Translation and Women

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Knowledge translation tool to improve pregnant women’s awareness of gestational weight gain goals and risks of gaining outside recommendations: a non randomized intervention study

Knowledge translation tool to improve pregnant women’s awareness of gestational weight gain goals and risks of gaining outside recommendations: a non randomized intervention study

Background: There is an urgent need to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain, a contributor to both maternal and child obesity. However, the majority of women had reported not being counseled to gain an appropriate amount of gestational weight by their health care providers. We developed a knowledge translation (KT) tool designed to facilitate the clinical interaction between pregnant women and their health care providers (HCPs). We piloted the tool on the impact on women ’ s knowledge of gestational weight gain (GWG) goals, and evaluated its potential in promoting appropriate knowledge about GWG within the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study, comparing women ’ s knowledge about GWG after the KT tool to women from the same clinics and care providers the year prior. Our primary outcome was the proportion of women who reported receiving an appropriate GWG recommendation from their care provider. We evaluated knowledge on a survey conducted at enrollment in the cohort at ≤ 20 weeks gestation and evaluated participant satisfaction with the KT tool in the third trimester. We performed univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses for differences in outcomes with historical controls from the same clinics. Our a priori sample size calculation required 130 participants to demonstrate a 15% increase in reported counseling about gestational weight gain.
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Translation of nutrient recommendations into personalized optimal diets for Chinese urban lactating women by linear programming models

Translation of nutrient recommendations into personalized optimal diets for Chinese urban lactating women by linear programming models

Adequate maternal nutrition in lactating stage is crit- ical to ensure optimal growth of infants through breastmilk as well as maintaining nutrient storage in lactating mothers, therefore nutrient needs of lactat- ing women are higher than non-lactating women [30]. However, the specific nutrition needs during lactation may remain as a challenge because of various reasons like cultural practice of confinement diets [1], lack of awareness and poor knowledge [32], in addition to in- ertia to dietary guidance identified in general popula- tion due to an array of cultural, socio-economic, behavioral factors [33]. Diet modeling approach such as linear programming offers the possibility to trans- late nutrient recommendation into realistic and per- sonalized food advices [17]. Optimized diets generated by linear programming models in the present study could provide recommended micronu- trients and macronutrients for sampled individual lac- tating mothers in the correct amounts and proportion, which meets the definition of an adequate diet by FIGO [1]. To our best knowledge, this study is the first one to employ linear programming to translate nutrient-based recommendation for Chinese lactating women into personalized diets that satisfy nutrient recommendation.
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The Portrayal of Women in English Films Localized into Persian

The Portrayal of Women in English Films Localized into Persian

In AVT, mentions Díaz-Cintas (2012), the manipulation of the original assumptions and values could easily happen, which could yield a differing representation of the original. Chaume (2018) defines AVT as a process whereby the original program is adapted to rules and norms of the culture that called for the translation. Therefore, this potentiality of AVT in adding “further layers of meanings” as well as building “new webs of associations only alluded to, if not altogether missing, in the original texts” (Ranzato & Zanotti, 2018, p. 2) needs more attention, especially, if it is considered from a gender perspective. While the number of studies addressing the link between gender and AVT has been on rise, and it is not difficult to find monographs, edited books and encyclopedia entries (e.g., De Marco, 2012; von Flotow & Josephy-Hernández, 2019; De Marco & Toto, 2019), research has failed to examine this interconnection in languages of limited diffusion, including Persian. This fact notwithstanding, small albeit growing literature on the linguistic and cultural analysis of gender- related matters in screen products could be found in AVT, which have been based on three approaches, as von Flotow and Josephy- Hernández (2019) put it. The first approach deals with how feminist content has been reflected in AVT. In the second approach, subtitling and dubbing are compared to pinpoint the differences they manifest in terms of gender portrayal. Genderqueer—“non-binary sexual orientations” such as gay speaking—is the focus of the third approach to gender in AVT (von Flotow & Josephy-Hernández, 2019). The present work is positioned within the second approach where dubbing and (non-professional) subtitling of products are studied. De Macro (2016) is of the view that changes in three elements in cinematic programs could result in gender discrimination, and consequently, viewers’ perception of given characters is
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Translation spaces: Parallel shifts in translation and intercultural communication studies and their significance for the international development field

