distance between home and final destination and the bus services, the first sensitivity analysis deals with the location of the districts. If we consider, as a first approach, that all the studied neighborhoods keep their socio-economic characteristics but could now benefit from the same good location than the neighborhood presenting the lowest energy consumption rate (Fontaine neighborhood, close to a city center, good bus services, higher mix in functions), energy consumption relating to home-to-work and home-to-school travels decrease significantly: -55.4% in Tintigny, -22.5% in Jambes and -32.4% in Rotheux, mainly because trips by car are shorter and less numerous. These results highlight that location is paramount as far as transportenergy consumption is concerned. To try to isolate the impact of the distance, we then considered that the distances between home and work and between home and school mentioned in the national census were reduced by 10% in a first theoretical calculation and by 20% in a second one. These simulations confirmed that the impact of distances on energy consumption in transport is high (see Table 4). However, these results remain purely theoretical because it is not possible to change the location of existing neighborhoods. Nevertheless, these results show the importance of promoting the implementation of future neighborhoods in areas close to large employment centers and services and increasing the population of these areas when they are already built.
Testing the correlations between urban form including density and size on the one hand and transportenergy use on the other hand has been subject of a continuous academic and practical debate which dates back to three decades ago. Studying the effects of built environment on mobility started in 1950s and 1960s. Later the energy concerns were added to the related research topics after the 1970s’ energy crisis. A turning point has been the long-term work of Newman and Kenworthy that made a wave of advocacy and critiques. Their primary study (1989) targeted the urban form and car dependence in 32 world cities situated in North America, Australia, Europe, high-income Asia, and low-income Asia. Their renowned research found negative correlation between urban density and transport-related gasoline use. Such an impact is a consequence of auto dependence in several observed cities mostly visible in the US, Canada, and Australia. Newman and Kenworthy’s study had undeniable influence on both academics and policy makers. The effects of their work on urban policies of 1990s in some European countries are apparent as Breheny (1995) lists some of them (such as Commission of the European Communities, 1990; Department of the Environment, 1990, 1992, 1993, 1994; National Physical Planning Agency, 1991). Nevertheless the criticisms in academia led to a long-term debate which lasts until today. The critics target the technique and/or the philosophy of Newman and Kenworhy’s
Transportenergy demand is a function of mode, technology and fuel choice, total distance travelled, driving style and vehicle occupancy. Distance travelled is itself a function of land use patterns, destination, route choice and trip frequency. Most travel behaviour modelling and forecasting is based on principles of utility maximisation of discrete choices and on the principle that travel-time budgets are ﬁxed (Metz, 2002). However, based on the literature on socio-technical transitions, socio-psychological models of behaviour change and evidence relating to actual travel choices in response to policy interventions as well as, the Lifestyle variant explored a world in which travel behaviour is strongly inﬂuenced by concerns relating to health, quality of life, energy use and environmental implications. As such, non-price driven behaviour, which has already been found to play a signiﬁcant role in transport choices (Anable, 2005; Steg, 2004; Turrentine and Kurani, 2007) was deemed to be a dominant driver of energy service demand from transport. It should be noted that this paper does not review the literature pertaining to behaviour change theory and the detailed combination of ingredients (motivational and external) required for travel patterns to shift dramatically, nor does it review the policy evidence in detail. We refer readers to Anable et al. (2010) for the detail behind the Lifestyle storyline. Making assumptions in this way, albeit based on uncertain evidence, is akin to the treatment of the technical potential of various solutions relating to vehicle technologies and fuels which, as discussed, normally comprise the bulk of the future develop- ments in transportenergy scenario modelling exercises, despite also being highly uncertain. In judging what rate and scale of change seems plausible we have given most weight to the existing variation in lifestyle observed in societies like our own, i.e. technologically advanced, liberal democracies. Subject to some obvious constraints imposed by age, wealth and location, for example, it seems reasonable to suppose that if a signiﬁcant fraction of the population (say 5–10%) somewhere in the OECD already behave in a particular way, then it is plausible for this to become a majority behaviour in the UK within the timeframe to 2050. This implies neither incremental nor step changes in behaviour. There are increasing suggestions that incremental changes in efﬁciency and behaviour will not be effective enough to deliver sustainable energy systems on their own in the absence of restrictions in consumption (Darby, 2007; Crompton, 2008). In addition to incremental change, there is considerable interest in the possibility of a ‘cultural shift’ affecting people’s lifestyles (Elzen et al., 2002; Evans and Jackson, 2007; Koehler, 2009; Crompton, 2008). Consequently, this Lifestyle variant outlines
