Transportation Infrastructure Systems

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Noise-tolerant inverse analysis models for nondestructive evaluation of transportation infrastructure systems using neural networks

Noise-tolerant inverse analysis models for nondestructive evaluation of transportation infrastructure systems using neural networks

The need to rapidly and cost-effectively evaluate the present condition of pavement infrastructure is a critical issue concerning the deterioration of ageing transportation infrastructure all around the world. Non-destructive test (NDT) and evaluation methods are well-suited for characterizing materials and determining structural integrity of pavement systems. The Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) is a NDT equipment used to assess the structural condition of highway and airfield pavement systems and to determine the moduli of pavement layers which are not only good condition indicators, but are also necessary inputs for conducting mechanistic based pavement structural analysis. This involves static or dynamic inverse analysis (referred to as backcalculation) of FWD deflection profiles in the pavement surface under a simulated truck load. The main objective of this study was to employ biologically inspired computational systems to develop robust pavement layer moduli backcalculation algorithms that can tolerate noise or inaccuracies in the FWD deflection data collected in the field. Artificial Neural Systems (ANSs), also known as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are valuable computational intelligence tools that are increasingly being used to solve resource-intensive complex problems as an alternative to using more traditional techniques. Unlike the linear elastic layered theory commonly used in pavement layer backcalculation, nonlinear unbound aggregate base (UAB) and subgrade soil response models were used in an axisymmetric finite-element structural analysis program to generate synthetic database for training and testing the ANN models. In order to develop more robust networks that can tolerate the noisy or inaccurate pavement deflection patterns in the NDT data, several network architectures were trained
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Resilience of Transportation Infrastructure Systems to Climatic Extreme Events

Resilience of Transportation Infrastructure Systems to Climatic Extreme Events

change are well within the lifetime of newly-built or recently-constructed structures. Based on the climate-related weather changes outlined in Peterson et al. (2008), Jaroszweski et al. (2010) drew each climate effect to its specific impact in transport. As an example, increased heavy precipitation brought about by climate change would have four main effects on transportation: road submersion and underpass flooding; increased landslides and undercutting; poor visibility; exceedance of the existing 100-year flood. The presented concise table is an eye-opening, direct way to examine the effects of climate change on transportation and serves to validate ongoing research into this sector. But perhaps the most interesting objective of Jaroszweski et al. (2010) was to approach the effects of climate change with the knowledge that the future transportation network will be different than it is now. Similar studies, such as Mills and Andrey (2002), account for a changing climate but not an altered transportation system nor new technology. Jaroszweski et al. (2010) postulated that there will also be changes in transportation patterns, both human and freight. Although the exact future situation cannot clearly be predicted, scenarios can be used to account for the uncertainty in socio-economic pathways. The analysis process is then repeated for a range of socio-economic scenarios. Two specific scenarios are outlined: a “World Markets regime” where societal values are centered around consumption, leading to a greater demand on transport but also more resources dedicated to bettering the efficiency; a “Global Sustainability” society where the community values sustainability and energy efficiency which increases the cost of transport. Using scenarios alongside climate change predictions is a viable and more accurate method to create realistic modeling conditions.
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Center for Transportation Infrastructure Systems The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas

Center for Transportation Infrastructure Systems The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas

This five-year project was initiated to collect materials and pavement performance data on a minimum of 100 highway test sections around the State of Texas, incorporating flexible pavements and overlays. Besides being used to calibrate and validate mechanistic-empirical (M-E) design models, the data collected will also serve as an ongoing reference data source and/or diagnostic tool for TxDOT engineers and other transportation professionals. Towards this goal, this interim report provides a documentation of the comprehensive data analysis plans that were developed to analyze the collected data. The data collection plans are documented elsewhere as Report 0-6658-P1.
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Policy Options for Improving the Resilience of US Transportation Infrastructure

Policy Options for Improving the Resilience of US Transportation Infrastructure

Our research investigates the role of insurance in providing financial protection against infrastructure dam- age of transportation facilities and in encouraging investment in loss reduc- tion measures. We used two methods to collect data: (1) review of technical reports and literature relevant to infra- structure resilience, and (2) interviews with managers from the insurance and infrastructure sectors to determine which risk management practices are actually utilized in transportation infrastructure systems. The following policy challenges and opportunities, if addressed, could lead to an improve- ment in transportation infrastructure resilience, insurance products, and uptake of coverage, and a reduction in reliance on taxpayer-funded govern- ment disaster aid.
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Invisible transportation infrastructure technology to mitigate energy and environment

Invisible transportation infrastructure technology to mitigate energy and environment

