Improvement in power flow by the deliberate placement of UPFC is demonstrated in this paper. The demonstration uses a nine bus system to show the effectiveness of UPFC when a high higher load impacts the system. The circuit is first simulated first without a UPFC and the power flow studied. Simulation with the help of MATLAB software amply demonstrates the controllability of transmissionparameters with the introduction of UPFC. Dynamic performance is also seen to be improving by introduction of UPFC at a strategic location in the system.
sion of data, that scheme is used when the base station is closer to the mobile device. The modulation scheme CS-1 is the most robust, because it has more bit of re- dundancy, but it presents the lowest bit rate transmission. [6,7]. When the station mobile works with CS-1, the ter- minal presents errors in –76 dBm. The Table 1 shows a resume with the obtained results for Nokia and iPhone UEs.
ABSTRACT: In power system, power transmission line performance analysis in different feeder inter connection systems case study where a technique can be used for diagnostic purpose of performance parameter. The technique based on branch-matrix optimization has been utilized on a single electrical network system which consisting of single two port network. This network has been extended to different types of three layer system by introducing several two port network of same property by different feeder inter-connections. Four types of interconnections like multiple layer multidirectional radial system, multiple layer unidirectional radial system, multiple layer ring system and multi-elemental multilayer radial-ring system have been designed. Comparative study has been done on the basis of real data. The study has been tested to reach the conclusion by simulation.
Fabry-Perot interferometer. To achieve the resonance effect in an ORR, the loop length could be of the order of few micrometers  to tens of meters . Generally, the characteristics of ORR based optical filters are determined by their frequency responses which in turn depends on the characteristic parameters of the ORR. The characteristic parameters of an ORR, that influence filter response, are resonator loop length, coupling coeff- icient of the coupler, transmissionparameters of the loop fiber, and modulation frequency of the circulating field intensity in the resonator [23,24].
New Internet of Things (IoT) technologies such as LoRa , Sigfox  and Weightless  are emerging which enable power efficient wireless communication over very long dis- tances. These technologies are generally used to form Low- Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN) star networks. Devices communicate directly to a sink node which removes the need of constructing and maintaining a complex multi-hop network. However, to facilitate reliable communication with the sink in a large number of application scenarios a vast number of transmissionparameters are available to tune communication performance. Parameters such as transmission power, modu- lation scheme or error coding can be configured to optimise communication performance for the application scenario at hand. Given the vast number of parameter combinations it is a challenge to determine a suitable configuration. Finding a good configuration is important as the selected configuration determines the energy consumption of a device. One can argue that LPWAN technologies have removed the complexity of maintaining a multi-hop network while introducing complexity in transmission parameter selection.
In recent years, greater demands have been placed on the transmission network and these demands continue to increase because of the increasing number of non utility generators and intensified competition among them. Power flow control becomes a big issue nowadays in power system network due to the aging of equipment, the increase of distributed generations, the power marketing etc. FACTS controllers have the potential to increase the capacity of existing transmission networks through functional versatility and control flexibility. FACTS controllers have the capability of direct control of transmission line flows by changing the main transmissionparameters .This paper presents a concept that allows the IPFC exchange active power without common dc link and fuzzy logic controller which calculates the 3 rd harmonic voltage.
Abstract: Models in high frequency range for underground power cable connections are essential for the interpretation of partial discharge (PD) signals arising e.g. diagnostic techniques. This paper focuses on modeling of power cable joints. A lumped parameter odel and a cascaded transmission line model are proposed based on scattering parameters (S -parameters) measurement on a 10 kV oil-filled PILC-PILC straight cable joint in the frequency range of 300 kHz-800 MHz. It is shown that the lumped model is suitable for up to 10 MHz while the transmission line model can cover the whole frequency range. The cascaded transmission line model is applied to simulate the reflection on a 150 kV single core XLPE straight joint. Comparison between measurement and simulation indicates that the model parameters (characteristic impedance and propagation coefficient) can be matched to predict the joint’s propagation characteristics.
