managementsystems following the 1991 mandate had caused difficulties in implementing public transportation, congestion, and intermodal managementsystems. Several states indicated that the Federal Highway Administration ( FHWA ) was helpful in providing initial workshops and training to states to develop the systems. Officials in all seven states that we reviewed, however, stated that they continue to need federal assistance in solving technical problems with software and/or learning from other states’ experiences in implementing and integrating the systems.
Organizations can use predictive analytics in supply chain and logistics, firstly,the TransportationManagementSystems where theSupply chains to ocean shippingaddressed by predicting future disruptions, secondly, the Third Party Logistics wherein Predictive analytics can create more value by developing partnerships with technology providers to apply Big Data to their services, thirdly, the inventory and shipments based on customer demand and buying behavior, fourthly, the Customer Visibility may be improved by obtaining market insights about customers, suppliers, and trading partners, as well as seasonal buying patterns and consumer forecasts to make quick decision, fifthly, the organizations can better prepare for short-term behavioral changes that affect supply chain and logistics such as news, weather, shortages of goods and any unexpected conditions, that they can better adjust in response to specific time-sensitive and avoid wastages, sixthly, the Predictive analytic models can be used to ensure that the correct seasonal products that are delivered to customers based on geographical region and finally, predictive analytics used extensively in supply chain logistics more towards focused way, particularly in operations on picking and packing, and across fleets of transport ships and trucks.
Although the MIPv6-based NEMO BS  solution is the standardized solution for managing network mobility, it presents shortcomings which are detailed in Section 2. To overcome these shortcomings, other solutions exist, which assume alternative protocols to MIPv6 such as the Host Identity Protocol (HIP) , which is known to be the most complete protocol because it addresses security and mobility management while also providing optimal rout- ing. As a result, we have designed an eﬃcient and secure network mobility management protocol based on HIP for ITS scenarios, the NeMHIP protocol. In this article, we introduce the NeMHIP protocol and describe the devel- oped model for analytically evaluating the eﬃciency of our approach and demonstrate that the introduction of secu- rity features does not penalize the eﬃciency. Furthermore, we have compared obtained results with other approaches that also consider HIP to cover network mobility, posi- tioning our solution. Obtained results show that NeMHIP is a lightweight approach and a suitable solution to be applied in the ITS context, while providing the desired level of security.
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The UIMS packages and manages the functionalities require for creating a data-rich intensive (maps, graphs, text, and structured data) with various visualization ca- pabilities user interface. Since The DSS is to be used by users with various roles (Transportation Planners, Trans- portation Engineers, Transportation Decision Makers or Traffic Administrators), the complexity involves in dy- namically creating the right graphical user interface (GUI) for the right role lies within the functionality of UIMS. For example, the transportation planner is responsible for creating models and capturing the right data for those models, as such he/she would directly interact with Model Management and Data Management and as such the GUI for this role would configure that would allow for that only. On the other hand, the transportation deci- sion maker role deals with scenarios and as such the UIMS would create the proper GUI allowing various scenario related activities such as scenario creation, re- trieval, storage and execution and presenting the result in a dashboard view allowing for a comprehensive, at-a- glance, GIS-Based graphical view of the solution gener- ated. UIMS also provides various analysis tools such as what-if analysis, sensitivity analysis, reporting the result of impact evaluation and providing various Ad hoc que- ries and reports. The Graphical Interface Objects, that are created, are stored as UI Objects in the UTOR and man- aged by UIMS.
Abstract Using fuzzy logic controller, a sophisticated algorithm for adaptive cruise controller systems is pro- posed. The presented architecture can control the vehicle acceleration in a very simple and eﬃcient way. The new algorithm is simulated in an artiﬁcial environment using MATLAB. In comparison with previous works, simulation results of the proposed algorithm have a much smoother output for controlling throttle and brake actuator of a car. In addition we represent a structure for implementing the proposed algorithm by using FLC, DAC, ADC, adders and some digital gates.
Another important aspect to consider is that the above assumes a sniffing station price of e 500. As the technology is relatively new, a large part of these costs cover research and development of the hardware. Thus we expect the prices to drop significantly in the coming years, as more competition comes to market, and the production quantity increases to match increased demand from ITSs being deployed. Beyond this, it is likely that in the future other devices will be able to receive ITS messages as well. Especially considering that 802.11p is just a modification of 802.11a, there is already talk of bringing 802.11p functionality to mobile phones . Another option would be to use an inexpensive computer such as a Raspberry Pi with an 802.11a dongle and a driver patch to support 802.11p. This would already bring the costs of a single sniffing station down to approximately e 50. Following the example above of an attacker that wants to cover the most of Enschede using road network knowledge, using this hardware would bring the total costs down to e 32,686. The similarity of 802.11p to 802.11a also opens up other attack vectors. For example, if an attacker can compromise a large number of 802.11a routers found in homes and patch them to receive 802.11p messages as well, it could be possible to quickly create a sniffing station botnet covering a considerable geographic area. Finally, the United States Department of Transportation has announced intention to mandate DSRC (the United States standards for 802.11p) in all new vehicles in the near future. This means that in the future it may be possible to obtain sniffing stations with a trip to the junk yard.