Background: Traditional transportation infrastructure built by heat trapping products and the transportation vehiles run by fossil fuel, both causing deadly climate change. Thus, a new technology of invisible Flying Transportation system has been proposed to mitigate energy and environmental crisis caused by traditional infrastructure system. Methods: Underground Maglev system has been modeled to be constructed for all transportation systems to run the vehicle smoothly just over two feet over the earth surface by propulsive and impulsive force at flying stage. A wind energy modeling has also been added to meet the vehicle ’ s energy demand when it runs on a non-maglev area. Naturally, all maglev infrastructures network to be covered by evergreen herb except pedestrian walkways to absorb CO 2 , ambient heat, and moisture (vapor) from the surrounding environment to make it cool.
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Develop Transportation Infrastructure Asset Management Tools and Plans for

Develop Transportation Infrastructure Asset Management Tools and Plans for

LIMERICK NEW HANOVER DOUGLASS EAST VINCENT NORTH COVENTRY EAST COVENTRY Pottstown UPPER FREDERICK LOWER FREDERICK UPPER HANOVER SOUTH COVENTRY SALFORD LOWER POTTSGROVE MARLBOROUGH UPPER[r]

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Use of Ground Penetrating Radar for Transportation Infrastructure Maintenance

Use of Ground Penetrating Radar for Transportation Infrastructure Maintenance

The Ground Penetrating Radar has many applications in numerous areas. Contrary to others systems which are limited to metal detection, it can locate all kinds of materials including synthetics such as PVC or polyethylene. It is therefore perfectly suitable for detection of piping and wiring systems in urban environment. It is also possible to determine the thickness of a material with the propagation speed. Surveys showed an error less than 10% when estimating ballasts thickness. As for roads, the GPR can be used in phase of excavation to estimate the quality of the subgrade and thus limit core drilling. In tunneling it enables the detection on voids and weakness zones. Stratigraphy, visualization of groundwater table or river bottoms, examination of polluted sites, seeking of voids, faults or cavities are others possible uses. 
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A Study on Life Insurance Fund Investment in Transportation Infrastructure

A Study on Life Insurance Fund Investment in Transportation Infrastructure

Life insurance fund usually has the characteristics of fund safety, large quantity, long term and low cost. Transportation infrastructure projects usually have the characteristics of long cycle, high investment security and stable income, compared to other investment projects. The investment of life insurance funds in transportation infrastructure projects can effectively disperse the investment risks of capital market insurance institutions and provide appropriate sources of funds for the projects. [11, 12] Transportation infrastructure projects can provide stable cash flow for insurance institutions during future operations. Life insurance capital investment in transportation infrastructure has three advantages. First, there is plenty of money. At present, the construction of transportation infrastructure in China mainly involves the infrastructure of national economy and people's livelihood, such as railway, high-speed and other aspects. A key feature of such projects is that they require large amounts of money. [13] At the same time, insurance funds have the characteristics of large scale and sufficient funds. Second, the investment term is long. The investment construction and payback period of transportation infrastructure projects are generally more than ten years. In the early stages of construction, it is necessary to invest a lot of money. Bank financing institutions can have limited medium - and long-term loan funds. However, in terms of insurance funds, the long investment period is one of its biggest advantages. [14, 15] The life insurance and pension insurance have a relatively long term. Life insurance fund investment can be extended to 10-30 years, both match perfectly. Third, risk appetite is low. Transportation infrastructure project reduces the overall risk of the project through reasonable risk allocation principle, and the government expenditure responsibility has been included in
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U.S. Department of Transportation Climate Adaptation Plan. Ensuring Transportation Infrastructure and System Resilience

U.S. Department of Transportation Climate Adaptation Plan. Ensuring Transportation Infrastructure and System Resilience

3. System Resilience: Transportation systems are more than just the sum of their individual parts. Some elements are of particular importance because of their vital economic role, absence of alternatives, heavy use, or critical function. The National Airspace System, for example, plays a critical economic role, while hurricane evacuation routes perform a critical function. Transportation systems are potentially vulnerable to the loss of key elements. Therefore selectively adding redundant infrastructure may be a more efficient strategy than hardening many individual facilities on the existing system. System resilience is best viewed across transportation modes and multiple system owners. While some key elements are obvious, other dependencies may be less well recognized. For example, some airports rely on petroleum pipelines, which may depend, in turn, on electric power for pumping.
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CHAPTER 7 TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT/ INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

CHAPTER 7 TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT/ INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