Artificial Neural Networks and Expert systems can be used to improve the performance of the line. The environmental sensors sense the environmental and atmospheric conditions and give them as input to the expert systems. The expert systems are computer programs written by knowledge engineers which provide the value offline parameters to be deployed as the output. The ANNs are trained to change the values of line parameters over the given ranges based on the environmental conditions. Training algorithm has to be given to ANN. After training is over, the neural network is tested and the performance of the updates trained neural network is evaluated. If performance is not up to the desired level, some variations can be done like varying number of hidden layers, varying number of neurons in each layer. The processing speed is directly proportional to the number of neurons. These networks take different neurons for different layers and different activation functions between input and hidden layer and hidden and output layer to obtain the desired output. In this way the performance of the transmission line can be improved.
mathematical modelling with statistical analysis allows the use of static patterns to understand dynamics; basic epidemiological parameters can be estimated in the absence of many years of time series data. The relation- ship between the statics and dynamics of Plasmodium infections in female Anopheles mosquitoes has been a focal point in classic studies of malaria transmission . For mosquitoes, it is easier to measure parity, the repro- ductive age of the adult mosquito, than the chronological age of the mosquito, the time since adult emergence [6,7]. Saul et al. reformulated classic models for static age-infec- tion relationships as cyclical feeding models; i.e. the mod- els were formulated in terms of parity. They used the models to analyse mosquito statics, derive a formulae for the sporozoite rate, and define individual vectorial capac- ity . Killeen et al. followed a similar line of thinking and estimated the entomological inoculation rate (EIR) from studies of mosquito populations . Both models use the gonotrophic cycle of the mosquito to mark time, but the underlying assumptions about mosquito populations are essentially identical to those of Ross and Macdonald [1,2].
There are many different concepts and techniques used in industrial level measurement applications like pulse radar, FMCW radar, systems with antennas or coaxial waveguides or systems with single rods or cables. Each concept has its advantages and its specific field of application. Here we seek for a high precision multi target level measurement system. The decisive parameters of such a system are explained in the following.
Although the worldwide success of the Internet is partly due to the simplicity and robustness of its layered network architecture, this architecture, developed for wired networks, is not efficient for multihop wireless networks. Cross-layer approaches have been proposed , to enhance the adaptability and performance of these networks by jointly tuning the parameters of different layers. One of the critical performance metrics in multihop wireless networks is throughput. It is highly dependent on the configuration of routing, medium access, and physical-layer parameter and on their interactions; see, for example, and in the case of a (conflict-free) scheduled network. Configuring a wireless network based on random access is much more difficult, and one might be tempted to simply use a so-called default configuration comprised, for example in the case of slotted ALOHA, of a minimum-hop routing and equal attempt probability. While one would expect that joint configuration of routing, medium access, and physical-layer parameters of a random access network can provide better performance than the default configuration, there is no clear indication so far on how much improvement can be achieved by joint design and how to jointly configure the parameters. In a single-channel wireless network, during a transmission, the interference seen by a receiver is the additive interference from all the other
Channel allocation deals with the allocation of channels to cells in a cellular network. Once the channels are allocated, cells may then allow users within the cell to communicate via the available channels. Channels in a wireless communication system typically consist of time slots, frequency bands and/or CDMA pseudo noise sequences, but in an abstract sense, they can represent any generic transmission resource. In Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA) frames are transmitted. During the transmission of the frames, collision might be occurring, which make the retransmission of the frames .Transmission of the frames can be done either in continuous time or in a slotted manner. Sensing of the channel is also providing help during the transmission. A single channel is used for the whole communication.
LP energy (blue dots) and linewidth calculated from the simulation (orange curve). Lower panel: Maximum measured polariton transmission as a function of the LP energy (blue dots) and simulated maximum cavity transmission (orange curve). The background color plot indicates the Hopfield coefficient corresponding to the lower polariton energy. (c) The ratio |c x | 4 /Γ p which quantifies the maximum attainable quantum
Chapter 2 is a chapter, which covers on the literature review of the project. Each of the literature review is divided into a certain sub topic or explanation. The literature review begins with the introduction, followed by antenna, microstrip antenna, transmission lines, software development, microstrip technologies and antenna applications.
