The Irish website hittheroad.ie (Hitheroad, 2013), and its accompanying smartphone application, provides users with emissions information in addition to available public transport routes and real time public transport information with the Greater Dublin Area (NTA, 2013). This information is presented in terms of emissions reduction in comparison to undertaking the same route in a car. The Reittiopas journey planner in Helsinki similarly provides users with emissions information in terms of the emissions associated with their trip, annual emissions per commuter trip and an estimated annual reduction in to driving (Reittiopas, 2013). This website also allows users to view the calorific consumption associated with walking or cycling the trip. The online journey planner Transport Direct enables users to plan a public transport trip within the United Kingdom and compare their selected route with other modes in terms of associated carbon dioxide emissions, while also providing ticket purchasing options (Transport Direct, 2013). Privately developed applications such as Ride Off Carbon (CityRyde LLC, 2011) and Carbon Diem (Carbon Hero Limited, 2013) allow users to enter their mode details when beginning a trip and use the Smartphone’s GPS location function to calculate the
there has been considerable progress in the determination of thermodynamic, acoustic and transport properties of working fluids from ultrasonic speed, density and 1986; Hautmanet al., Neil, 1970; Hoiland, 1978 and Wang and . Transport properties of electrolytes in aqueous and mixed solvents are of interest in various technology and industrial units like high energy density batteries, photo electrical cells, electro deposition and wet electrolytic capacitors and in electro organic synthesis. The chemical behavior of liquid mixtures has been ; Syal et al., 2000; 2002 and Chauhan, Viscosity, density and ultrasonic velocity measurements and the properties derived from these are excellent tools to solute and solute interactions. Such interactions een studied in DMF and EMK mixture by using Bu 4 NBr
Structures and forms of cities must be taken into consideration in order to reduce car externalities in urban areas. Although various cities have different indicators, urban structures have similar factors such as land use, street network, private motorized facilities, and public transport infrastructures. These indicators affect private motorized trips. Literature on this field is filled with the studies that have shown the relationships between urban structure indicators and transportbehaviour. Yet, there are some scholars who claim that the influence of urban form on travel behaviour is limited (e.g., Boarnet and Crane 2001; Handy et al., 2005; Stead, 2001). These researchers have not found enough evidence to prove that urban forms significantly influence motorized trips. They claim that built environment traits are weak in defining travel behaviour. For instance, the residents of areas with comparable density, diversities, and designs may show different travel behaviour since they have diverse socio-economic characteristics such as income and age. As a result, these factors need to be controlled. The location of the investigated residential areas relative to the metropolitan center structure is another example that makes different travel behaviour for areas with similar 3D (density, diversities, and designs). This has often been disregarded especially in North American studies.
Fifthly, there is an almost exact parallel between discussions in the two sectors about the need to combine interventions of many different types, pulling consistently in the same direction – and also recognising that there may be commercial or other influences whose effect is to offset or reverse the intervention. This suggests that DfT (and other government authorities) has an important role to play in ensuring that the targeted behaviour will be addressed by a set of measures that address the different determinants of behaviour relevant in the context (e.g., awareness, attitudes, economic values) and in ensuring they are all pulling in the same direction. Moreover, identifying the parallels between travel behaviour and road-safety behaviour, and how behavioural change initiatives have been or could be applied in both domains, could motivate the design of successful measures that target the same population, or tackle behaviours that have similarities between them, and help to shape interventions in transportbehaviour that are based on a more holistic approach. Recognising the linkage and continuity between different Government behavioural change initiatives in travel behaviour, road safety behaviour as well as non-transport behaviours (health, climate change, crime, etc.) might help in locking in the benefits of some of the successful measures, and in enhancing and expending some of the behavioural change that already has been achieved in one context to a transport context. Since most interventions are comprised from several measures that work in parallel to change behaviour of the targeted population, it is advised that the monitoring and evaluation of the effects should as far as possible address the success of each measure over time as well as the success of the intervention as a whole, albeit remembering that this is inherently difficult in conditions where synergy exists. It is advised that collection and reporting on evidence of the success and effectiveness of measures should be done continuously and systematically. This might help in identifying the more effective measures and help in the shaping of other interventions. This leads to the suggestion that new forms of recording and monitoring progress should be developed, possibly as a key role of Government in an overall coordination role. For example, ‘action plans’ should detail all the interventions in progress that might influence a particular behaviour (including those that, adopted for other reasons, might push it in an unintended direction) so that there would be early warning of signs of successes that can be reinforced or failures that need to be corrected.
