Artificial tubes and bamboo internodes as nest- ing substrate have been used as sampling method in inventories (Krug & Alves-dos-Santos, 2008) or as ecological indicators of habitat disturbances, such as habitat loss or edge effect (Stangler et al., 2015). A recent study shows that trap nests have higher occu- pancy compared to natural potential nesting cavities, possibly because they offer an appropriate shelter for offspring and food storage (Westerfelt et al., 2015). An important advantage about trap-nesting method- ology is the possibility of replication along the study site, allowing a sufficient sampling effort for statistical analyses and avoiding the sampling of transitory spe- cies (Camillo et al., 1995; Tscharntke et al., 1998). Still, trap nests studies can focus on aspects of natural history like nest and cell architecture, materials and resources, sex ratio, mortality, and association with parasites (Camillo, 2000). There are three types of trap nests commonly used in literature: (1) black card- board paper; (2) drilled wooden blocks; and (3) plant internodes, like common reed and bamboo cane. The trap nests are grouped in larger blocks or tubes, the sampling stations, and settled in the field (Garófalo
2009 ), bats (Pedro et al. 2001 ), and also cavity- nestingwasps and bees (Rocha-Filho et al. 2017 ).
The most sampled bee species nested primarily at the forest edge, an environment in which the sunlight exposure is higher and ruderal plant spe- cies are prevalent (Tabarelli et al. 1999 ). As sev- eral weed species exhibit a high frequency of flowering (Grime 1979 ), thereby serving as im- portant sources of pollen and nectar to nesting females, it is expected that more nests should be observed at the edge. Likewise, the abundance of trap-nestingbees and wasps was consistently low- er in old-growth forests compared to young, more open sites in subtropical China possibly because the conditions in older forest stands may be less favorable for those thermophilic hymenopterans (Staab et al. 2016 ).
Two trap nests (Tscharntke et al. 1998 ; Albrecht et al.
2007a ) per site were fixed on wooden posts 1 m above ground at 6 m, respectively, 12-m distance from one end of the tree rows (next to trees number 3 and 5). Trap nests consisted of plastic tubes (diameter 10 cm, length 20 cm) containing approximately 170 internodes of common reed Phragmites australis Trin. The diameter of the internodes ranged from 2 to 10 mm with similar proportions of dif- ferent diameters in all trap nests. Trap nests were installed in the field at the beginning of April 2008 and collected mid-October 2008. Trap nests were stored at 5°C from mid-October 2008 until mid-January 2009, and single reed internodes were transferred into glass tubes. Tubes were maintained at room temperature (22°C) from mid-January 2009 to mid-March 2009, and emerged adults sent to specialists for identification. Trap-nestingbees and wasps (Apidae, Pompilidae, Crabronidae, and Eumeninae) and Hymenopteran predators (Chrysididae) were determined to species level, whereas Hymenopteran parasitoids (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, and Chalcidoidea), Coleopt- erans, and Dipterans were determined as far as possible and then separated into morphospecies (Table 1 ). In some cases, no adults emerged and only the genus (or the sub- family in the case of Eumeninae) could be identified using characters of the breeding cell (Gathmann and Tscharntke
Mean traffic rates, or the mean number of wasps entering a nest per minute (Malham et al., 1991), were calculated from data collected in 1991 for seven nests in the Garden site. Nests were observed for 15-minute periods on warm, dry days in February and March, with each nest being observed between one and four times on different days during each hour between 0700 and 1700 NZST. The number of wasps present on the nest at the end of each 15-minute period was also noted. Counts per 15 minutes for individual nests were averaged for each hour and the estimated traffic rate used here is the grand mean of these 63 means divided by 15. The traffic rate estimate was also applied to the Lake Ohia study sites after adjusting for the difference in numbers of wasps per nest during the 25 February to 11 March period. A previous study (Hoshikawa, 1981) has shown that pellet collection rates are positively correlated with the numbers of foragers in the colony. The proportion of wasps carrying prey loads at each site was calculated from captures in the entrance traps, after adjusting for the percentage of loads comprising animal prey or plant material. (2) mean daily prey consumption per hectare =
The location of sufficient bumblebee nests for replicated study remains challenging (Carvell et al., 2008; Osborne et al., 2008a; Suzuki et al., 2009). Trained bumblebee nest detection dogs do not significantly increase the rate at which nests can be found (Waters et al., 2011; O’Connor et al., 2012). Instead, people should be recruited to assist in nest locating, as even inexperienced assistants may readily find nests, although the rate at which they do so is low (O’Connor et al., 2012). The numbers of located nests may be increased by counting nest site searching queens in spring time and searching only favourable areas (i.e. those with greatest numbers of queens). Alternatively, counts of nest site searching queens alone may be sufficient to assess attractiveness of sites for nesting queens (e.g. Svensson et al., 2000; Kells and Goulson, 2003; Lye et al., 2009) although clearly this provides no further ecological data, such as reproductive success (i.e. a site may be desirable for nesting sites, but fail to provide a succession of flowers to maintain colonies; Holm 1966). Whilst not empirically tested here the approach of a summer storm was a particularly good time to search for nests as foraging workers rushed back to their nest in an obvious stream of traffic (Cumber, 1953; pers. obs.).