Three broad avenues to large scale renewable transportenergy deployment have been suggested, quite markedly different, but not mutually exclusive. The first looks to the utilisation of hydrogen as a clean energy carrier, with hydrogen from a variety of sources being used in vehicles powered either by fuel cells (FCVs) or internal combustion engines (ICEs) as part of a move to the 'hydrogen economy' (Barreto et al 2003). The second looks to retain existing transport vehicle infrastructure, but to provide its motive energy not from fossil fuel sources, but from biomass-derived "drop-in" fuels - fuels sufficiently similar to 'conventional' diesel and petrol that they may be used directly in current vehicles as a total fuel replacement. A major element of this approach is the utilisation of new large-scale forest plantings to produce the required biomass - notably on land classified as 'marginal' for other uses. ("Marginal" in this context is based on the NZ Land Use Classification and for the three principal cases relates to land in LUC classes 5, 6 and 7 (Scion 2009b).) This
Rising wealth is a factor that is nearly always associated with increasing energy use and motorisation, so a brief examination of wealth patterns in cities is provided here, especially in relation to transportenergy use. The relative income or wealth of metropolitan regions in this paper is measured by the Gross Domestic (or Regional) Product (GDP) per capita in US dollars of the actual functional urban region, not the state, province or country in which the city resides (Tables 2 and 5). This factor is the basis for the split in the sample of cities between higher and lower income regions. The higher income cities have average GDPs between $US 20,000 and $US 32,000, while the lower income metro regions range from $US 2,400 to $US 6,000. As will be seen later from the patterns of private and public transport, wealth alone does not provide a consistent or satisfactory explanation of transport patterns in cities. This is despite claims by a number of commentators that increasing wealth automatically tends towards higher auto dependence (Lave, 1992; Kirwan, 1992; Gomez-Ibañez, 1991). Rather, the data point towards deeper underlying policy and physical differences between cities in the different regions.
The European Commission states that transport in Europe is 94 % dependent on oil products of which 84 % are imported (EC 2013). This implies substantial cost for the oil import which causes a deficit in the balance of trade (EC 2013). In addition, oil supply is mainly provided by politically unstable regions raising security concerns (EC 2013). By the introduction of alternative fuels, savings on the oil import bill, growth of jobs, improvements in air quality and reduction of noise are expected (EC 2013). One of the European Commission's Transport 2050 Strategy goals is to reduce up to 50 % the use of conventionally fueled cars in urban transport by 2030, with focus on the most congested areas. It also proposes a target of 60 % greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2050 (EC 2013a). Main barriers for the full-scale market penetration of electric vehicles are the high retail cost, a low level of consumer acceptance and the lack of infrastructure for recharging or refueling (EC 2013a). For these reasons investors avoid the risk as they don’t see enough vehicles on offer and eventually on the streets. Hence, the costs of the infrastructure installations and powertrain technologies for EVs are still on a high level, as economies of scale are lacking. Available technologies are hybrid electric, battery electric or fuel cell electric powertrains. In contrary to hybrid and battery powertrain technologies, only one passenger car equipped with a fuel cell electric powertrain is currently available on offer (Frieske et al. 2015). The overall market penetration of fuel cell electric vehicles is expected to remain marginal within the time frame considered in the eMAP project (Plötz et al. 2013, Brokate et al. 2013, Propfe et al. 2013, Kugler et al. 2015, Adolf et al. 2014). Additionally, current European Union (EU) regulation states that the built-up of publicly accessible hydrogen infrastructure should only be pursued if hydrogen is considered in the national policy framework (EC 2014).
Department of Energy of Philippines quantifies fuel consumption in road sector based on the top down ap- proach or “Fuel Sold Approach”. The total fuel sold is considered as a balance of primary fuels produced, plus imports, minus exports, minus international bunkers and minus net changes in stocks. This consumption value relates to use for the transport activity itself and not for consumption by the transport company for non-transport purposes and off-road activities. The top down approach is generally considered more accurate than the bot- tom-up (A-S-I-F) approach for quantifying overall consumption. Top down assessment gives the consumption values but does not explain the reasons behind the consumption values .
system may be sufficient. However, if the vehicle is required to travel hundreds of kilome- tres, or carry heavy payloads, then battery energy storage may not be sufficient to fulfil the daily duty cycle. Hybridisation is required, which could be achieved with conven- tional combustion engines, but if zero emissions is the objective then hydrogen fuel cells may be the most competitive fit. Thus, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles may find their niche in markets where zero emissions are desirable, and where range, operating time or payload requirements exceed the capabilities of battery-only vehicles. An analysis by Andrews and Shabani examined the gravimetric and volumetric energy densities of hydrogen and battery electric systems in relation to energy storage requirements for various modes of transport, and found that a combination of these technologies would need to be employed to service the full range of end-use road transporttransport applications .
