In this paper we consider a solution, for defending code reuse attacks. We can achieve this through code randomization of function blocks. Function level randomization is the coarse level granularity. This technique randomizes the binary code and provides different randomization for every execution of the binary code. Thus it makes the brute force attack infeasible. The compiler will be confused for executing randomized instructions if their target binaries are obfuscated, so recursive traversalalgorithm is implemented in sequencer to avoid confusion.
Abstract: Software testing play crucial role in the software development as it consumes lot of time and resources. However testing process needs to be more efficiently done because overall software quality relies upon good testing approach. The present research focus on generation of test cases from UML diagrams. The combination graph is made by using activity and sequence diagrams. These diagrams proves to be more efficient as activity diagram gives the dynamic behavior of the model and sequence diagram is used to understand detailed functionality of the system. In this paper, a combined approach using Breadth first and depth first search is proposed which will generate expected test cases. The comparative study is done for test case generation using BFS and DFS algorithm and the result proves that the DFS traversalalgorithm provides more accurate result for path coverage.
In binary tree, we often need to find the binary tree node that has some certain characteristics, or need to find all the nodes and process them. For example, based on digital image disorder binary tree traversal—A digital image scrambling method based on binary tree traversal, and discussed the periodic scrambling method and inverse transform. The method is simple and easy to operate, and suitable for images of any sizes. And it has good scrambling effect and great scrambling cycle. Under certain attacks, scrambled image can recover the original image. To some extent, it can meet the digital image encryption and hidden robustness requirements, and using binary tree traversal to expand the convex outer surface of the polyhedron (It can help some production con- struction). All of these require a binary tree traversal. However, the binary tree is a nonlinear structure, and each node may have two trees. So, we need to find rules that can make all nodes of a binary tree are arranged on a li- near queue. So binary tree traversal of each node is in accordance with a path to access binary tree, and each note can be visited only once. Thus, the binary tree node is accessed sequentially formed by a linear sequence, whose result is that each node on the binary tree can be accessed more easily .
Table 2 maintains the details information of each node and edge of the intermediate format, as well as the relation ship of each node in the intermediate format with the original activity. An algorithm is applied on the intermediate format to generate the Extended AND_OR Tree. The algorithm looks for Start/MOR/JAND nodes of the intermediate format and uses it as root node of ET. After that it took one by one node from the intermediate format and replaces it by corresponding nodes of BET. The traversal process is continued in a DFS (Depth-First-Search) manner until the leaf node of the tree (BET) under construction is a MOR/JAND/END. By applying the algorithm a set of trees are generated. After constructing the BET the BET is now traversed using a traversalalgorithm, which traverse the BET according to weak concurrency coverage criteria to generate the test sequence from the BET for the original Activity Diagram. According to weak concurrency coverage criteria test scenario are derived to cover only one feasible sequence of parallel processes between a pair of fork and join activity, without considering the interleaving of activities between parallel processes. After obtaining the test scenario the set of test cases are obtained by referring to the tables to obtain the activity associated with each node of the intermediate format.
The performance measurement is being carried out for LDS which is a list or a tree which is traversed depth first.In a particular LDS traversalalgorithm, there is present a loop or a recursion and a node in the LDS is fetched and some work is performed using the data found in the node. In the Fig 2.1,the tree is traversed depth first. In each iteration, a node is visited ,some work is performed and the next node is fetched. The loop is repeated until there are no more nodes. An impor tant observation is that a load that fetches the next node is dependent on each of the loads that fetched the former nodes. Hereafter, these loads are being referred to as the pointer chase loads.The efficiency of prefetching is determined by the following four factors:-
In this paper, we have proposed several static compaction algorithms for sequential circuits based on efﬁcient Test Re- laxation and Reverse Order Restoration schemes. The pro- posed work has the advantage of quickly restoring a test se- quence for a set of faults compared to vector-by-vector fault simulation based Restoration techniques. The restored sub- sequence is further compacted by state traversalalgorithm, which allows the removal of redundant vectors without ad- ditional fault simulation. These restored subsequences can be either concatenated (having fully speciﬁed bits; making RX-LROR), or they can be subjected to increasing the fault coverage (SFC-LROR), and ﬁnally can also be merged (re- laxed input assignments, Merging Restoration). Merging Restoration is found to be more effective after applying RX- LROR and SFC-LROR as demonstrated by ITE-Hybrid-II and ITE-Hybrid-III. Finally, we have also proposed an efﬁ- cient way of taking any compaction algorithm out of satura- tion. This is achieved by using test relaxation and randomly ﬁlling the unspeciﬁed bits before re-iterating the algorithm, demonstrated by ITE-Hybrid-I.
