Although the German-Dutch PoliceCooperation is located at the regional level (EU- REGIO), Germany and the Netherlands as legitimate states formed the required base by implementing the Interstate Treaty. It can be followed that without this trea- ty, an integration of the police institutions in form of a police collaboration would not have been possible. Actively, the states themselves made the collaboration work and fostered integration. This is also a characteristic feature of the Theory of Inter- governmentalism, which assesses sovereign nation states as the key actors on the international level, acting in a rational way. Germany and the Netherlands as sover- eign nation states are the key responsible actors for enabling a cooperation of their police forces. It is the task of both Germany and the Netherlands as states to gua- rantee internal security for their citizens. By signing the Interstate Treaty of 2006, Germany and the Netherlands followed their rational preferences of pursuing more internal security. Advantages and disadvantages of such a treaty were weighed up, resulting in the awareness that the states could profit from a policecooperation. For example, transnational terrorism challenges the nation states. If states work toge- ther, they will be able to maintain themselves and to meet modern police challenges better. Therefore, the intergovernmentalist assumption that integration only happens if nations can thereby amend the performance of their national tasks and enhance their power on the international level is fulfilled. The police officers acting on foreign territory have extended competences and are allowed to continue with their police work even when the German-Dutch border has to be crossed. Nevertheless, the two states did not have an intention to establish a new, shared institution which replaces their own national institutions. Instead, they cooperate in an interstate way so that they do not lose power to a supranational police institution. Thus, they protect their own sovereignty, but also use the advantages of a cooperation. This issue can also be found in the Theory of Intergovernmentalism because according to Hoffmann, even if states cooperate, it is not desired to create a higher institution going beyond the nation state.
Apart from the CCP and SMCC on above, Vietnam also involves directly in the ASEAN Seaport Interdiction Task Force (ASITF). It aims to coordinate in preventing drug trafficking in ASEAN through international seaport border gates as well as to enhance cooperation among ASEAN countries to preventing drug trading into or transiting ASEAN region. Furthermore, the program strengthens the cooperation network among drug prevention and fighting agencies under national seaport preventing units of ASEAN and counterpart countries. Additionally, LEAs of each member enhanced information sharing, intelligence, and coordination concerning illegal trading of addictive substances, psychotropic substances, and precursors among preventing units at the seaports of ASEAN member countries and counterpart countries where necessary. By doing this, the program contributed to coordinate in the cross-border investigation and also promote interdisciplinary cooperation with other agencies such as migration agency, customs, border security among ASEAN countries to prevent drug trafficking by air or by sea. With the activities of some cooperation frameworks among countries and information received annually by LEAs of Vietnam, from 2010 until now, 1,801 items of information on drug crime have been obtained from their partners (MPS, 2018). There includes 730 news on the situation of drug crime related to border areas and inland border gates, 685 reports on the status of drug crime related to sea border areas. Based on the coordination in receiving information on drug crime, the ANCIP has coordinated with functional forces of the Customs, Border Guards and Marine Police to implement professional measures, organize fierce fights against drug crime in border areas, border gates and on the sea, and has investigated and discovered a total of 10,992 cases, arrested 17,808 people, accounting for 8.09% of total cases found in the whole country.
__________________________________________________________________________________________ Summary. Traffic offences are one of the most important cause of fatalities and bad injuries traffic accidents. EU Commission identified DUI (Driving Under Influence of alcohol and/or drugs), overspeed, misuse of seatbelts and distraction during driving time as the “fatal four”. To obtain the reduction of 50% of the victims on the roads (as the main target imposed to MS during the 2011-2020 period) is mandatory to reduce the total number of specific violations. Statistics show that more than 90% of the offences committed by non-residents were not followed-up at the EU level, causing a lack of effectiveness for the penalties. A better policecooperation in CrossBorder Enforcement of traffic offences is one possible solution to the specific problem. The legal basis of this specific kind of cooperation, able to produce an effective solution, obtaining transnational effectivity for specifically and most dangerous traffic offences, is the so called “CBE-CrossBorder Enforcement” Directive, nr. 2011/82/EU, dated 25 th October 2011, facilitating the crossborder exchange of information on road safety related traffic offences, replaced, after the 6 th May 2014 European Court of Justice Decision nr.