Sheet metal parts are widely used in daily life and engineering field. In today’s highly competitive industrial environment, it’s very important to cut down the production cost. As the material cost is the major portion of the cost involved in producing sheet metal component, efficient nesting of parts will minimize the trimming losses, scrap material and reduce overall production cost efficiently. Cutting stock problem is of interest within the wood, garment, sheet metal, Plastics, ship building, footwear and glass industries. The main objectives are to maximize space utilization and minimize computational time required. In addition to these requirements there are certain industry specific requirements which are normally considered as the material to be cut, the cutting method and cut quality Also the task which is involved in the cutting stock problem includes clustering and nesting. Clustering is to specify collection of patterns that fit well together before nesting on to a given stock.Nesting process is to determine an arrangement of a number of 2-D parts on a 2-D material sheet so that usage of sheet material gets reduced. Nesting of parts on to the sheet can reduce the time for machine setup; sheet loading and it effectively reduce the material cost. Researches about the nesting problems/automatic packing approaches has increased subsequently over the past 6
The latter approach to clutch size has particular rele- vance to parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera). Parasitoid wasps are a species-rich group of organisms which lay their eggs on or in the bodies of other insects (Quicke 1997). The larvae feed on the still-living body of the host, eventually killing it. Parasitoid wasps show a great diver- sity of life history parameters, including clutch size, which has made them the subject of a large programme of research in recent years (Godfray 1994). For example, many parasitoid species are `solitary', meaning that only one o¡spring is ever produced per host. Others are `gregarious', where several o¡spring may be reared from a single host. Models of parent^o¡spring con£ict have shown that the brood size which maximizes a parent's
Wasp, hornet and yellowjacket stings can be a serious health threat to animals and humans, especially if a person being stung is allergic to yellowjacket venom. Yellowjackets are often considered the most dangerous stinging insects in the United States. They are more unpredictable than honey bees and will sting readily if the nest is disturbed. Workers foraging away from their nest are seldom aggressive in the spring or early summer, but in late summer they become more aggressive. Nests should be eliminated with great care and in a specific manner. While many people rely on specific methods, such as dousing nests
Effects on honey bees of competition with wasps Interference competition has been viewed as a constant force operating regardless of the scarcity of resources (e.g., MacIsaac and Gilbert, 1991). This did not appear to be the case in competition between bees and wasps at Coopers Creek, where direct encounters between them occurred infrequently. As was shown in our laboratory trials, aggression only occurred when limited resources forced encounters between individuals. It is possible that densities as high as in the laboratory trials are reached at times in honeydew beech forest. Moller et al. (1987) reported point samples of 360 wasps m -2 of tree trunk, but densities this high are likely to
4.4. Potential caveats of the sampling method
Some methodological issues associated with the pan traps need to be considered when interpreting our results. As our main aim was to compare drivers of differences between burned and unburned clear- cuts, we prioritized to sample many clear-cuts rather than having many replicates at each site (which could include using more pan traps with additional colors and more visits over the season). The mega-fire (the largest fire for at least 100 years in Sweden; Gustafsson et al., 2019 ) also offered a unique opportunity to sample over a large burned land- scape. Nevertheless, by using this approach, we clearly miss many species (based on the accumulation curves, Fig. 3 ). Even though yellow traps seem to be most efficient for capturing many insect pollinators in Swedish clear-cuts ( Berglund, 2016 ), it is likely that we miss species that are more often trapped using other colors (e.g. Heneberg and Bogusch, 2014 ). Moreover, by focusing on the period when pollinators in our study region generally should be most active (and flowers most abundant) we probably also miss species with activity peaks before or after June and July, for example species that depend much on early- flowering Salix spp. ( Pekkarinen, 1997 ). There are also two possible caveats when it comes to the comparison between treatments; both potentially underestimating densities of bees, wasps and hoverflies in unburned clear-cuts. First, even if we tried to place the traps as visible as possible in all clear-cuts, the generally higher cover of surrounding vegetation in unburned sites may to some extent reduce their visibility. Second, colored pan traps may generally underestimate population sizes in more flower-rich environments, such as the unburned clear- cuts, as they prefer real flowers (e.g. Berglund, 2016; Roulston et al., 2007 ), leading to a reduced visitation rate to pan traps. All these ca- veats will have strongest effects on species richness, as we miss many rare species, while composition and total abundance are less affected, as they depend more on the common species.
All species in this family spin orb like webs which they use to trap flying insects– webs can be up to 40cm in diameter! Many are brightly coloured and males are usually smaller than females, which often have rounded abdomens. The family includes one of the UK’s heaviest spiders– females of the Four-spot orb weaver (Araneus quadratus) can weigh up to 2.5 grams!