Under the scenario of liberalised markets, the present authoritarian regimes in the Middle East would gradually transform to liberal market democracies. On reflection, commentators may have been too sanguine about the prospects of realising this scenario. Unfortunately, at the beginning of the 21 st century, 65% of the world’s oil-proven reserves are located in this region. 1 While it is true that the underlying political uncertainty will increase risks, this does not necessarily imply an immediate risk to the security of supply. The system run under the International Energy Agency (IEA) has been tested several times and it has so far been able to help avert crises. Nevertheless, it may be wise in the long term to seek to reduce the price inelasticity of oil. Reducing price-inelasticity is not necessarily the same as reducing total demand, but it would be a reversal of the current underlying trend. The case for treating decreasing price-inelasticity as the immediate target of energy security is reinforced by two factors that have grown covertly in the 1990’s. These are the development of conditions for a chaotic market price and the growth of severe inelastic demand for transport fuels.
The F&F model is a scenario assessment tool based on a 2010 reference case and assuming realistic trends in the fl eet, fuel and market developments over the coming decade. It further allows the evaluation of the Renewable Energy Directive and Fuel Quality Directive targets as well as the sensitivity of main parameters considered. The model does not lead to a single globally optimised solution but does allow a side-by-side comparison of various scenarios of fl eet and fuel development. Very importantly, the model does not assess the cost implications associated with the various scenarios. Due to the assumptions and simplifi cations introduced in the JEC Biofuels Programme – and subsequently in the F&F model as its main analytical tool – the model can not be considered as a quantitative tool for predicting the future. In fact, no model can truly do this.
Emissions from Road Transport) has been in effect for many years. It uses equations to interpret the expulsion of emissions from combustion engines. It takes parameters from certain vehicles such as engine size, the technology level and the average speed in kilometres per hour and provides results in g/km. From calculation of these equations, theoretical values for each particular emission can be obtained. These values can be very accurate but are still only theoretical and do not take into account the drivers influence on the car.
Development of the RES-T road vehicle fleets has progressed best for buses. Between the years 2000-2013, the RES-T bus fleet grew from 400 to 4700 units. In 2013 RES-T buses represented 27 % of the whole registered bus fleet and 30 % of buses in commercial traffic. This success story is due to municipal policies, since municipalities have procured 4300 RES-T buses for public transport, representing 45 % of all buses in procured public transport. 15 This has helped private sector to acquire another 400 RES-T buses for other services. Four RES-T bus types are in use: their shares are found in figure 15. Only ED95 buses are dedicated for a single fuel. CBG100 buses may use any type of methane fuels: in addition to biogas, also natural gas was used in 2013 and from 2014 also synthetic biogas. B100 buses may also use SB100 and fossil diesel oil. BEV buses may use any type of electricity, including fossil and nuclear. These buses covered 30 % of bus use nationally. It is more than their share of the national fleet, since the average use (in kilometers) of ED95 and CBG100 buses were substantially more than the average use of all other types of buses, including fossil diesel buses. On the other hand, the average use of electric buses (all BEV) was about half as much. Electric buses are used only in specially designed routes in city traffic. Other types of RES-T buses are utilized in all types of routes in city traffic as well as in intercity services.
The 2014 alternative fuels infrastructure directive (2014/94) requires MS to develop national policy frameworks for the market development of alternative fuels and their infrastructure. Specific requirements include the availability of CNG refuelling points in urban/suburban and other densely populated areas by 2020 and along the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) core network by 2025. It also requires LNG refuelling points for HDVs, and in maritime ports of the TEN-T core network by 2025 and in inland ports by 2030. The updated Clean Vehicles Directive (Directive (EU) 2019/1161) aims to promote clean mobility solutions in public procurement tenders (purchase, lease, rent or hire-purchase of road transport vehicles, and public service contracts on public passenger transport by road and rail) and thereby raise the demand for and the further deployment of clean vehicles. For light-duty vehicles, the proposal provides a definition of clean vehicles based on a combined CO2 and air pollutant emissions thresholds, while it uses a definition based on alternative fuels (electricity, hydrogen, natural gas including biomethane) for heavy-duty vehicles. It also makes it possible to adopt a delegated act to use emission thresholds for heavy-duty vehicles after a future adoption of CO2 emission standards for such vehicles. CO2 Emission thresholds for light-duty vehicles range between 25 and 40 grams CO2/km for 2025 and drops to zero in 2030. Emissions of air pollutants must be at least 20 % below the emission limits set in Annex I of Regulation (EC) 715/2007 or its successors. The proposal sets minimum procurement targets for each category of vehicle and each Member State. For light-duty vehicles, Member States must reach a share between 16 % and 35 %. For buses, Member States' targets range from 29 % to 50 % (2025) and from 43 % to 75 % (2030), and for trucks from 6 % to 10 % (2025) and from 7 % to 15 % (2030). The proposal introduces a reporting and monitoring framework and abolishes the methodology for monetisation of external effects. The directive also requires the EU to develop international standard specifications for LNG refuelling points for maritime and inland waterway vessels and for LNG and CNG motor vehicles. The Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/1745 of 13 August 2019 supplements and amends Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards recharging points for L-category motor vehicles, shore-side electricity supply for inland waterway vessels, hydrogen supply for road transport and natural gas supply for road and waterborne transport and repealis Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2018/674.