Abstract: Intelligent TransportationSystems (ITS) are emerging field characterized by complex data model, dynamics and strict time requirements. Ensuring cybersecurity in ITS is a complex task on which the safety and efficiency of transportation depends. The imposition of standards for a comprehensive architecture, as well as specific security standards, is one of the key steps in the evolution of ITS. The article examines the general outlines of the ITS architecture and security issues. The main focus of security approaches is: configuration and initialization of the devices during manufacturing at perception layer; anonymous authentication of nodes in VANET at network layer; defense of fog-based structures at support layer and description and standardization of the complex model of data and metadata and defense of systems, based on AI at application layer. The article oversees some conventional methods as network segmentation and cryptography that should be adapted in order to be applied in ITS cybersecurity. The focus is on innovative approaches that have been trying to find their place in ITS security strategies recently. The list of innovative approaches includes blockchain, bloom filter, fog computing, artificial intelligence, game theory, and ontologies. In conclusion, a correspondence is made between the commented methods, the problems they solve and the architectural layers in which they are applied.
In an autonomous vehicle transportation system, vehicles will navigate far more efficiently than current human operators do. The inefficiency of human-driven vehicles leads to considerable congestion at high traffic volumes and frequent traffic jams. In its 2011 Urban Mobility Report, the Texas Transportation Institute estimated that congestion costs Americans 4.8 billion hours of time, 1.9 billion gallons of wasted fuel (equivalent to two months’ operation of the Alaska Pipeline), and $101 billion in combined delay and fuel costs. That’s $713 per year for each commuter. Even the most fuel-conscious human drivers could not match the fuel efficiency of autonomous cars communicating instantaneously and continuously within a connected and controlled infrastructure. Platooning alone, which would reduce the effective drag coefficient on following vehicles, could reduce highway fuel use by up to 20 percent (just as “drafting” behind the lead allows cyclists to reduce their exertion). 33 Nonrecurrent
Purpose. The scientific article formalized process improving the efficiency of rolling stock distribution in railways for loading goods by introducing concentration of loading at the terminal by using a dynamic model. Methodology. According to the experience, the distribution of rolling stock by the infrastructure operator is a complex process. The questions on transport expeditionary service, working technologies of separate subjects of railway industry and the question of forming organization principles of running carriages with different patterns of ownership are considered. The system of rolling stock distribution based on logistical control principles on railways should meet the next methodological criteria: reduction of empty run and waiting time under one freight operation, forming the correct informative area for all participants of the transportation, arranging conditions for rapid and maximally profitable decision-making as for the further movement of the rolling stock. Findings. Created a list of the necessary conditions under which there must be a dynamic development of the transport sector and meet the current market requirements. The algorithm and process logistic control allocation of railway rolling stock are considered. Proved that relationship between the participants of the transportation process of initial conditions for reform be composed based on non-discriminatory access to cargoes resources. Originality. The work of dispatcher staff in transportation process management as an employee of the transportation department in terms of demand for rolling stock at all stages of transportationmanagement analyzed. For the first time proposed a dynamic model, that reproduces the information field for all participants in traffic. It established that the railways have to create a system of distribution of rolling stock, which must meet the following criteria: reduction in empty mileage and waiting time under one cargo operation; create conditions for rapid and most profitable decision for further movement of rolling stock. Practical value. Application of the developed method of rolling stock distribution for the formation of unit trains will significantly reduce the logistics costs in the supply chain and increase its competitiveness in foreign markets. The development of such a system is intended to create a truly independent regulator of the logistic – transportation process in the conditions of creation of the unified information space.
In Southern California, a 3-year federally funded project started a TMC in 1971, which electronically monitored 42 miles of portions of the Santa Monica, San Diego and Harbor Freeways via loop detectors. Real-time traffic flow data were transmitted to the TMC and displayed on a hard-wired wall map. This early program also funded three California Highway Patrol (CHP) helicopters and a service patrol program. Over the years, the TMC has expanded tremendously. To date, it currently monitors over 340 center-line miles of freeways via more than 20,000 loop detectors and operates over 800 ramp meters (California Department of Transportation District 7, 1992). In addition, Changeable Message Signs (CMS) and Highway Advisory Radio are among the equipment installed to disseminate incident information to travellers. The TMC has installed other functions too, as will be indicated later.