Sociality in Wasps
Wasps encompass solitary, communal, and facultative, obligate, and swarm-founding social species and are important model organisms for study of the origin and elaboration of insect sociality. Common names for social species are hover wasps, paper wasps, yellowjackets, hornets, and swarm-founding wasps. Excepting a few communal species, all social wasps are in a single family, Vespidae. Social wasps occur worldwide except in extreme dry or cold climates. Nourishment dynamics and dominance interactions shape intra-colony social structure. Communication can be chemical, vibrational, or visual. Differentiation of egg-layers and workers can occur among adults or larvae via differential feeding, dominance, and corresponding changes in gene expression. Some species have definitive queen and worker castes determined during larval development. Most colonies are comprised of related individuals, but workers may care for unrelated individuals. The diversity of social forms makes wasps one of the most informative taxa for integrative and comparative studies of ecological and genetic drivers of cooperative behavior and the evolution of insect sociality.
The solution is to insert disposable paper straws into each tunnel. These can be pulled out to access the bees, and easily be replaced with new straws to keep pathogen levels down. Because drilled holes will all be of uniform size, the straws can be cheaply purchased in bulk or even rolled yourself. Glass or clear plastic tubes may be used instead of paper in order to easily see inside, but this is not recommended except perhaps in very arid places. Glass and plastic do not absorb moisture, creating a damp environment that will facilitate mold growth. Bees will have greater nesting success in paper. Perhaps the main disadvantage of the wood block model is the lack of variety in tunnel diameters compared with the bundle of sticks. With too little variation, the nest will not attract as many different kinds of bees, though this can be overcome to some extent by using several different sizes of drills. However, if you only want to attract a certain kind of bee (for example, the blue orchard bee for apple pollination), the uniformity of this nest is actually beneficial.
Products containing a rapidly volatilizing organic solvent mixed with synergized pyrethrins or with D-phenothrin plus D-trans-allethrin (synthetic pyrethroids) are available in some areas. This type of formulation quickly freezes the wasps and coats them with an insecticide. In the case of aggressive species this can be very useful. Prodcuts in- clude CB Wasp & Hornet Jet Freeze by Waterbury, Wasp- Away by Check-Mark, Pres Treat Brand Wasp Freeze Wasp and Hornet Killer Formula 1 by Whitmire Microgen, and PT 515 Wasp-Freeze by Whitmire Microgen.
The additional functions are added to improve the vessel nesting performance. Three functions of trim, poyline, and overline are necessary to reduce the nesting speed and save the product resources. We have implemented the functions on the real nesting system. Also, the proposed method can get great potential to various applications by improving advantages such as its algorithm, functions, and properties.
Ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) are a family of solitary wasps that can easily be recognized by their laterally compressed flag-like metasomas. They are distinct from other Hymenoptera in having a tubular petiole that is highly attached on the propodeum. These wasps are often colorful and generally have short stout bodies and relatively long legs. Rearing records indicate that evaniid larvae develop as solitary egg predators within the oothecae of cockroaches (Deans 2005). Evaniidae is currently comprised of over 450 extant species in 21 genera (Deans & Huben 2003; Deans & Kawada 2008). In addition, 19 fossil species and 11 fossil genera are documented and recognized as valid (Deans 2005).
Female insects of diverse orders bore into substrates to deposit their eggs. Such insects must overcome several biomechanical challenges to successfully oviposit, which include the selection of suitable substrates through which the ovipositor can penetrate without itself fracturing. In many cases, the insect may also need to steer and manipulate the ovipositor within the substrate to deliver eggs at desired locations before rapidly retracting her ovipositor to avoid predation. In the case of female parasitoid ichneumonid wasps, this process is repeated multiple times during her lifetime, thus testing the ability of the ovipositioning apparatus to endure fracture and fatigue. What specific adaptations does the ovipositioning apparatus of a female ichneumonoid wasp possess to withstand these challenges? We addressed this question using a model system composed of parasitoid and pollinator fig wasps. First, we show that parasitoid ovipositor tips have teeth-like structures, preferentially enriched with zinc, unlike the smooth morphology of pollinator ovipositors. We describe sensillae present on the parasitoid ovipositor tip that are likely to aid in the detection of chemical species and mechanical deformations and sample microenvironments within the substrate. Second, using atomic force microscopy, we show that parasitoid tip regions have a higher modulus compared with regions proximal to the abdomen in parasitoid and pollinator ovipositors. Finally, we use videography to film wasps during substrate boring and analyse buckling of the ovipositor to estimate the forces required for substrate boring. Together, these results allow us to describe the biomechanical principles underlying substrate boring in parasitoid ichneumonid wasps. Such studies may be useful for the biomimetic design of surgical tools and in the use of novel mechanisms to bore through hard substrates.