All of the integrative theories described above have implications for the operations of TERAs in Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey. When viewed from a security communities perspective, TERAs regularize and institutionalize contacts among the countries in which they work, improving access to information and reducing transaction costs. The result is that popular expectations change and loyalties begin to shift as people become more dependent on the newly harmonized system. This is arguably occurring in Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey particularly with the transport sector, as rail, highway, port, and border infrastructure is improved and standardized. When viewed from a neo-functionalist perspective, TERAs use their technical expertise to engage in regulatory reform in order to improve the legal-rational nature of state bureaucratic governance. While this integration has not produced downward pressure for regulation in other spheres (“spillover”), such as how the harmonization of European steel and coal production placed pressure on railroad and transport integration in the early 1960s, it is true that TERAs are cultivating and accelerating their own continued development in a manner reminiscent of original neo-functionalism’s determinism. Finally, TERAs fit within neo-liberal institutionalism because they possess corporate agendas separate from the agendas of their member states; they interact directly with governments; and they create a framework for continued collaboration among the member states. Although Keohane wrote that countries would join international institutions to achieve national interests, TERAs by definition are “extra-regional” and thus do not necessarily include as members the states where they operate. 25 . In the current case, however, the presence of TERAs in Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey is based on consent and cooperation even without technical membership.
Four criteria categories were defined: energy, environ- ment, social and competitiveness. The last one corresponds to the economic aspects of sustainability, but from the point of view of how the improvements in the transport sector will contribute to a more competitive general economy. This approach differs from the proposed for a number of researchers [9, 10, 34, 35] to assess the impact of specific transport policy measures and local scale projects. The proposed set of criteria and their corresponding perfor- mance indicators (see Table 2) are more strategic, intending to show long term market and economy trends. The selection of indicators has followed a consultation process among stakeholders participating in the STEPs project. They are possible outputs of the models applied in the project. They are designed to catch up the macro-level and long term impacts of general transport policies in the proposed scenarios.
Energy consumption and environmental effects of different passenger transpor t modes vary on the different stages of the fuel chain and during the production an d maintenance of vehicles and infrastructure. Energy consumption and th e environmental effects calculated per passenger mileage depend strongly on th e vehicle occupancy. The properties of transport modes on urban areas and on th e long distance transport have been evaluated in this study. The energy consumption and environmental effects calculated per passenger mileage have been assessed for passenger car, bus, tram, train, aeroplane and ferry. The emissions have bee n evaluated during the whole fuel chain. In this stud y only the airborne emissions have been taken into account. In the energy consumption calculations the energy content of vehicles and the infrastructure, the energy consumption during the fuel chain and during the end use have been taken into consideration.
conditions and authority setup. City authorities are concerned in understanding the im- pact from a particular ICT solutions/service or project applied at a city level, or past ideas implemented in other cities. Some of the city authorities have already gained ex- periences from the use of ICT solutions and their impact on energy consumption and GHG emissions. Thus, it is valuable if experiences gained by one reference city could be used to help another city for better estimation of its possible gains from adopting the similar or parallel set of services. The Methodology, Recommendation ITU-T L. 1440, emphasis on evaluating the impact of ICT solutions in cities, it suggest the impact of ICT in relation to the overall impact of ICT solutions. Furthermore, it recommends methods explaining the various implementations the ICT should be used to reduce the rate of Green House Gases (GHG) emissions in the environment and increasing the en- ergy efficiency of the systems .
Biodiesel is a renewable fuel produced from vegeta- ble oils such as those from rape seed and sunflower seed. In the transport sector, it may be effectively used both when blended with the fossil diesel fuel and in the pure form. Tests undertaken by motor manu- facturers in the European Union on blends with the diesel oil between 2% and 30% and 100% pure have resulted in guarantees for each type of use.
The demand side of the EU-25 energy system has undergone significant changes in terms of the fuel mix during the last decade as a result of shifts towards the use of more efficient energy forms. Demand for solid fuels declined by more than 50% between 1990 and 2000 while demand growth for liquid fuels (+0.9% pa) was significantly lower than that in the transport sector (+2.0% pa), implying a decline in oil consumption in all other final demand sectors. Natural gas (growing by 2.3% pa - a rate more than three times higher than average) and electricity (+1.8% pa) made some significant inroads on the demand side during the last decade, substituting for solids and liquid fuels. Demand for biomass and waste also increased at rates above average, although still representing a rather small proportion of final energy needs in 2000; while demand for distributed steam exhibited a growth at rates slightly above average in the last decade.