internationalization of Western criminal law enforcement grows (Buruma, 2000). Walker (2000) has warned that unless new and effective regulatory tools are devised that encompass solutions to the complexity of various transnational contexts, policing may not satisfy the current realities and criticisms of “informalism and accountability”, which traditionally have plagued policing history worldwide. Walker (2000) argues the importance of political and economic constraints within the ‘ideological matrix,’ stating, “the stable prosperity of the EU in the more fluid post-Cold War world order stands in stark contrast with the insecurity and poverty of the polities and economies to the South and East” (p. 93). It is imperative for all parties involved to understand the basic issues and wishes of transitional societies before blindly accepting or rejecting the importing of Western-democratic philosophies of policing. The need for such fundamental comprehension is exemplified in the challenges law enforcement faces in interdicting the cross-border movement of drugs and other forms of contraband, amidst the expanding global legal market for goods and services that creates a ready pipeline for the smuggling of illicit goods. The overall US–Mexican trade volume of $130 billion, the hundreds of millions of legal border crossings each year, and both countries’ vested interest in the expansion of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have created a pipeline for smuggling illicit goods and an almost impossible situation for law enforcement. Consequently, US customs officials are able to subject only 25 percent of the 3.5 million commercial vehicles entering the US from Mexico annually to a “narcotics enforcement examination”. 1 Yet a single conveyance is capable of transporting tons of narcotics in just one border crossing while easily blending in with legitimate trucks. Recent law enforcement estimates suggest that Mexican traffickers are delivering between five and seven tons of drugs, including cocaine, marijuana, heroin, and methamphetamine, to the US each day. 2
Annual meetings have been held since 2009 among the sector ’ s most representative associations in the two regions (Portuguese-Galician Fashion Cluster Forum), to discuss common themes and challenges, as well as implement ideas that can in practice contribute to bolstering complementarily and the cross-border cluster. These meetings have acted as platforms for exchange and dialogue, fostering furthermore contacts between employers and unions on both sides of the border, bringing them closer and facilitating joint collaboration and work. They have also served to exchange experiences and encourage collective learning based on initiatives which have successfully or unsuccessfully taken place in each of the regions. They further provide the opportunity to evaluate the role of public administrations in bolstering the sector, as well as to publicize the cluster and its vitality.
Cooperation on cross-border level with a view to promote human values supposes respecting some principles and laws. Transparent information involves good knowledge of decision-making and government actors. Secondly, it is important that there is transparent participation to decision-making both directly and through representation. Finally, the third principle refers to stakeholders’ skills. In this last situation, it is very important to measure state institutions’ capacities to respond to people’s requests and needs. Mass-media may intervene each time when public interests are damaged. Beyond these principles, freedom of press and expression in press is highly important.
On the other side of the border, Galicia is characterized by a business structure not so dense as in North Portugal’s , in terms of number of companies and workers, and it did not suffer from the same degree of vulnerability with regard to the competitive pressures of globalization, precisely because it has developed a more balanced value chain [3, 15, 23]. These entrepreneurial agents recognized early the importance of investment in technology, the relevance of design and quality, the need to create their own brands, as well as the advantages of applying market research methodologies which provided them with prior information about the consumers’ preferences . It was, consequently, able to evolve from small textile manufacturing units to high turnover companies, which would in turn subcontract smaller local companies at certain stages in the manufacturing process. Although there are signs of strong relations of interdependency among Galician companies, which have bolstered the region’s dynamism in this sector, this trend happened simultaneously with significant externalization of production to territories with lower wage costs, as it is the case of the North Portugal .