Translation spaces: Parallel shifts in translation and intercultural communication studies and their significance for the international development field

In the early 1990’s I was hired in -country to carry out research and project design for a participatory livelihoods project. I later became the project manager. The project was based in a remote rural area in Nampula, a northern province of Mozambique. The purpose of the project was to support communities to recover and develop their livelihoods in the context of post-war rehabilitation. The project was multi-faceted and included: support to agriculture production and marketing; access to primary health care and nutrition; and access to education and clean water. An overarching aim of the project was to empower men and women through a participatory development process, whereby groups were facilitated to make their own objectives and decisions about what they wanted to change. The project supported the groups’ capacity to manage their own activities. In the longer term some groups were supported to form their own associations, which enabled them to have more formal relationships with local government and private sector traders. Community-based organisations were encouraged and supported to make their needs known to local
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Western Female Translation Theorists and Their Translation Views

Western Female Translation Theorists and Their Translation Views

“From a gender perspective, faithfulness sometimes defines the relationship between translation (female) and the source text, especially with the original author as male.” [9] Women must be faithful to men, translators must be faithful to authors, and translations must be “faithful” to the original text. Since the gender metaphor and the violent trace of patriarchal ideology are hidden behind “faithfulness”, deconstructing faithfulness and rewriting this millennium myth of translation has become the primary goal of feminist translation theorists. Feminist translation theory restates faithfulness, arguing that “faithfulness is neither to the author nor to the reader, but to a scheme in which both the author and the translator are involved” [13] Feminists believe that creative treason actually implies the concept of faithfulness in translation and redefines the boundaries of “faithfulness”, “creation” and “treason”, which completely subvert the traditional two-element opposition structure. Since faithfulness is the writing practice and textual interpretation of the faithful female self, creation is inevitable, and treason is true to the creation of feminist translators because it implies that it is different from the original text. Therefore, faithfulness, creativity and treason serve the feminist translator`s writing practice and therefore feminism is no longer silent in the field of translation. “They are happy with rereading and rewriting, and openly hold high their banner of manipulation of the text.” [7] Under this banner, female translators will no longer follow the original, obedient, but actively manipulate the original text. This paper attempts to recreate the text from the feminist perspective of faithfulness.
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Community based Institutions and empowerment of women

Community based Institutions and empowerment of women

The role of SHG in this context is important because it provides an environment of sustainable improvement in the quality of life of rural women folk for equal opportunity in decision making process and to participate in community life. In our society there is wide range of prejudices and social taboos and women have been neglected to the status of a second class citizen. The women as a class continue to be at the losing end. The role of SHG helps rural women in greater collective say in their day to day affairs and can help in reducing inequality and gender bias and it is a contributory factor for rural development. SHG plays a major role in gender and development strategies because of its direct relationships to both poverty alleviation and women. As women are the poorest of the poor so greater financial security allows the women to become more empower in household and community affairs. As women spend most of their income on their family needs particularly children's education, diet, health care and clothing. Proponents of targeting women argue that women repayment record is good and their behaviour is more cooperative than men. Access to financial resources does not alone empower women but also access to material (credit, property, and money), human and social resources (education, business). It is not only economic uplift of women which is achieved through SHGs but they play an important role in uplifting their status in society. Their role as catalysts in effacing the social maladies cannot be ruled out.
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Translation, adaptation, and validation of the behavioral pain scale and the critical-care pain observational tools in Taiwan

Translation, adaptation, and validation of the behavioral pain scale and the critical-care pain observational tools in Taiwan

After the translation, the initial content validity of each item was reviewed by two bilingual (English–Mandarin speaking) epidemiologists. They collaborated with the Pain Research Group for semantic equivalence, clarity, and gram- matical accuracy. Minor modifications suggested by two clinical nurses were incorporated to preserve semantic and idiomatic equivalence in traditional Chinese characters for Mandarin-speaking nurses. Words and phrases that might diverge in meaning, detected during comparison of the trans- lated version with the original, and for which doubt existed were discussed with the translator.
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Context Dependent SMT Model using Bilingual Verb Noun Collocation

