As a conclusion, the answer to the research question as far as the transportation of dangerousgoods is concerned is that there is no evidence of increase in safety from dividing a long urban cut and cover tunnel in smaller parts with open air areas in between. However, the overall safety (that should take into account all risks and not only those that are due to the transportation of dangerousgoods) depends to a great extend on the specific characteristics of each particular case, since there are many factors that influence the overall safety of road tunnels. These factors are not taken into consideration by any quantitative risk analysis model, and also by the QRAM. The QRAM only considers increased probabilities of accidents near tunnel portals, a factor that influences risk in route S of the cases examined but does not consider many other critical factors. Therefore it is concluded that risk analysis using systemic approach is crucial for any road tunnel as early as in the design phase and lasting for its whole lifecycle. Moreover, quantitative risk analysis models such as the QRAM should not be the sole basis for decision making by tunnel operators or Administrative Authorities. As Apostolakis (2004) states safety-related decision making is risk-informed, not risk-based. Thus, as far as road tunnel safety is concerned, a systemic approach combining quantitative risk analysis tools with traditional safety analysis and systems theory principles should be implemented.
The law for the transport of dangerousgoods of the year 2004, which was repealed by the law on road transport of dangerousgoods of the year 2012, has set the conditions and criteria that must be met by a substance, respectively by a commodity, in order to be considered as dangerous. Thus, under the provisions of that law, dangerousgoods are substances and objects which endanger the public safety or public order, especially, the life and health of people and animals, plants and objects due to their nature, characteristics and the conditions during their transportation, whose transport is forbidden by the ADR, or are permitted to be transported under special conditions. 3
Leading scientists of the world have been engaged in raising the safety level and reducing costs caused by the onset of transport emergencies during transportation of DG. In , emergencies during transportation of dangerousgoods were assessed. The analysis of the causes of emergencies demonstrated that they mostly include commercial failures, critical wear-out of fixed assets and violation of safety requirements, which leads to significant material damage; however, the specific place of an emergency is not taken into account.
Abstract. With the increasing throughput of dangerousgoods and the frequent occurrence of dangerousgoods accidents, the transport network in a terminal is facing more and more serious security problems. Therefore, it is urgent to study the transport network reliability under dangerousgoods safety accidents in order to improve the capacity of the terminal to deal with the dangerousgoods accidents. On the basis of reliability theory and the container terminal operating process, the Anylogic simulation model of the dangerousgoodstransportation network is established and applied to the case studies. The simulation results show that the reliability of road network is related to the radius of the dangerousgoods accident. With the increase of radius from 40m to 200m, the road network is seriously damaged, and the reliability is reduced from 0.49 to 0.05 consequently.
In the wake of the railway disaster that devastated the town of Lac-Mégantic, FCM struck a national Railway Safety Working Group (RSWG) composed of mayors from across Canada. The RSWG has established a number of priorities that, in the view of FCM, need to be addressed in order to improve railway safety and to restore public confidence in the safety of Canada’s rail network, especially as it relates to the transportation of dangerousgoods through communities. One of the priorities established by the RSWG is making sure that all costs resulting from railway accidents are borne by the industry and are not downloaded onto taxpayers, especially at the municipal level.
While Kosovo’s flights are increasing and there is economic development, it is very important to build a warehouse and store dangerousgoods which may develop the increase of new business. This paper aims to raise the awareness of competent persons in constructing a warehouse of landfills for dangerousgoods in PIA. The importance of this paper is to present the current situation in the Airport in terms of air transportation and having enough space for the storage of dangerousgoods. The questionnaire helped us to enrich our research as much as possible and to get acquainted with the workers who are part of PIA's. During the data analysis, we found that 45.92% of the respondents stated that it is important to have a dedicated warehouse for dangerousgoods, regardless of whether the location is inside or outside the airport. Therefore, the construction of a warehouse for these goods will affect the reduction of airport operating costs and the creation of new agreements with international airlines. Finally, it facilitates the work of local businesses in terms of importing and exporting dangerousgoods while opening new jobs for young generations. The current staffs at Pristina International Airport are professional and their refresh training is made from the LKIA training centre which means that there will be no expenses.
