In contrast to FTA, event tree analysis (ETA) is a bottom-up approach that starts with a single initiator and expands to cover all potential consequences. While the two approaches may appear to be completely opposite at first glance, an event tree is actually similar to a Binary Decision Diagram (BDD), which is one approach to FTA that was covered earlier. Related to this, ETA branching structures can be represented using fault tree events. The top event probability in a FTA is also often exported as a branch probability in an ETA. One challenge analysts should be aware of in developing event trees is the need for chronological ordering of events. Static fault trees often only examine a group of events that occur, and thus, lack time- related properties representing sequential event relationships, as presented in an ETA. In general, the judgment of an analyst is important to model an ET based on a FT and to ensure that events are presented in a logical manner.
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As mentioned in section 3, DFT extend fault trees by in- troducing dynamic gates such as the spare, PAND and FDEP gates. In this paper, however, only the spare-gate has been modelled with PTA and CTMC. This paper does not provide enough material to fully determine the usabil- ity of PTA as an approach to fault tree analysis. A pos- sible direction for future research could be to investigate the usability of PTA regarding the other dynamic gates in- troduced by DFT. Furthermore, this paper analyses PTA for two synthetic DFTs. To fully determine the usabil- ity of PTA, they should also be analysed when used to model more complex, real systems. Other research direc- tions include the investigation of the effects of changing the widths of the uniform intervals for the PTA models and an investigation of the reason behind the difference in reliability of the PTA and CTMC models. For now, it can be stated that a system whose upper and lower bounds for its failure and repair rates are known, can be modelled easily with the non-Markovian PTA with an uniform dis- tribution, whereas CTMC can be used when only mean times of the failure and repair rates are available.
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Decision tree analysis has many application almost in each area where a choice has to be made from several available alternatives. Apart from manufacturing industry the application include social problems, business setups, and service industry like banking, library and hospitals, pharmaceutical industry all in all each small and big enterprises (Sharma 2013b; Sharma 2012; Sharma 2013a). Actually the success of any project/product depends upon various decisions made during the production process. There are various situations starting from the choice of raw materials, vendors for sub-parts, machines, manpower, sales and marking methods etc. where a decision is to be made out of several available choices. Decision tree analysis can help the decision maker by providing some quantifiable terms. Some examples of the situations are as follows:
Fault tree analysis (FTA) is the commonly used technique to analyze failure patterns of engineering and biological systems. Fault tree analysis is a failure analysis in which an undesired state of a system is analyzed using Boolean logic to combine a series of lower level events. It is basically composed of logic diagrams that display the state of the system and is constructed using graphical techniques . This analysis method is mainly used in the fields of safety engineering and reliability engineering to understand how systems can fail, to identify the ways to reduce risk or to determine event rates of a safety accident or a particular system level failure. FTA is used in the aerospace, nuclear power, chemical and process, pharmaceutical, petrochemical and other high-hazard industries; but is also used in fields as diverse as risk factor identification relating to social service system failure.
The failure-tree schematic for an instantaneous release is shown in Fig. 3. On the top there is an event, the probability of whhich one wishes to estimate. Below the top event there are events that influence the top event. An OR gate connects events where each event connected occurring causes the event above the gate to occur while an AND gate connects events where all events connected occurring causes the event above the gate to occur. The rare use of AND gates in the presented case shows that the rectification system is not sufficiently equipped with safety features (provided that failures of subsystems are not acceptable) as the probability of failure of the total system could only be higher than the probability of failure of a particular subsystem. 3.2 Continuous release and the results of the fault- tree analysis
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Background: Cesarean delivery (CD) rates are rising in many parts of the world. To define strategies to reduce them, it is important to identify their clinical and organizational determinants. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to identify sub-types of women at higher risk of CD using demographic, clinical and organizational variables. Methods: All hospital discharge records of women who delivered between 2005 and mid-2010 in the Emilia-Romagna Region of Italy were retrieved and linked with birth certificates. Sociodemographic and clinical information was retrieved from the two data sources. Organizational variables included activity volume (number of births per year), hospital type, and hour and day of delivery. A classification tree analysis was used to identify the variables and the combinations of variables that best discriminated cesarean from vaginal delivery.
With MATLAB one can use various tree-format strings and also manipulate tree data, for example by selecting branches and leaves using a specified criterion or by removing nodes and comparing trees. Furthermore, both phylogenetic and microarray analysis cap- abilities are available. Specifically, with MATLAB one can use functions for tree building and processing, such as drawing phylograms, cladograms, or radial treeplots and estimate the substitution rates, read and write Newick-formatted tree files, calculate the pairwise distance matrices for given biological sequences or view the tree in a MATLAB-oriented interactive GUI that allows to view, edit, and explore the data, prune branches, reorder, rename, and explore distances. In addition, MATLAB comes with a variety of clustering algorithms and lots of functionality to process microarray data like Affymetrix GeneChip, ImaGene result, SPOT, Agilent microarray scanner, GenePix GPR or GAL files as well as Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data. Last, MATLAB is also compatible with other programming languages to communicate with C, Java, Perl and Matlab code. Table 6 It refers to analysis that each package can by itself perform irrespective of whether it can receive as input results produced from another tool for a specific category of analysis.