Context Dependent SMT Model using Bilingual Verb Noun Collocation

We learn chunk alignments from a corpus that has been word-aligned by a training toolkit for word- based translation models: the Giza++ (Och and Ney, 2000) toolkit for the IBM models (Brown et al., 1993). For aligning chunk pairs, we con- sider word(bunsetsu/eojeol) sequences to be chunks if they are in an immediate dependency relationship in a dependency tree. To identify chunks, we use a word-aligned corpus, in which source language sentences are annotated with dependency parse trees by a dependency parser (Kudo et al., 2002) and tar- get language sentences are annotated with POS tags by a part-of-speech tagger (Rim, 2003). If a se- quence of target words is aligned with the words in a single source chunk, the target word sequence is regarded as one chunk corresponding to the given source chunk. By applying this method to the cor- pus, we obtain a word- and chunk-aligned corpus (see Figure 1).
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Strategies for Translation of English Commercial Advertisements from the Intercultural Perspective

Strategies for Translation of English Commercial Advertisements from the Intercultural Perspective

As the development of global business and trade continues to grow, the eco- nomic exchanges between countries and regions are becoming increasingly common, and advertising is playing an important role in the international commodities economy. In terms of the study of the translation with regards to commercial advertising, most scholars have probed from the point of view of linguistics or translation theories. Some scholars like Quan Lu [1] discussed this issue based on Nida Eugene A’s theory of functional equivalence in 2000. In his paper “Alternative Ways in the Translation of Advertising Discourse between English and Chinese”, Quan Lu believes that the translation of the advertisement should be in the target language of the reader and should produce an effect or message that comes closest to replicating the original intended message of the original text of the reader through a flexible way of functional equivalence and How to cite this paper: Fan, H. (2017)
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Rural women and agricultural development in India

Rural women and agricultural development in India

Status of women in agricultural field and other allied sectors: Globally women constitute half of the world’s population and produce half of the agricultural products. It indicates the contribution of women in agriculture as a cultivator, agricultural labourers and causal helpers. Women are important economic agents particularly in the context of poverty in India. Women play a key role in the conservation of basic life support system such as land, water, flora and fauna. They protected the health of soil through organic fertilizer and crop security through varietal diversity and genetic resistance. The extent of women’s involvement in agriculture varies from region to region. India constitutes the patriarchal family system. The status of women in family is low. On that basis it is said to be that the status of women in agriculture is low. But according to the Economic survey 2017-18 the growing rural to urban migration by men which is the cause of feminisation of agricultural sector, a number of women play multiple roles as cultivators, entrepreneurs and labourers. They are forced to work in agriculture in their village because they aren’t allowed to migrate. It is clearly seen that the gender differences in workload management. Most of the women who are landless and homeless labourers, they socially and economically depressed. The society particularly in rural area is not still ready to accept changes in women’s work, their role and position and status because of the conservative thinking in villages. Now rural women are taking responsible for the integrated management. It needs to resources like land, credit, water, seeds and markets for fulfil the needs of the women. Globally millions of women engaged in agriculture with a heterogeneous group like different realities, opportunities and challenges. Now the changing role among the women is the part of evolving social, environmental, cultural and economic context.
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Urdu to English Machine Translation using Bilingual Evaluation Understudy

Urdu to English Machine Translation using Bilingual Evaluation Understudy

An EBMT system needs bilingual dictionary. It directly provides translation by adapting examples with no calculations of extensive chain of rules. In EBMT technique, the computational cost of translation is less than the computation cost of RBMT. Updation in syntactic or semantic rules is not required. This makes EBMT system easy to improve simply by entering suitable examples into database. Due to availability of large amount of text and its respective translation, an EBMT system is easy to build. It works on best match reasoning. The translation becomes difficult if there is no corresponding example in the corpus. The corpus containing overlapping sentences is good for extracting multiple translated phrases for a matched source language phrase. It basically translates in a fail-safe way. Reliability factor is given to translation result according to the distance between input text and similar examples found in the database. EBMT can also notify us when its translation is improper.
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Chinese translation and validation of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3)

Chinese translation and validation of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3)

In this stage, a bilingual native Chinese-speaking univer- sity graduate of English language studies was made responsible for back-translating the first common trans- lation from Chinese to English. The translator had no medical background and was blind to the content of the original English version of the SCAT3. This backward translation was compared against the original test to detect translation errors or unexpected interpretations of ambiguous items. Amendments were made accord- ingly by the two teams and sports physiotherapists to generate the penultimate version.