The traversal starts from first-row second column element of the matrix, that is from a[V1][V2] the element at a[V1][V2] is 1 that indicates there is a path from V1 to V2. V1 and V2 are pushed on to stack. V2 will be at the top of the stack S1. The next traversal starts from top element of the stack that is V2. The element at a[V2][V3] is 1 hence V3 is pushed on to the stack. The process continues until further traversal is not possible or all the vertices are covered. If further traversal is not possible and all vertices are not covered then a new stack is created and the vertex is pushed on to the stack. In this example from V7 traversal is not possible and vertices V8, V9, V10, V11, and V12 are remaining so the traversal starts from V8. V8 is pushed to new stack S2. From V8 the possible traversal is V9 hence V9 is pushed on to the stack. The traversal starts from top element of the stack that is V9. The traversal continues until all vertices till V11 are pushed on to the stack S2, so S2 has elements V8, V9, V10, V11. The traversal cannot be continued but the vertex V12 is still remaining, hence the traversal starts from V12, V12 is pushed on to the new stack S3. No more traversal is possible from the vertex V12, vertex V12 considered as an isolated vertex. The number of the stack at the end of traversal gives the number of components in the graph and the size of each stack gives the number of vertices in each component, here S3 has one element that indicates V12 is an isolated vertex.
been proposed that helps us with the path to the desired destination within the campus, multi-storey building or an apartment for a legitimate user. It allows the user to find a location as quickly as possible with minimum effort and collaborate with other application users to benefit the experience of route planning. The GPS method for positioning works great outdoors but it is not suitable for indoors (secured buildings like star hotels, service apartments, college block etc.).The Proposed system helps in keeping the campus safe from intruders and it also reduces the time to search a person manually by going to their chalet. The accurate indoor location can be found out by using the DynoPath algorithm with the help of Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI). The algorithm mainly focuses on calculating Actual distance, positions and accuracy to reach the desired location using bit transformation. It is bound to be secure as no data is going to be stored on cloud hence avoiding data breaches. It incurs some cost but at the price of high end security ,tracking of all the activities and most importantly the luxury of a user to get all the details regarding the person whom they want to meet at the fingertip. The effort is taken to provide routes that are as precise as an on-campus path would require.
Tunneling encapsulates original packets by other protocol. Ordinal tunneling uses HTTP or HTTPS for capsulation because these protocols are the most widely used. They use TCP as the transport layer protocol. Even if tunneled communication uses another transport layer protocol, TCP influences the communication much stronger than the other protocol. For example, assume that QUIC is the target of HTTP tunneling. QUIC uses UDP and has its own TCP- like control mechanisms. When a packet loss occurs, TCP of HTTP tunneling retransmits transparently from QUIC. In this way, TCP mechanisms work prior to the ones of QUIC. That is to say, QUIC over HTTP cannot exhibit its performance. In this study, we propose an FW traversal method, which inserts a pseudo TCP header with the purpose of realizing communication without affecting it on a communication path, where delivery of packets between end nodes is not guaranteed. The proposed method makes it possible to use various communication protocols without being restricted by an FW. The method achieves this by disguising packets that use protocols and port numbers usually restricted by an FW making them look as if they are parts of HTTPS communication. Impersonation of HTTPS communication is achieved by encapsulating the pseudo TCP specified port 443 for the payload of the IP datagram of the target packet. By labeling a packet to be a part of HTTPS traffic, it becomes possible to exclude it from the FW targets to be filtered. In addition, the proposed method does not affect the control of the protocol that the FW wishes to pass since the method only rewrites the packet on the communication path preventing the TCP control from working. The proposed method inserts the pseudo TCP header, discards it after passing through the FW, and returns it to the original packet to obtain communication. In this paper, we discuss application of the proposed method to QUIC developed by Google and expected to be popular in the future. QUIC is a transport layer protocol that operates on the user land; it is designed and developed on the premise of combination with HTTP/2.
A very different kind of mapping is achieved by performing some sort of permutation on the plaintext letters. This method is referred to as a transposition cipher.A pure transposition cipher is easily recognized because it has the same letter frequencies as the original plaintext. Cryptanalysis is fairly straightforward. The transposition cipher can be made significantly more secure by performing more than one stage of transposition . The second level of encryption in the proposed algorithm uses transposition using binary tree traversal.
A LEXICON OF DISTRIBUTED NOUN REPRESENTATIONS CONSTRUCTED BY TAXONOMIC TRAVERSAL A L E X I C O N O F D I S T R I B U T E D N O U N R E P R E S E N T A T I O N S C O N S T R U C T E D B Y T A X O N O M[.]
In this Section we further motivate the cause for a heuristic traversal technique by analysing the distribution of traver- sal events within normal execution. For this we measure the time at which an allocation event occurs, and visu- ally represent the distribution of memory management calls against time. This representation method allows us to as- certain more information than simple allocation density, as discussed previously, as it allows us to visualise allocation clustering. Whilst our example is based around traversal events caused by memory events, the technique can be repli- cated for other trigger events. For example one would expect similar clustering from the interception of MPI events. Figure 1 illustrates the distribution of events for miniFE and phdMesh for single core runs on a reduced data set, showing the clustering of memory allocation events. From Table 2 we can see that these two codes have significantly different allocation densities; 1220 events / second and 897747 events / second respectively. In the case of miniFE, Figure 1(a), we see a very natural clustering around five points in the execu- tion, with varying allocation size. For phdMesh, Figure 1(b), we see a very different pattern. Due to the excessively high allocation density there is no real area of clustered alloca- tions. In part this is due to many objects being allocated on a per iteration basis within the code, thus there is a con- stantly high number of allocations. In both cases there are areas of high density; in miniFE they are clustered, and in phdMesh they are global, this suggests that potential im- provements could be made from the heuristic technique. As discussed previously, the clustering of traversal events generates small regions of high density, which improves the performance and accuracy of the heuristic. Whilst the tech- nique is still applicable to sampling-driven tracing, we lose this clustering, and thus do not benefit from localised areas of high density. To see a significant benefit from the heuris- tic technique applied to a sampling based tracer, you would need a very small sampling interval, to keep the traversals as close as possible. Alternatively sampling on hardware events rather than time intervals would potentially provide this natural clustering.