27 been reported previously and HHFBDPP represents the first example of an N-substituted DPP where high order bulk dimensionality is observed in the solid state. Charge transfer integrals for the two π-π stacking dimer pairs in HHFBDPP were determined using the energy splitting in dimer method. Ambipolar charge transport favouring electron transfer approaching that of rubrene is predicted in both of the π-π stacks with a greater magnitude of coupling observed from those dimers perpetuating along the crystallographic a-axis. We propose that charge transportbehaviour in HHFBDPP is greatly influenced by selective fluorination of the N-benzyl substituents and is consistent with the crystal extracted π-π stacking dimer geometries and their overall influence on wavefunction overlap. Given the distinctive electronic structure of this system, heavily influenced by its unique solid state packing behaviour, we anticipate that HHFBDPP is an interesting electron transport material that should be investigated further,
Wicking, moisture vapour permeability and moisture management properties can characterize the moisture transportbehaviour of polyester wool yarn and knitted fabrics. Treatment with enzyme caused changes in both yarn and fabric characteristics. The por- osity and diameter of yarn increased while packing density reduced on enzymatic treat- ment. Fabric moisture management behaviour, on the other hand, showed remarkable improvement after enzyme treatment. Alkaline protease enzyme treated yarns displayed improved wicking behavior than acidic protease enzyme treated yarn due to near complete removal of wool and hence dominance of polyester. The moisture vapour trans- portation and moisture management properties of alkaline protease enzyme treated fabric were superior than acidic protease enzyme treated fabric. The finger print result is an index for characterization of fabric for its moisture management behaviour. Though the finger print results of both the fabrics indicated as moisture management fabrics, the rat- ing for alkaline protease enzyme treated fabric was very good to excellent.
back, which takes about 30 min (E. Ringler pers. obs. in males). Nonetheless, during the five-year study we never observed females returning to their previously laid clutches when males were still present. Consequently, we see no in- dication that female transporting behaviour could be an in- frequently expressed error reflecting similar male/female nervous and endocrine systems (cf. ). The question re- mains how such behaviour could become adaptive; i.e. how benefits exceed costs. We hypothesize that the costs of tad- pole transport might be less for females than for males. Fe- males do not defend territories and thus do not risk losing a territory during their absence. Furthermore, under opti- mal conditions, they can produce a clutch every eight days . Oviposition is not restricted to a limited time frame and is often triggered by specific reproductive stimuli (cf. ). Accordingly, we assume that tadpole trans- port would not severely restrict mating opportunities. Energy expenditure and predation risk are presumably the same for males and females. At the same time, fe- males could ensure further survival of a clutch in which they have already invested substantial time and energy (and that already survived over two weeks). We therefore also hypothesise that, due to the low tadpole transport costs, females might gain substantial fitness benefits by flexibly taking over parental duties if the male is absent. In other taxa, behavioural flexibility with respect to parental care has generally been studied in bi-parental species. When both parents are involved in brood care, males and females often cooperate by exhibiting different parental roles . Such sex-specific parental behaviours, however, might change when one of the parents disappears. Ma- nipulation experiments in fish and birds have shown that widowed parents were capable of raising the offspring alone by either increasing the own parental effort or even switching between parental roles [65,66]. These experi- ments suggest that the coordination of roles displayed in bi-parental species is flexible and may depend on the presence and the behaviour of the other parent. Little attention has been paid to such flexibility in uni-parental species, i.e. the takeover of parental duties in the generally non-caring sex. Behavioural plasticity of tadpole deposition behaviour has been documented for some dendrobatid species in several contexts [38-42]. These frogs integrate multiple factors such as water quality, presence of preda- tors, con- or heterospecific tadpoles, and pool size and adapt their behaviour accordingly . Further studies are needed to reveal reasons for and mechanisms of female tadpole transport in A. femoralis.