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Introduction and overview: crime (fiction) in translation

Introduction and overview: crime (fiction) in translation

Crime fiction works within tight generic conventions, deploys formulaic plot components and developments, and needs to negotiate informed reader expectations. The translator has to work within the constraints of genre norms, but their task is further complicated by the shift to a different set of linguistic resources, a target cultural context which may not supply relevant real world knowledge to close inferential gaps, and a possibly very different set of social and cultural norms which define what is deviant or transgressive along different boundaries. Crime fiction is a hugely creative genre making very great demands on authors and translators alike, demanding literary and aesthetic skills and the ability to deploy these within the constraints of genre norms. Genre does not make crime fiction writing or translation easier; like the formal constraints of poetry, genre constraints can produce greater creativity and ingenuity. Auden (1948) praised the ‘art’ of the detective story, in particular admiring Chandler’s style, Inge Löhnig’s novel is an excellent example of self-reflexive exploitation of genre conventions and literary allusions, and increasing numbers of ‘cross-over’ crime fiction are appearing, genre novels written by authors associated with elite literary production, for example Kate Atkinson, John Banville (writing as Benjamin Black) and Julian Barnes (writing as Dan Kavanagh, originally written in the 1980s but being reissued now).
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English Translation of Iranian Local Cultural Patterns of “Isfahan Nameh”

English Translation of Iranian Local Cultural Patterns of “Isfahan Nameh”

Paula Rubel and Abraham Rosman (2003) state a relation between anthropology and culture and understanding a culture or cultures is the central tar-get of anthropology. As for as translation of words such as ideas are not separate from culture, so they regarded translation as "writing about culture". People around the world need to understand each other when they confront with the variety of languages lingua Franca pidgins replace Gesture and sign language. So for achieving to this cross –cultural communication, translation was completely practical to resolve these kinds of issues. (Rubel &Rosman, 2003: 1). Along with Newmark's concerns about language& translation, he pointed out to culture and defines it as "the way of life and its manifestations that are peculiar to a community that uses a particular language as its means of expression" (Newmark, 1988: 94).
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Conducting a grounded theory study in a language other than English

Conducting a grounded theory study in a language other than English

The activities of analysis in a grounded theory study are complicated if the data are collected in a language other than English. Further complications occur if members of the research team are multilingual (and have different first languages). Although all members of a multilingual research team will be involved in the data analysis, data need to be collected in the local language of participants. A research team member who is fluent in the local language is the most appropriate person to interview participants. Such a decision will minimize the risk of misinterpretation and prevent the loss of participants’ intended meanings when they use phrases and concepts which are securely embed- ded in the study’s context (Smith et al., 2008). It is neces- sary to translate data into other languages for analysis by all researchers when the team is multilingual. Researchers must recognize, however, that this process can be time-con- suming, expensive and has the potential to compromise the validity of the data because meaning can be lost easily in translation (Smith et al., 2008). Researchers need to mini- mize the risk of compromising data by setting out opera- tional guidelines in the research proposal about translation. These guidelines must address the following three issues: when the data will be translated, who will undertake this translation, and what translation procedure will be used. The following worked example explains the procedures developed by researchers in this study to address these questions.
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The Importance of Professional Knowledge in Translation

The Importance of Professional Knowledge in Translation

Scholars around all the worlds see translation as a vocational field of study, for example, graduate programs in Taiwan are concerned about how resolve the problem of translation practice and instruction. In Australia, in or- der to meet the demands of translation due to multiculturalism, National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpretation has been established to maintain the quality of professional & para-professional translation. The National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters Ltd (trading as NAATI) is incorporated in Australia under the Corporations Act 2001. The company is owned jointly by the Commonwealth, State and Territory governments and is governed by a board of directors, who are appointed by the owners. NAATI’s main business activities are providing accreditation and other credentialing services for translators and interpret- ers and related activities. NAATI services are available through offices in every State and Territory of Australia and in New Zealand. The National Office is in Canberra. NAATI accreditation by testing is available for the following: Advanced Translator, Professional Translator, Paraprofessional Translator, Professional Interpreter and Paraprofessional Interpreter [14].
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Learning to translate with products of novices: a suite of open ended challenge problems for teaching MT