RTC SMART TRIPS Program. RTC offers a variety of trip reduction programs in the region including the RTC VANPOOL program and the RTC RIDESHARE (free carpool matching program). RTC SMART TRIPS operates vanpooling in the Truckee Meadows. Vanpools offer a comfortable, reasonably priced transportation alternative for groups of 7 to 15 people who share similar commute patterns. The RTC provides a substantial subsidy for each vanpool—up to $3.60 per person, per day, if all of the miles driven are within Washoe County. If some of the commute trip goes outside of Washoe County, the subsidy is prorated based on the ratio of the miles driven within Washoe County to the total miles traveled, to a maximum subsidy of $2.88 per person per day. RTC SMART TRIPS, in partnership with Greenride, offers a free ride matching program for the Truckee Meadows. RTC RIDESHARE is a web-based service that uses advanced technology to make carpool matching easy, fast, convenient and accurate. Participants enter their traveling preferences and receive the best potential carpool matches back in a matter of seconds.
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Decision Making Analysis for an Integrated Risk Management Framework of Maritime Container Port Infrastructure and Transportation Systems

Decision Making Analysis for an Integrated Risk Management Framework of Maritime Container Port Infrastructure and Transportation Systems

Many decision problems in engineering and management systems involve multiple attributes of both a quantitative and qualitative nature with uncertain or missing information that causes complexity in multiple attribute assessment (Yang & Xu, 2002). Researchers have paid increasing attention to MADM models in a wide variety of practical applications that have evolved the assessments process. Examples of practical applications include urban and community planning; resource allocation; supplier evaluation; employee/organisation evaluation; marketing strategies; credit analysis; and engineering design evaluations including safety management (Eom, 1989; Eom & Lee, 1990; Eom et al., 1998). Specific applications of MADM can found in the functional assessment for disability index and the ergonomics consultation (Jen & Min, 1994), the restoration planning for power distribution systems (Chen, 2005), the evaluation of the suitability of manufacturing technology (Chuu, 2009), expert systems (Beynon et al., 2001), and motorcycle evaluation (Yang & Xu, 2002b). In recent years, different risk analysis models involving MADM have been proposed to evaluate and predict system safety and reliability. Examples of such models include a marine system safety assessments approach (Wang et al., 1995, 1996), a belief function model (Srivastava & Liu, 2003), a model for strategic research and development project assessments (Liu et al., 2008), a nonlinear programming model (Zhou et al., 2010) and failure mode and effects analysis using fuzzy evidential reasoning approach and grey theory (Liu et al., 2008b). Thus, MADM has been increasingly used in safety management and risk analysis. In engineering risk analysis practice, safe operation is a fundamental attribute of system reliability for any modern technological system. Focusing on container operation safety, evaluation process and risk analysis aims at the quantification of the probability of the failure of the system. However, the task is not straightforward given the challenges, including that container operations are affected by multiple factors related to their capacity, workforce, machinery, management, and geographical location that deal with both numerical data and qualitative information with uncertainty. Therefore, rational decision analysis is essential to properly represent and use uncertain information in the aforementioned factors to enhance container terminal safe operation.
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GAO. Transportation Infrastructure. States Implementation of Transportation Management Systems

GAO. Transportation Infrastructure. States Implementation of Transportation Management Systems

involving day-to-day activities. For example, state and county maintenance engineers may use information on pavement condition from the pavement management system to determine maintenance needs and priorities. While some states planned to use the management systems as stand-alone tools to assist decisionmakers in their respective departments, other states also planned to use the systems in an integrated/coordinated manner. At least 26 states planned to integrate parts of their managements systems, according to AASHTO ’s May 1996 survey. Coordination and integration of the systems helps to eliminate duplication by identifying common features and data elements and enhances the usefulness of the systems by enabling decisionmakers to compare trade-offs at a program level or among
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Understanding Urban Transportation Systems

Understanding Urban Transportation Systems

 Though a jurisdiction may not be ready for full-scale road pricing, a simple and impor- tant question that transportation evaluation can address is: What might users of the facility be willing to pay for its use (if, hypothetically, we were to charge for that use), and how does the collective amount they might pay compare to the present value of the lifecycle costs of the facility? That simple analysis gets the discussion focused on the right questions: (1) If travels don’t find the value (the benefits) of a project great enough to be willing to pay for it, then why are we building it? and (2) Even if no project has an estimate of potential user benefits or payments that are greater than lifecycle costs, which ones come closest to covering those costs? Consistent with discussion elsewhere in this guide, answers to this question, by itself, are not sufficient for project selection: other criteria may suggest selecting a project that is not the top performer here. But answering these questions in a consistent way, even approximately, across transportation investment and program options under consideration, would improve discussion and decision making.
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Cybersecurity in Intelligent Transportation Systems