A perverse incentive to overinvestment is given, known as Averch-Johnson effect, both in quantity (new and unnecessary investments) and in unitary prices (no control on cost overruns and inefficient engineering situations, defined as gold plating) (Gomez Ibanez, 2003). Obtaining the approval of monumental and unjustified investment plans, even if longer than the concession period, is easy. This behaviour, even if not linked to a longer concession period, gives immediately extra-profits (Ponti and Boitani, 2005), thanks to the price-cap parameter. Moreover, the socio-economic rationale of these investments is weakly verified by the authority. ANAS, in fact, approved investments plans without any priority verification, stressing that investments are not publicly funded.
Each bifurcation diagram shows stable (black dots) and non-stable (white dots) equilibria against the dispersion parameter, , in the range [0, 6] likely values consistent with costs. It is worth noting that the lower the dispersion parameter, the less dispersed the user mode choice behaviour is. As this parameter goes to infinity, the dispersion of choice behaviour increases leading towards equal probabilities for both modes, a unique and stable fixed-point. When three fixed-points exist the middle one is always non- stable and separates the starting states leading to either stable fixed-point.
Using the dynamic stiffness method and by applying the Wittrick-Williams algorithm, the modal behaviour of two sailplane and four transport aircraft wings is investigated. Natural frequencies and mode shapes for these wide ranging aircraft wings for cantilever boundary conditions are illustrated. The results are examined and discussed. In general, the first two modes for each of the six aircraft are effectively bending modes, but the third mode is either bending or torsional or a coupled mode depending on the type of the wing analysed. The fourth mode is again either torsion or bending dominated or even coupled. The same observation is made for the fifth mode. The investigation paves the way to establish trends for the modal behaviour of high aspect ratio aircraft wings.
Poland has the opportunity to apply for project funding under the Trans-European Transport Network. Although all the above conditions must be met in order for the member states of the European Union to transfer funds for development projects. Probably in the long term this will not create significant changes to the community guidelines on the Trans-European Transport Network, and in connection with the financial perspective for 2007-2013 changes in the rules to the Trans-European Transport Network funding after 2006 should be taken into account.
might confound our analysis. For example, patterns of vehicle use will be rather diferent during the summer school break, when a proportion of people in employment will be on annual leave, and their travel patterns inluenced by the disappearance of school trips. Were we to analyse the entire twelve-month worth of data, we might end up with a classiication that is overly inluenced by the timing of the household interview, and we would need to provide a further distinction into months and seasons for the analysis. herefore, we select a ive-month span during school term, which is arguably relative homog- enous from this point of view. his provides a more accurate picture of the part of the year which transport analyses oten treat as normal, and for which much infrastructure planning is focussed, at the expense of putting aside the patterns in the other parts of the year for later analysis. We further exclude vehicles that the respondents reported not to be in regular use, those that became available to use during the travel week (e.g. newly acquired), and vehicles of households with incomplete travel diary information. his leaves us with 3,064 vehicles, which constitute our analysis sample.