The basic problem addressed here is that of decomposition of the overall complex system. This is essentially a problem of organisation of processes (physical, operational, market related). Note that neither hierarchical nor heterarchical system organisations cope adequately with the multitude of demands introduced by the need to disaggregate the processes of a modern Railway System. Hierarchical systems typically have a rigid structure that impedes them to react to these disturbances in an agile way. Heterarchical systems handle disturbances very well and can continuously adapt themselves to their environment; however, heterarchical control does not guarantee high performance or predictable behaviour. The actual challenge lies in the requirement that future Railway Systems need both performance and reactivity. The answer to this challenge is sought in deploying theories on complex adaptive systems. Looking at living organisms and social organizations, Koestler made the observation that complex system can only arise if they consist of stable, autonomous subsystems, each of them capable of surviving disturbances, but that are meanwhile able to cooperate to form a more complex, stable system. This has led to the development of the principles of Holonic Manufacturing . The Holonic Manufacturing Paradigm implies a highly distributed organization of the overall system, where intelligence is distributed over the individual entities. These entities are cooperative, intelligent, autonomous modules, called "holons." The new element in the holonic organisation is the fact that the individual entities work together in temporary hierarchies (called "holarchies") to achieve a global goal. The holonic concept combines the best features of hierarchical and heterarchical organization). It preserves the stability of hierarchy while providing the dynamic flexibility of a heterarchy. In this way, a holonic organisation combines high performance with robustness against changes and disturbances.
Air-bearing-based transportationsystems were also seen in MEMS. The objects were levitated and moved by pneu- matic air flow beneath [24-28]. In the micro transportations by using pneumatic or electromagnetic forces [29,30] to create a cushion on which the mover levitates, there is not direct contact between objects and actuators (contact is free). Magnetic levitation can be achieved by using permanent magnets, electromagnets or diamagnetic (i.e. a superconductor) bodies. The main advantages of these types are low friction, the scratch and damage of the ob- jects can be avoided, but the drawback is high sensitivity to the cushion thickness (i.e. load dependent) while the cushion thickness can be quite difficult to control.
Students must pass the comprehensive/preliminary examination after the majority of the course work has been completed. The comprehensive exam includes written and oral components related to core transportation and quantitative concepts and to the student's area of concentration. The comprehensive exam also includes a dissertation prospectus examination in which the student must present and defend a plan for undertaking and completing a dissertation. After passing of the comprehensive exam and completion of the dissertation, the doctoral candidate must pass a final examination in which the completed dissertation is presented and defended.
Estimations suggest that by 2050 more than two-thirds of the world’s population is expected to live in cities , . This shift from a rural to an urban-dominant planet is an indication that cities might soon need a new infrastructure to cope with the challenges imposed by the growth. In this context, IBM introduces the smart city concept in 2008 as part of their Smarter Planet initiative . The concept builds on the fact that billions of digital devices are permanently connected through the internet producing a vast amount of information. Such devices can be mobile phones, tables, laptops, computers, but also home appliances, monitoring applications and transportationsystems. Data analytics can help analysing the information gathered from these devices and converting it into useful knowledge that can help the city to become more efficient, more productive and less costly . Currently, there is no standard definition for a smart city since each city has its own individual structure and needs. As
8.5 Transportation Provider understands if the Service Agreement (contract) is terminated for any reason, if requested by MTM, Transportation Provider must forward all required records not previously sent to MTM for the ten (10) year retention period to MTM. Transportation Provider agrees that MTM payment for all unpaid claims at time of termination will be withheld until MTM has received these records, and all transportation provider service records have been audited by MTM for correctness and accuracy. MTM reserves the right to audit records received from Transportation Provider within sixty (60) days of final receipt of all such records by MTM.
State Regulation Chapter 63 of the SC Code Regulations applies to the Department of Transportation. The regulations include: 63-10 - Transportation Project Prioritization; 63-30 - Commission approval of actions; 63-100 - Secretary of Transportation Approval of Actions; 63-300 to 309 - Prequalification and Disqualification of Bidders; 63- 322 - Relocation of Displaced Persons; 63-338 - Highway Advertising Control Act; 63-361- Movement of Machinery over Highways; 63-370 - Driveways; 63-380 - Erosion Control ; 63-390 - Tandem Trailer Combinations and Other Larger Vehicle Access Control Act ; 63-700, et seq. Disadvantaged Business Enterprises Program; 63-800 - Bus Shelters; 63-900 - Scenic Byways, 63- 1000 Sign requirements for petitions to close roads.
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