Cybersecurity in Intelligent Transportation Systems

Abstract: Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are emerging field characterized by complex data model, dynamics and strict time requirements. Ensuring cybersecurity in ITS is a complex task on which the safety and efficiency of transportation depends. The imposition of standards for a comprehensive architecture, as well as specific security standards, is one of the key steps in the evolution of ITS. The article examines the general outlines of the ITS architecture and security issues. The main focus of security approaches is: configuration and initialization of the devices during manufacturing at perception layer; anonymous authentication of nodes in VANET at network layer; defense of fog-based structures at support layer and description and standardization of the complex model of data and metadata and defense of systems, based on AI at application layer. The article oversees some conventional methods as network segmentation and cryptography that should be adapted in order to be applied in ITS cybersecurity. The focus is on innovative approaches that have been trying to find their place in ITS security strategies recently. The list of innovative approaches includes blockchain, bloom filter, fog computing, artificial intelligence, game theory, and ontologies. In conclusion, a correspondence is made between the commented methods, the problems they solve and the architectural layers in which they are applied.
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MARTIN TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, INC.

MARTIN TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, INC.

If a Member dies while insured for Member Life Insurance under this Group Policy, The Principal will pay his or her beneficiary the Scheduled Benefit (or approved amount, if applicable) [r]

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Micro Transportation Systems: A Review

Micro Transportation Systems: A Review

To achieve high performance and low cost micro trans- portation systems, it is important to create small size de- vice with simple configuration, simple control and using standard fabrication technology. The design of the MTS should be flexible so that the system can be assembled or extended to different configurations conveniently. Dur- ing the design process of a device, the trade-off between the range of stepping motion and power consumption, accuracy and cost, etc. must be taken into consideration. Therefore, design and trial fabrication of novel structures are the challenges and motivation in MEMS research.
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Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)

Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)

In North Dakota, for example, Fargo and Cass County experienced the largest growth in population among North Dakota cities and counties between 1990 and 2000 (See Figure 1.1). While the state’s population remains almost the same, more people migrated from rural areas of the state to the urban centers. Further, the number of vehicle-miles traveled in North Dakota increased by 22.1% during the same period (Highway Statistics 1990, 2000). That may reflect the increased economic activity as well as the changing travel characteristics of the state residents as they travel longer distances to access socioeconomic opportunities. Therefore, the state’s urban centers will also have a major role in any statewide ITS deployment since they affect a large segment of travelers. These centers also have a more suitable communications and information infrastructure which could support various ITS services and provide gateway services to statewide travelers.
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Impact of transportation infrastructure on risk of injuries while cycling

Impact of transportation infrastructure on risk of injuries while cycling

Control sites randomly selected from injury trip: route type based on distance ridden on each route type. Sites observed by researchers blinded to site status (injury or control): pr[r]

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Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure 2014/ /17 SERVICE PLAN

Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure 2014/ /17 SERVICE PLAN

and accessibility are key goals in the 2008-2020 Provincial Transit Plan . These goals are being accomplished by transit investments and service expansion that support healthier and more efficient communities and reduce the need for private automobile use. The Plan calls for the Government of Canada, the Province of British Columbia and local governments to invest $14 billion in transit infrastructure during the Plan’s 12 year duration; $2 billion in investments are identified for the next three years (2014/15-2016/17). These include: completion of the Evergreen Line; investments in rapid bus services; additional upgrades to the Expo Line; completion of faregate and smartcard
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Impacts of low-speed vehicles on transportation infrastructure and safety

Impacts of low-speed vehicles on transportation infrastructure and safety

LSVs, as a class of motor vehicles, differ from conventional passenger cars in significant ways. Federal Motor Vehicle Safe- ty Standards require that LSVs be equipped with headlights, taillights, brake lights, turn signals, seat belts, and other safety features, but they are nonetheless smaller and lighter than con- ventional cars. A University of California study notes that such vehicles are typically shorter in length, width, and wheelbase than the American Association of State Highway and Trans- portation Officials (AASHTO) design for passenger cars; they also have slower acceleration (Stein, et al. 1994). LSVs are not new, but the increase in their numbers and use on public road- ways has increased concerns about licensing and permitting by regulatory agencies such as state and city transportation depart- ments. Consequently, LSVs have inherent safety risks associ- ated with their use on public roadways and at intersections of these roadways with high-speed facilities. Thus, as LSVs con- tinue to become more numerous on public roads, the need arises to investigate the impacts of their use to ensure the safety of the traveling public. A brief examination of US state regula- tions shows a range of restrictions pertaining to LSV opera- tions. The basis of these state regulations, however, is not clear. There is a need to investigate a rational basis for regulations that would protect the public while also providing for the use of this energy-efficient, sustainable alternative to the conventional fossil-fueled passenger car for local, short-range travel.
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