This effort can be simply applied on any exist- ing word analogy tasks. Frankly speaking, we can- not claim that our method outperforms the origi- nal, except for the complexity part. But complex- ity does matter. Currently analogy tasks generally contain tens of thousands questions, so traditional traversal-based evaluation can still manage. How- ever, we would definitely want to test higher por- tion of words in the vocabulary, and with the ef- forts from the whole community, we may have a “nearly optimized” test set someday with up to million words involved. At that time, traversal- free could be a highly desirable quality.
Processing Metonymy a Domain Model Heuristic Graph Traversal Approach P r o c e s s i n g M e t o n y m y a D o m a i n M o d e l H e u r i s t i c G r a p h T r a v e r s a l A p p r o a c h * J a c[.]
The procedure details the transformations essential to modify the data storage with clustered in the Web Servers Log files  to an input of SOM. By proceeding this way, first we use SOM algorithm and getting some cluster of web-data. Here we load the web-data cluster, which is almost related to frequent pattern. After that we are applying min- max weight of Page in Sequential Traversal Pattern. Finally we establish good prediction with quantity of results. The figure-1 shows the process of proposed work where it collect the sessional web
In this paper a simple model of mobile traversal mechanism suspended by cables and actuated by motors is presented. A detailed description of the workspace on which the payload is traversed is discussed. The mechanism is actuated by cables which are driven by motors. The rate of change of length of cables and the angular velocities of motors are determined such that the payload traverses along the shortest path in the desired duration of time. The motors are programmed to operate separately as per the derived formulas. The mechanism thus designed is portable and can be applied in the field of agriculture, farming, manufacturing, surveillance etc.
A tool called MPI File Tree Walker (MPI-FTW) was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and was open sourced in 2007. MPI-FTW performs a file tree walk with multiple nodes communicating via MPI. It uses a centralized algorithm; the first two process ranks are reserved for management and collection. A single management process tracks the directories yet to be traversed, tracks the available worker processes, and load balances the jobs between them. The worker threads perform the directory traversal and perform a user-specified command on each file. The program collects and reports statistics on the files found. Although this tool makes use of multiple nodes to perform the traversal, its centralized approach to job management limits its scalability. The robustness of this algorithm is limited by the single management process; a loss of this node means failure of the copy job.
Our digital world provides a means to access mammoths of data and services. Such a huge responsibility and task does not come without disadvantages, the most important of which is security and consistency of data and the maintenance of privacy. The science of cryptology has provided us with many means to minimize this disadvantage. This paper attempts to provide another such means to minimize that disadvantage. In this article we present a symmetric key algorithm targeting to improve the problems related to key stream generation. The security of the keystream generation of the proposed algorithm is based on Rijndael forward s – box which is manifest of closure property. The key is a set of matrices along with a tuple of coordinates, noted during the process of encryption. Cache optimization technique used eliminates the disk I/O and ensures maximum memory utilization. The performance of cache, hence the algorithm is dependent on the processor used. This algorithm is especially applicable to networks where fast and secure encryption is and decryption of data is critical.
One interesting result is that there is no discernible difference between the logic based approaches and the traversal based approaches in terms of precision and recall. However, the modules differ in size and the percentage of modules with 0 or one concept only. This seems to indicate that users need to look at the characteristics of the task they have in mind in order to choose the most appropriate modularization approach; thus, making up the intuition outlined in Section 3.2 that the different techniques have different purposes. Hence, for instance, we might want to distinguish the task of single instance retrieval from the more generic task of Instance Retrieval. The former is typical of queries where a single instance of a concept is required. For example, in service provision, where a request is made for a service that is of a certain class, such as “Give me a service that is an instance of Weather service”. The Instance Retrieval task provides all the instances of a class. In the first case, any of the modularization approaches with high precision results (Cuenca Grau upper and lower variants, d’Aquin and Doran) would perform equally well; whilst Doran’s has the lowest precision, it is still within a 0.05% error. Recall, in this scenario would not be as important as finding just one correct instance which would suffice to satisfy the user request.
In this paper, an enhanced intrusion detection system for input validation attacks on web application is proposed. The proposed intrusion detection system detect SQL injection attacks, XSS attacks, command injection attacks and also detect to directory traversal attacks. In addition with this the proposed IDS support all web applications which are developed using any language like java, php, Dot Net etc. Web application security can be improved with proposed IDS by making security provision active in advance .The analysis time to detect IVA is reduced in this IDS because whole process is operated without developer intervention.