Today, electromagnetic susceptibility threshold for complex electronic components decreases continuously, due to two trends . First, needs in speed transmission and wide frequency bandwidth result in a large increase in operating frequencies. Second, there is a drastic decrease in device size and in bias currents. With the increase in operating frequency, the length of the electromagnetic waves emitted by devices becomes smaller, reaching the size of the devices themselves. The electromagnetic wave will then couple itself to tracks and get processed towards devices. Hence, it becomes drastic that in circuit design risks due to electromagnetic susceptibility be reduced. For this, one needs the best information possible on the conditions for optimal coupling of an electromagnetic wave to circuit board tracks. These coupling problems are addressed in this paper in a concrete way, with a long microstrip line placed in front of a Schottky diode. To exhaustively study both wave coupling and propagation on the line, a high frequency
Quantifying the uncertainity involved in routing for computer communication networks using entropy has been introduced in . This study reveals the superiority of entropy constrained routing algorithm over neural optimization approaches.  provides an analysis and critical review of two metrics, relative motion entropy and energy entropy. They conclude by their study that the relative motion entropy metric lacks the features to be useful for characterizing MANET node motion predictability, while the maximum energy entropy criterion leads to effective energy use by clusterheads communicating with cluster members. However, the use of information entropy analogues is unnecessary if the metrics are used individually. Under those conditions, the parameters defined in the entropy framework can be evaluated directly.  Proposes a reactive route handoff method which can increase the overhead from frequent route discoveries. This paper proposes a novel Entropy-based Long-life Multipath Routing algorithm in MANET (ELMR). The key idea of ELMR algorithm is to construct the new metric, entropy and select the stable multipath with the help of entropy metric to reduce the number of route reconstructions, so as to provide QoS guarantee in MANET. It is typically proposed in order to increase the reliability of data transmission or to provide load balancing. The simulation results show that the entropy based approach and parameters provide an accurate and efficient method of estimating and evaluating the route stability in dynamic MANETs.
Recently Ozeri et al. investigated an ultrasonic transcutaneous energy transfer for wireless power delivery to implanted microdevices . The authors proposed a system consisting of two piezoelectric transducers of 15 mm diameter and 3 mm thickness with a 1.3 mm thick acoustic matching layer (made of graphite). Experimental measurements were carried out for soft tissues (slices of pork of 5–35 mm thickness) immersed in a test water tank. Operating at a frequency of 673 kHz the system demonstrated the overall power transmission efficiency of 27% (at 5 mm separation). The authors analyzed in detail such important design considerations for maximum power transfer as selection of operating frequency, acoustic impedance matching, circuit design for excitation of transducers, and output power conditioning. They also built a finite element model in order to study the pressure intensity profile generated by a transducer and define the preferred receiver location in its different zones (near/far field and the focus).
Moisture content was influenced by temperature and period of drying. The longer period of drying and the higher the temperature used, the moisture content of edible film will decrease. An edible film with low moisture content had a compact pores and perfectly spread surface. Besides, glycerol addition also contributed to edible film surface formation. A long period of drying and glycerol addition will lower internal hydrogen bonds and generated a film with a compact pores, subsequently . Moreover, water vapor and oxygen transmission will be decelerated. Microscopic observations were shown in figure 6.
Afterwards, the rules of the EACS were described. A map of the optimal operation points of the ICE, in terms of FC and emissions, was achieved using the GC method, and is used in the EACS for de- termining the ICE operation point at each moment of the driving cycle. Since the parameters of the EACS impact its performance and, therefore, vehicle FC and emissions, these parameters were considered the remaining part of the optimization parameters. The aim of optimization was to attain an acceptable value for vehicle FC and emissions without sacricing dynamic performance. In order to optimize vehicle FC and emissions simultaneously, the GC method was employed. It can be concluded from the optimization results that the achieved values for the objectives are not the same utopia points, but are acceptable values. Then, it was demonstrated that the optimized parameters satisfy the PNGV criteria. Finally, the eectiveness of the simultaneous optimization was eval- uated by comparison with conventional methods and it was demonstrated that simultaneous optimization gives better results. Also, the optimized EACS and the DP strategy were compared using optimal transmission and the superiority of the EACS over the DP was shown.