From the Table 5 we can find that two-factors CCD and the four-factors CCD of the road transport system in 2015 is lower than the three-factors CCD. CCD is higher during January to June than the value during July to December, which means the sub-systems are more harmony and ordered during January to June, so the road dangerousgoods transport system is safer during July to December. Operators and managers should pay more attentions to the road dangerousgoodstransportation safety management during January to June.
Article 68 of China Maritime Law does not clarify the liability of the shipper on violat- ing the obligation of properly packaging or making dangerousgoods marks and labels, which is a legal loophole and produces a lot of problems in practice. In addition, article 66 of the China Maritime Code regulates “the shipper shall indemnify the carrier against any loss resulting from inadequacy of packing or inaccuracies in the abovementioned information”, which means the principle of strict liability provisions shall be applicable and the shipper bears the liability to pay compensation for breach of normal goods pack- aging. Zhou (2005) argues that, in case the shipper, failing to fulfill its obligations to these two, causes damage to the carrier, the shipper shall bear fault liability to pay com- pensation instead of strict liability. It is essential that the dangerousgoods shipper shall undertake strict liability. To summarize, marking and labeling dangerousgoods properly are important premises of dangerousgoodstransportation safety. No matter whether there is fault on the duty, the shipper shall be liable for compensation.
Apart from the above mentioned limitations, there are also inadequacies in each type of ship. Bulk cargo ships: mainly transported agricultural products (rice, sugar ...), steel products, iron ore, fertilizer, coal dust, cement ... on domestic and short routes in the Southeast Asia, China or some ships transported on long distances to West Africa, South America, Eastern Europe. Currently, bulk carriers with a tonnage of less than 10,000 DWT account for the largest volume but only 13% of total tonnage. The ships of 20,000 - 30,000 DWT account for 47% of the total tonnage, and over 40,000 TDW are very few but account for 21% of the tonnage of the bulk carriers of Vietnam. The exploitation of bulk carriers of Vietnamese enterprises is generally very inefficient, the average time for running vessels is only 30 - 35%, the time of empty bulk carriers is still quite high, about 13 - 15% during the year, the time waiting for ships to work usually also accounts for about 20-25%, the phenomenon of the afternoon ship in line while the lack of goods very often. Container fleet: Sea container shipping began to develop in Vietnam in the 1990s. Up to the end of 2015, Vietnam had 15 container shipping companies with a total of over 64 ships. Download about 544.106DWT. VN container ships are generally small in terms of tonnage, the age of the ship is high, the speed is slow compared to the container fleet of foreign firms. Vietnam has only two shipping lines ranked among the top 100 container shipping companies in the world, namely South China Sea and Vinalines, but also in relatively low rankings. Most of Vietnam's container ships operate on domestic routes like Hai Phong - Da Nang - Ho Chi Minh City under the protection of the Government. Only a few carriers have sailed to Singapore and Hong Kong but the frequency is limited. Meanwhile, competitive pressure on international routes for Vietnam shipping lines is growing. In 2015, Vietnam has over 40 international container shipping lines and currently accounts for about 85% of Vietnam's export and import container. These shipping companies operate mainly under three forms: VN companies as agents, joint venture companies or companies with 100% foreign capital.