Learning to translate with products of novices: a suite of open ended challenge problems for teaching MT

Machine translation (MT) draws from several different disciplines, making it a complex sub- ject to teach. There are excellent pedagogical texts, but problems in MT and current algo- rithms for solving them are best learned by doing. As a centerpiece of our MT course, we devised a series of open-ended challenges for students in which the goal was to im- prove performance on carefully constrained instances of four key MT tasks: alignment, decoding, evaluation, and reranking. Students brought a diverse set of techniques to the prob- lems, including some novel solutions which performed remarkably well. A surprising and exciting outcome was that student solutions or their combinations fared competitively on some tasks, demonstrating that even newcom- ers to the field can help improve the state-of- the-art on hard NLP problems while simulta- neously learning a great deal. The problems, baseline code, and results are freely available.
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DCU Terminology Translation System for Medical Query Subtask at WMT14

DCU Terminology Translation System for Medical Query Subtask at WMT14

The baseline is obtained in the following way. The GIZA++ implementation (Och and Ney, 2003) of IBM Model 4 is used as the baseline for word alignment: Model 4 is incrementally trained by performing 5 iterations of Model 1, 5 iterations of HMM, 3 iterations of Model 3, and 3 iterations of Model 4. For phrase extraction the grow-diag- final heuristics described in (Koehn et al., 2003) is used to derive the refined alignment from bidirec- tional alignments. We then perform MERT (Och, 2003) which optimizes parameter settings using the BLEU metric (Papineni et al., 2002), while a 5- gram language model is derived with Kneser-Ney smoothing (Kneser and Ney, 1995) trained using SRILM (Stolcke, 2002). We use the whole train- ing corpora including the WMT14 translation task corpora as well as medical domain data. UMLS and Wikipedia are used just as training corpora for the baseline.
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Students’ Common Mistakes in Technical Texts When Using Computer Technologies

Students’ Common Mistakes in Technical Texts When Using Computer Technologies

At present, machine translation of technical texts to make sure the process of exchange of scientific and technical information is sufficient still does not correspond to specified objectives. Therefore, there is a need to continue theoretical study, to expand the experimental basis in this field and to develop modern computer technologies and its software at a higher level. Further improvement of existing and creation of new automated specialized dictionaries will make it possible to increase their quality. The development of hybrid machine translation systems (HMT) through the integration of advantages of two machine translation systems based on RBMT and SMT will dramatically improve the translation quality, develop innovative translation methods and increase the content of bilingual terminological dictionaries [12].
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A NOVEL APPROACH TO MACHINE TRANSLATION: A PROPOSED LANGUAGE-INDEPENDENT SYSTEM BASED ON DEDUCTIVE SCHEMES

A NOVEL APPROACH TO MACHINE TRANSLATION: A PROPOSED LANGUAGE-INDEPENDENT SYSTEM BASED ON DEDUCTIVE SCHEMES

In this paper, we first proposed a grammar induction method based on Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. After representing the extracted knowledge in the form of nested finite automata, a recursive model was proposed, which used a combination of rule and example based techniques. In the translation phase, through a hierarchical chunking process, the input sentence is divided into a set of phrases. Each phrase is searched in the corpus of examples. If the phrase is found, it will not be chunked anymore. Otherwise, the phrase is divided into smaller sub-phrases. The worst case occurs when none of the phrases and sub-phrases can be found in the corpus. In this case, we will finally have a set of simple words and the translation procedure will completely be rule-based. In other cases both approaches are applied. The accuracy of the system in translating from English to Persian was evaluated through a set of experiments using various metrics. The simulation results showed the promising accuracy and efficiency of the proposed system compared to PARS (as the most well-known English-to-Persian translation system) and other translators, including Frengly and Google Translate.
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