, 2014, pp. 14-23; Skirbekk & Gilje, 2004, p. 19; Arslan, 2009, pp. 21-24; Störig, 2011). Including such a subject in the content of the first attainment in a high school Philosophy curriculum carries the potential to cause confusion of young minds. Moreover, the fact that many sources agree on the emergence of Philosophy as a discipline and the contribution of Ancient Greece to philosophy (Hadot, 2011, p. 21; Gokberk, 2004, p. 12; Cevizci, 2014, pp. 23-28; Zeller, 2008, pp. 51-55), are not mentioned in the description, is also problematic. The content design principle “The content should be ordered moving from concrete to abstract, from simple to complex, from easy to difficult and from close to distant.” (Sonmez, 2010, p. 127) is also ignored by introducing students a complex subject at the beginning of a Philosophy curriculum.
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How Mind, Logic and Language, Have Evolved From Medieval Philosophy to Early Modern Philosophy? A Critical Study

How Mind, Logic and Language, Have Evolved From Medieval Philosophy to Early Modern Philosophy? A Critical Study

This topic “Mind, Logic and Language” was closely described in medieval and early modern philosophy, because of their interconnectivity and relation with each other. Although before the emergence of analytical tradition, philosophers were engaged with this problem but they were studying it separately; what is Mind, its role and relation to perception, sensation, reasoning and reflection. What is logic/thought, what is its role in the world, its types, validity and invalidity, its relation to propositions, terms and arguments? What is language, its role, structure, grammar, speaker-listener relation and its interpretation? We have noticed in the beginning of modern philosophy especially in the era of Continental rationalists, British Empiricists and critical philosophers; there is an indication of the problem, which has motivated me to study Mind, Logic and Language under one clock, that Clock is their interconnectivity. So, we can say that continental rationalist, British Empiricists and Critical philosophers are known as custodians of this interconnectivity. In this sense we can say that the problem of inner (mind) and the outer (language/experience) with its relation to logic evolved from medieval to early modern towards the contemporary era. Descartes was one of the great modern philosophers of sixteenth century who attributed the property of thought to mind. Chomsky assumed that seventeenth and eighteenth century philosophers have brought a first cognitive revolution. 1 Not only this, these philosophers have also brought analytical revolution in logic and language. Medieval philosophers as well as Seventeenth and eighteenth philosophers who contributed in the field of mind, logic and language include the philosophers; Augustine, Aquinas, Scotus, William of Ockham, Boethius, Avicena, Averroes, Al-Ghazali, Peter of Spain and early modern philosophers: Spinoza, Leibnitz,
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Flexibility in starting posture drives flexibility in kinematic behavior of the kinethmoid mediated premaxillary protrusion mechanism in a cyprinid fish, Cyprinus carpio

Flexibility in starting posture drives flexibility in kinematic behavior of the kinethmoid mediated premaxillary protrusion mechanism in a cyprinid fish, Cyprinus carpio

Premaxillary protrusion in cypriniform fishes involves rotation of the kinethmoid, an unpaired skeletal element in the dorsal midline of the rostrum. No muscles insert directly onto the kinethmoid, so its rotation must be caused by the movement of other bones. In turn, the kinethmoid is thought to push on the ascending processes of the premaxillae, effecting protrusion. To determine the causes and effects of kinethmoid motion, we used XROMM (x-ray reconstruction of moving morphology) to measure the kinematics of cranial bones in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Mean kinethmoid rotation was 83  deg during premaxillary protrusion (18 events in 3 individuals). The kinethmoid rotates in a coordinated way with ventral translation of the maxillary bridge, and this ventral translation is likely driven primarily by the A1b muscle. Analyses of flexibility (variability between behaviors) and coordination (correlation between bones within a behavior) indicate that motion of the maxillary bridge, not the lower jaw, drives premaxillary protrusion. Thus, upper jaw protrusion is decoupled from lower jaw depression, allowing for two separate modes of protrusion, open mouth and closed mouth. These behaviors serve different functions: to procure food and to sort food, respectively. Variation in starting posture of the maxilla alone dictates which type of protrusion is performed; downstream motions are invariant. For closed mouth protrusion, a ventrally displaced maxillary starting posture causes kinethmoid rotation to produce more ventrally directed premaxillary protrusion. This flexibility, bestowed by the kinethmoid–maxillary bridge–A1b mechanism, one of several evolutionary novelties in the cypriniform feeding mechanism, may have contributed to the impressive trophic diversity that characterizes this speciose lineage.
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The Design of the SauLTC application for the English Arabic Learner Translation Corpus

The Design of the SauLTC application for the English Arabic Learner Translation Corpus

One of the earliest learner translation corpora was compiled in Germany by Robert Spence (1998). Another Learner Translator Corpora are PELCRA (Uzar, 2002) and the student Translation Archive (STA) (Bowker and Bennison, 2003). These early attempts to compile collections of electronically stored learner translations primarily aimed at identifying common problems in learner translations. The Russian Translation Learner Corpus or RuTLC (Sosnina, 2006) is another type that consists of English STs and their translations into Russian as the native language. Like the PELCRA corpus, it is also error-tagged, allowing automatic analysis of learner errors. It is used to identify the frequency and distribution of error types in order to detect the most frequent lexical, stylistic and grammatical errors in student translations in order to modify and improve teaching strategies and materials. Finally, Multiple Italian Student Translation Corpus (MISTiC) was developed by Castagnoli (2009) for a corpus-based study on explicitation. Multi-parallel and longitudinal analyses are possible, as there are several translations for each ST and each student contributed more than one translation. Although collecting and analyzing the output of trainee translators can be useful for translation teaching, and research started in the above pioneering projects at the end of the 1990s, these corpora remained exclusive and inaccessible to the wider community of researchers. The corpora also varied in the number of languages they include, the directionality of the translation, and the technologies used.
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'Flat-pack' philosophy: relativism, realism and the persistence of rhetoric in organization studies

'Flat-pack' philosophy: relativism, realism and the persistence of rhetoric in organization studies

the failure to acknowledge that its own carving up of the world is itself a language, and constitutes an epistemology. So despite Fleetwood’s claims that his sophisticated ontology should not be vulnerable to accusations of death and furniture arguments, we detect hubris. The ontology is actually limited; insofar as it is based on Bhaskar’s transcendental argument, it is contentious; much of it is rhetorical; its aims are political and theological; and the paper accordingly does not constitute sophisticated ontology but sophisticated ‘death and furniture’: ‘flat-pack’ philosophy. The solid reality that the furniture metaphor represents in earlier bottom line argumentation is no longer so simplistically represented. But even though a critical realist version of the real recognizes conceptual mediation and social construction, its assumption of entities, structures and mechanisms is still part of a solid bottom-line rhetorical justification strategy – a flat-pack artefactuality to be actualized. The more politics and theology are present in these discussions, the more agonistic the dialogue becomes, with debate being constructed as something to be won, and arguments as something to be settled (Linstead, 2003).
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