Purpose. Improvement of actions of emergency-and-rescue services during elimination of emergency after- maths on railway. The extraordinary situations of anthropogenic character on railway are determined by the features of striking factors and are divided into accidents (catastrophes), accompanied by exhausts (blow-outs, spills) of haz- ardous substances, fires, explosions, failures on engineering networks and systems of life-support, by destruction of buildings and structures, by accidents of transport vehicles, etc. At present, there is a problem of co-operation plan- ning of troops and facilities, ministries and departments, which are ordered for eliminating the aftermaths of ex- traordinary situations, particularly at transporting dangerous freights by rail. Methodology. During the research the method of search optimization of existing systems improvement of analysis and forecast of extraordinary situations as well as the supervision and hour-by-hour registration of rescue services actions during trainings and in the real conditions of aftermaths eliminating of extraordinary situations were used. Findings. The problems to solve are no- tifying the population on the threat of extraordinary situations arising, informing in time about a current situation, maintaining emergency-and-rescue services in readiness to functioning in extraordinary situations, organizing the life-support of population in conditions of accidents, catastrophes, or a natural calamity. Originality. The features of civil defense organization at dangerous freights transportation are explored; the order of co-operation of emergency- and-rescue services during the elimination of emergency aftermaths of anthropogenic origin on railway is devel- oped. It is resulted in creating the conditions of relative diminishment of losses and expenditures because of trans- port accidents, catastrophes, explosions, conflagrations and natural calamities. Practical value. It is necessary to plan emergency-and-rescue and other exigent works in the areas of extraordinary situations on railway at transporta- tion of dangerous freights in the case of their occurrence with the simultaneous bringing the troops and facilities of ministries and departments, inter-sectoral consortia, corporations, business concerns, associations etc., which appear in the area of extraordinary situation with the preliminary determination of their subordination to implement these measures.
Abstract: The paper is focused on the questions of road transport of dangerous matters, with an accent on traffic accidents. The accident frequency is one of the key elements influencing transport reliability. For that reason it is necessary to analyse the places of accident occurrence for minimizing accident frequency. It is possible to identify critical places on the road infrastructure of the Czech Republic with using the analysis of accident frequency. All of these factors will improve safety by this risk type of transport of matters. The safety of road transport of dangerous matters is influenced not only by characteristics of a utilized vehicle and by personality characteristics and knowledge of a driver, but also by a selected transport route. Keywords: ADR agreement, accidents, dangerous matters, risk.
All other nickel-metal hydride cells or batteries shall be securely packed and protected from short circuit. They are not subject to other provisions of this Code provided that they are loaded in a cargo transport unit in a total quantity of less than 100 Kg gross mass. When loaded in a cargo transport unit in a total quantity of 100 Kg gross mass or more, they are not subject to other provisions of this Code except those of 5.4.1, 5.4.3 and column (16) of the dangerous good list in Chapter 3.2.
Road transport is one of the most important branches for economic development, in general, and the development of Kosovo, in particular, based on the fact that after the war the road transport has the main place in transportation of goods and passengers. Law on road transport has been adopted in Kosovo Assembly in 2004 and in this case the issue of approximation of this Law with acquis communitaire has been of a particular importance.
"Container Packing Certificate” --- certifies that the condition including securing of the freight container loaded dangerousgoods, such as mark and label / placard on the freight container etc., are in compliance with applicable international and national government regulations, and also it certifies that the conditions are in all respects in proper condition for transport according to applicable international and national government regulations (IMDG Amendment 31 Part 184.108.40.206)
6.13 ADR specifies that some dangerousgoods in small quantities need not be packaged in UN-type approved packagings. This is referred to as limited quantity exemptions. Such dangerousgoods will be packaged in a small receptacle (never more than 5 litres for liquids or 5 kg for solids), several of which may be placed in an outer packaging that may not exceed a gross mass of 30 kg in total. ‘Limited quantities’ is a widely misunderstood concept, and it is recommended that advice is sought from a DGSA if using these provisions. 6.14 There are no limited quantities for Infectious waste (clinical waste) UN 3291.
If requested by a police officer or another Enforcing Authority (i.e. Health and Safety Executive Officer or Vehicle Inspector of the Vehicle Operators Service Agency (VOSA)) the driver must produce documents to identify the Dangerous Substance (LPG), the hazards, emergency action, the quantity carried.