der leads to the production of eﬃ cient and eﬀ ective services, which improves the lives of individual citizens as well as other partners and stakeholders. Cross-bordercooperation includes diﬀ erent integration processes from small and temporary activ- ities to powerful and sustainable projects, such as regional building projects, which are fi nancially supported by transnational authorities. According to Passi (1986), the process of cross-border regional building consists of diﬀ erent development stages that gradually lead to internal cohesion and external separation. Local communities along the border have to develop powerful processes of integration, and they must be involved in diﬀ erent networks in order to enable knowledge production, labor com- petence and service provisions to satisfy the citizens (Copus, 2001). The goal is to de- velop and create strong, long-lasting and sustainable cooperation networks. Accord- ing to Wiberg (apud Matt sson and Pett ersson, 2005, p. 99), the basic purpose of this cooperation is to be useful to each other by similar or complementary eﬀ ects, such as gaining access to a variety of services and cultural activities. Another goal is to reduce the disparities and hierarchical power relation between the center and periphery as well as between urban and rural areas (European Union, 2004). Moreover, cross-bor- der cooperation fosters contacts between individuals as well as networks between local communities (Stubb apud Järviö, 2011, p. 1). It contributes to the establishment of a common border-region identity, and it facilitates the generation of social capital, trust and mutual understanding among the communities on both sides of the border. Finally, cross-bordercooperation leads to bett er relations between the neighboring countries, and the EU funding for such cooperation contributes to the stability and prosperity of the border areas in the EU. Such funding is essential for some border local communities, especially in recovering from economic and fi nancial crises, when seeking external fi nancial resources is a key task that often is the only opportunity for development.
This paper examines the current status, the limits, the prospects and the policies of cross-bordercooperation in the border zone of Albania, Bulgaria, FYROM and Greece, on the basis of a survey with a sample of 291 manufacturing firms located near the borders in all four countries. The analysis suggests that border region firms may have a higher level of interaction than the respective average national firms in all countries and that trade relations and economic cooperation eventually depend on the level of specialization and the size of the markets. It also suggests that barriers to cooperation mater and can affect negatively the performance of border region firms. Overall, firms are less concerned about the quality of infrastructure and more concerned about the general or the П nancial conditions prevailing in each country, indicating that the best policy of cross-bordercooperation, besides infrastructure, may be the development of the economies in the region and the improvements in their economic environment.
The Trio Presidency of Italy-Latvia-Luxembourg has decided to take as the starting point of its common program in the fields of Territorial Cohesion and Urban Policy a discussion about the way in which the European Union’s objective of territorial cohesion is implemented (Action 1) and to follow up this discussion by a number of concrete measures to strengthen Territorial Cohesion in Europe. These concrete measures are divided into four further actions that support the implementation of territorial cohesion through discussing a territorial perspective and vision of Europe for 2050 (Action 2), legal provisions for the improvement of cross-border collaborations (Action 3), a recognition of Territorial Cohesion and Cohesion Policy in a broader policy context at the EU level (Action 4), and highlighting the role of Small and Medium Cities for the development of Europe (Action 5).
Surely the question may be asked as follows: who emigrates? Beyond the social risks and benefits, Pusztai and Nagy have put students in the centre of their analysis and examined the mobility possibilities in the border region of North-Eastern Hungary. In their paper, they surveyed the motivations of the academic mobility in the case of cross-border Hungarian students from the Partium region. Their triggering hypothesis was that the mobile group (the border crossing one) possesses distinct orientations compared to those remaining at home, while their cost-benefit calculations also lead them to another direction, respectively, their economic, cultural and relationship capi- tal influence decisions as well. Their assumptions were tested by analysing the answers to questionnaires recorded in mobile (82 individuals) and non-mobile (329 individuals) groups in the 2003/2004 academic year. Based on this, the argument for mobility in the case of mobile students was that they have found the university departments they would have liked to attend only in other parts of Hungary. Consequently, unlike the non-mobile group, in the case of the mobile group, the eagerness to enhance personal talents and abilities pre- ceded university proximity and the financial easement attached to it (travel expenses, accomodation, subsistence, etc.). Nevertheless, the choice to travel within the borders of Hungary was already influenced by distance: those ques- tioned decided on Debrecen or Nyíregyháza instead of Pécs, Szeged or Buda- pest, which are farther away from Partium. Among the mobile students who decided to cross borders, some pre-conditions were revealed: both a higher academic qualification and a more stable position on the job market of their parents, as well as a higher economic status of their families (Pusztai – Nagy 2005).