This research investigates the behaviour of floodways when subjected to extreme flood loadings. Queensland floods of 2010 / 11 and 2013 indicated many floodways failed to meet performance requirements to withstand such events. Current floodway design guidelines primarily focus on hydraulic design aspects for determining a floodways capacity, similar to that of a broad crested weir. This approach fails to consider additional loadings such as drag, debris, impact and lifting forces. Therefore, the loadings utilised in this research are adapted from AS 5100.2-2004: Bridge Design. Strand7 software is used to perform a 2D plane strain finite element analysis to identify the potential failure mechanisms and areas of vulnerability within floodway structures and surrounding soils. This analysis focused on the Left Hand Branch Road (LHBR) floodway located in the Lockyer Valley region, one of the worst-affected areas in Queensland.
Requests for same stop but opposite route direction. In some cases users look for Live Bus Arrivals at both directions of the same stop. Therefore it may be that the user cannot easily identify which is correct route direction. Bus route directions are usually identified with the stops at the end of the line. However public transport passengers probably know better about their stop of arrival instead of the end of the line. A new real time functionality could include the possibility to type the stop of arrival and, based on that indication, the system could provide some indication on which is the bus stop the user has to board. Indication of stops direction could consists in colours or letters applied at the stop, near the stop code. So that when a user types his origin and destination, the system could provide the indication on the correct stop to board.
The measurement system is fundamentally based on the corrosion of zinc metal. As such, the corrosion mechanisms for zinc dissolution as well as the supporting cathodic reactions should be considered. Elec- trochemical studies have been conducted looking at zinc and copper in isolation, and as part of a galvanic cell. In neutral and basic solutions the anodic polarisation of zinc produces oxides and hydroxides, although passivation of the electrode is not achieved . García-Antón et al.  suggest that these oxide regions may cause reduced reaction kinet- ics for the zinc oxidation reaction. This could lead to increasing resis- tance of the zinc electrode with time. However, shorter time scales and surface treatment between tests should mitigate or at least reduce the effect of this potential issue. Cathodic polarisation of copper in neu- tral aqueous solution will be dominated by the reduction reactions of water and of dissolved oxygen; Eqs. (3) and (5), respectively. In partic- ular, the rate of the oxygen-reduction reaction, Eq. (5), has been shown to be limited at a high overpotential by the mass transport of dissolved oxygen to the electrode surface . As part of a Zn – Cu galvanic couple, the copper electrode has been shown to be highly polarisable with re- spect to the zinc electrode . Therefore the behaviour of the copper electrode under cathodic polarisation will be likely to dominate the be- haviour of the galvanic cell.
Another part of the scientific researchers work is dedicated for the definition of specifications towards to Human Body Detection (HBD) technologies (Marchal et al., 2015). Therefore, the authors analysed the relationship between the visual field characteristic of both corners of an intersection, and number of accident. Drivers’ safety confirmation behaviour was analysed by video survey at intersections with different visibility features. In previous research, the following points were clarified (Wang et al., 2012). On intersections which have bad visibility at the left corner, compared with the right corner, crossing collision accidents occur at a high rate. The rate of safety confirmation of the accidents with motor vehicles driver to left side is about 20% lower than that of the right side. In order to test the ef fects of road environment on the chances for pedestrians to enter the road, the following two indicators: (1) existence of right of way control devices, and (2) road location, are tested separately.
This research looks at how to reduce the transport related environmental burden of visitors while maintaining economic benefit using a market segmentation approach. There were three main aims of the research. Firstly to understand what might best predict a desired behaviour change (i.e. reduced visitor car use). Secondly to develop and test different marketing messages intended to influence a reduction in car use. Thirdly, to identify market segments which demonstrate both a high propensity towards a positive behavioural change and which have the highest contribution to the destination in economic terms. The theoretical basis of this work is Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) which underpins the conceptual framework used to predict behaviour and the second is a synthesis of persuasive communication theory, based significantly on the work of Cialdini (2007). The paper emphasises the importance of context in successful communication to influence behaviour. The paper also concludes that a market segmentation approach allows for specific target audiences who are most amenable to behavioural change and who have greatest economic impact to be identified. The approach was tested in the Lake District National Park (UK).