Concluding from the above findings, a successful CCC can be identified as the following: Different success factors have to be fulfilled, while some are mutually influencing each other. First of all, the cities in question have to lie spatially close to each other, being connected via a fixed link, like the Øresund Bridge, or via close transportation, as can be seen in the Talsinki twin-city region. The economy of the two cooperation partners has to be somehow homogenous, meaning that both sides should be able to profit from the cooperation. Additionally meaning that the political as well as legal framework concerning labor and tax policies should be in adaptation. In order for a CCC to develop a strong and successful regional economy, a regional identity should be prevalent. This identity can be constructed via shared historic events, traditions, historic bonds, linguistic similarities, as well as a shared cultural heritage. Such identity can be strengthened through setting up an institutional framework, which can stand up for the region’s interest and formulate the legal basis for the CCC towards the national and international level. The identification of a common competitor represents the fifth success factor, since if both partners fight against the same opponent or for the same goal, the incentive to work together and to take joint action is much higher than for working alone. As the final success factor, uniqueness can be identified. The creation of a unique economy or characterization of a region, which distinguishes the CCC from any other economy on the market, plays an important role. In order to attract FDI and to support industrial growth, the region has to create something special.
thought is, why should we implement this here if other countries don’t do it? Cooperation is used to hold a mirror to our own performance. We may think we are doing well, but is this actually the case? And are they [Eastern- European countries] actually so bad over there? There is a lot of rabble-rousing. Images and noises come up very quickly. Sometimes they are the truth, but no one checks whether it is indeed the case. Because of cooperation, you see that things are done the same in other countries. IMPEL contributes to strengthen mutual trust.’ As a third virtue of international cooperation, interviewees men- tioned resource sharing. Here again we found a cross- country divide. Portuguese and Polish officials underlined the rather mundane benefit that participation in networks brought them: it reduced the financial burden of imple- mentation. Particularly in the field of product safety, the costly testing of whether products are safe can be shared among the members of the network. The last virtue of international cooperation identified by the actors interviewed was conflict resolution. Particularly in policy domains where risk assessments play a role – in our cases, product safety and air safety – differences between member states may have a direct effect on individual agencies’ ability to implement EU law effectively. Cooperation may prevent differences from having this effect – and conflicts from getting out of hand – by facilitating the resolution of differences. For example, there is always some subjectivity involved in interpreting the results of risk assessments, and talking to each other and jointly analysing assessment results helps inspectors come to a common understanding, thus facilitating the day-to-day implementation work of each and every inspectorate.
EGTC Regulation refers to a legal instrument, although the validity is not limited to the 2007-2013 programming period it is meant to be used for: should be able to act, either for the purpose of implementing territorial cooperation programs or projects co- financed by the Community, notably under the Structural Funds in conformity with Regulation (EC) No 1082/2006 and Regulation (EC) No 1080/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 July 2006 on the European Regional Development Fund, or for the purpose of carrying out actions of territorial cooperation which are at the sole initiative of the Member States and their regional and local authorities with or without a financial contribution from the Community 18 . Another reason for creating this common mechanism for integrated management refers to the principle of non-cooperation that should not be more difficult between two partners from different Member States, only between partners in the same MemberState. We have considered the European examples of good practice that accessed this new instrument, i.e. Lille – Kortrijk- Tournai Eurometropolis (which was the first such structure created in Europe), the communities of Debrecen and Oradea based on the cooperation proven by our previous research. We are safe to say that there are premises according to which a new Eurometropolis can be
Education, research and development will play a stronger role in crossborder co-operation. In general a good and diverse supply of education and research & development exists within the whole region, with a strong dominance of Wien, relatively good performance of Győr in Hungarian comparison and some gaps in the southern part, that might be filled in by the extension of the programme area to Graz. The established co-operations will be continued and extended both among the educational institutions as well as the industry and R&D sectors. Thematic focus of cooperation on R&D in the area is concentrated on: mechatronics, nature management, renewable primary products, logistics, eco-mobility and sustainable tourism. Beside the R&D activity, higher education must be linked to the needs of the key economic branches and clusters.
The research has certain limitations as it considers the period of the programme 2007 – 2013, thus, the problem of Ukraine and the current state of EU-Russian relations due to sanctions is not taken into close consideration. However, it sheds light on how cooperation has been perceived by the Russian side in 2014. The fact that regardless of many projects of civil society cooperation were closed either due to Russian legislation of ―foreign agents‖ or the sanctions, the ENPI programme has been renovated to ENI and all documentation procedures have been already agreed on. In these circumstances, the recent political events and worsening of the EU-Russia relations did not affect the cross-bordercooperation programme with the Republic of Karelia. By contrast, the current state of international politics contributes to the topicality of the issue of ongoing EU-Russia CBC. It confirms that despite of EU- Russia political disagreements over the issue of Ukraine and Syria, European foreign policy still follows its direction of maintaining CBC with Russia on regional level and Russian authorities do not oppose this. . Despite the discussions on the termination of the ENPI CBC programme and cutting off financing for 2014 period, and the EU sanctions, a new financing instrument for Russian-European CBC ENI will be launched in 2016 12 . It may make one believe that cross-bordercooperation is highly important direction within the EU external policy not only on the level of documents and statements but also in practice.
As discussed above, Memoranda of Understanding are legally non-binding declarations of intent whose value drops dramatically in times of distress. For cooperation to become legally binding, it has to be mandated in banking legislation. However, concerns may arise as to whether such legally mandated cooperation is constitutional, i.e. does not violate the sovereignty of the collaborating authorities. The cooperation among regulators in Australia and New Zealand is an example of such legally binding cooperation. The two countries are closely integrated financially, with branches and subsidiaries of Australian banks dominating New Zealand’s financial sector. This has led to extensive cooperation and information- sharing between the Australian Prudential Regulatory Authority (APRA) and the Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ), facilitated by similar levels of regulatory development, joint history and a common legal tradition. The cooperation is further strengthened by a 2006 amendment to the Reserve Bank of New Zealand Act, which legally obliges the RBNZ to cooperate and consult with Australia’s financial supervisory authorities to try to avoid actions that may negatively affect financial system stability in Australia. The Australian Banking Act was amended in similar manner. There is also a Trans-Tasman Council on Banking
19 from the Belarusian part of the cross-border region, and over 28 000 – from the Ukrainian part). Migration was also a serious problem in the Polish part, but it was compensated by natural increase. In terms of the demographic structure, the relatively most favourable situation could be observed in the Polish part of the cross-border region, and the least favourable - in the Belarusian part. At the beginning of 2013, the share of the working-age population was, respectively, 63.9% in the Polish part, 46,44% in the Ukrainian part, and 79,05% in the Belarusian part. The year before, the highest share of the pre-working age population in the total number of the population was recorded on the Polish side of the border (19.3%), lower on the Ukrainian side (18.3%), and the lowest – on the Belarusian side (17.2%). In consequence, in the Belarusian and Ukrainian parts of the eligible area, there is a high share of the post-working age population, 21.2% in the Ukrainian part and 23.2% in the Belarusian part of the eligible area. By comparison, the situation in the Polish part of the cross- border region can be viewed as rather favourable, with 17.2% of the population in post-working age. Nonetheless, in a broader perspective, it should be concluded that even on the Polish side of the border the problem of population ageing is very acute and likely to worsen in the coming years. 2 In the Polish and Ukrainian parts of the cross-border region, access to higher education is at a relatively good level (mainly thanks to the existence of academic institutions in Lviv, Lublin, Rzeszow and Przemyśl). In 2013/2014, there were nearly 52 students per 1000 population on the Polish side of the border, and nearly 36 on the Ukrainian side. Visibly lower values were noted in the Belarusian part of the cross-border region, with 25 students per 1000 population. However, the national statistics for Belarus are significantly better, and comparable with the results from Poland and Ukraine, which probably means that the residents of the Belarusian part of the cross-border region relatively frequently choose universities located outside of this area (most often in Minsk).
borders. However, some border posts are not manned due to unknown bureaucratic issues, and Lesotho is totally surrounded by RSA and people just cross in and out of either country without any proper clearance. This poses a serious security threat to both countries. Better border control should also help in safeguarding lawful trade between the countries and reduce the disruption caused by cross-border and organised crime. There is also a more recent phenomenon of human trafficking that largely involves women and children. Adequate border control measures could only be achieved if proper intelligence is collected and analysed timely and in a manner that will be applicable to its users to counter the threats. Intelligence gathering is any country’s priority in safety and security.