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Abstract: Aimed to design safety systems and evaluate the behaviours about Robot grass cutting named TOMI, the False Tree Analysis, Failure Mode Effects Tree Analysis methods were used for review and analysis about the TOMI Robot, it would be liability and legislation; TOMI Robot management embedded guidelines and knowledge such as Agricultural Engineering, Design and manufacture of agricultural machinery, Mechanic Theory, Mathematics, Electronics, Grass science, Computer science and several software programs; Procedure and Reliability analysis for robots TOMI safety systems are key features ， the safety systems of Agricultural Robot such as TOMI should be checked in various working circumstance; With the full consideration of engineering practicability, the solutions to the safety problems of the TOMI robot are promoted, Technology Route and models about TOMI’s safety system were built, Process Management 、 continual improvement tools and Techniques and effects analysis were built in the new safety systems of TOMI Robot.TOMI Function Measurements such as Braking、throttle and pedal force were tested and analysised.TOMI’s Mechanical system 、 Hydraulics and Electrical Systems were tested for checking safety and evaluated, some sensors and laser such as Distance sensors, SICK, GPS, Dead man handle, safety red button and bumpers were built up and developed the TOMI Robot’s new safety systems; To ensure the safety and reliable operation is a system engineering, it is involved to various TOMI robot design, production, operation, adjust, and management; to improve the TOMI robot reliability and reduce the failure frequency was an important way to improve the robot inherent safety; The Evaluation Criteria of
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Fig. 2. Phylogenetic tree analysis based on the capsid protein (L1) gene partial sequence that used for local Human papillomavirus typing detection. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using Unweighted Pair Group method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA tree) in (MEGA 6.0 version). The local Human papillomavirus isolates (HPV1, HPV2, HPV3, HPV5, HPV6, HPV7, HPV11, HPV12, HPV13, HPV14, HPV15, HPV17, HPV18,HPV19, and HPV20) were show closed related to NCBI-Blast Human papillomavirus type 18 (KF225496.1), and whereas other NCBI- Blast Human papillomavirus were show out off tree
The multiple alignment of the tubulin/FtsZ superfam- ily (see Additional File 2) was employed to build maxi- mum likelihood phylogenetic trees using FtsZ proteins as the outgroup. In the resulting phylogenetic tree, the artubulins form the sister group to all eukaryotic and bacterial tubulins (Figure 2A). In contrast, the Prostheco- bacter tubulins were the sister group of the eukaryotic alpha/beta tubulin branch. Furthermore, this branch included two distinct tubulins that we identified in par- tial genomic sequences of the giant gamma proteobac- terium Beggiatoa (Figure 2A). Thus, all available bacterial tubulin sequences grouped within the eukaryo- tic tubulin family. Constrained tree analysis showed that alternative tree topology, in which the artubulins grouped with bacterial tubulins, could be rejected at a statistically significant level; grouping of artubulins with different families of eukaryotic tubulins could not be similarly rejected (with one exception) although all alter- native topologies showed lower likelihood than the tree in Figure 2A (see Additional File 3). These findings appear to be best compatible with a scenario in which the artubulins are direct evolutionary ancestors of the eukaryotic tubulins whereas bacterial tubulins originated as a result of horizontal transfer of eukaryotic alpha- beta tubulin genes into at least two bacterial lineages.
both its broadcast tree and its unicast paths. For VIDs associated with a break, a VID advertisement message is sent with the deletion operation set, and the affected VIDs are deleted. For each neighbor that has a prefix of that broken VID, that message is taken exactly as its received, and again forwarded to all of its neighbors. This process continues until every VID associated with the failure has been pruned. In Fig. 3.8, the break on port 1 on S2 means that VID 1.1 has failed. This means that S2 needs to remove its PVID and its CPVID, S4 needs to remove its PVID, S3 needs to remove its secondary VID, and root S1 needs to remove one of its CPVIDs. In this process, the flow of the tree has shifted, as S4 now has a PVID based on S3s 1.2, which means that S4 is now the child of S3. S3 notes this when it receives the updated VID information after the pruning has been completed. A similar situation happens for the HAT tables, as sequence numbers are incremented and the new costs to reach end nodes causes the tables to switch to backup entries.
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Our original inspiration for this work came from the work of Hofmann and Jost  on the automatic heap-space analysis of functional programs. Their analysis associates with every element of a data structure a permission to use a piece of resource (in their case, heap space). This resource is made available to the program when the data structure is decom- posed using pattern matching. When constructing part of a data structure, the required resources must be available. A linear type system is used to ensure that data structures carrying resources are not duplicated since this would entail duplication of consumable re- source. This scheme was later extended to imperative object-oriented languages [16, 17], but still using a type-based analysis.
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Different methods are used for the analysis of uncer- tainties, inter alia in the seismic hazard and risk assess- ments, e.g. Monte Carlo methods (e.g. Cramer et al., 1996; Smith, 2003; Zentner et al., 2008), first-order, second mo- ment method (e.g. Baker and Cornell, 2008; Bradley and Lee, 2010), Bayesian methods (e.g. Li et al., 2010; Bayraktarli et al., 2011), fuzzy logic methods (e.g. Karimi and Hüllermeier, 2007; Zlateva et al., 2011; Buratti et al., 2012), and logic tree methods (e.g. Grünthal and Wahlström, 2001; Bommer et al., 2005; Scherbaum et al., 2005). In addition to the references mentioned, an overview of existing approaches, considering the advantages and shortcomings of different methods of un- certainty treatment, including examples of practical applica- tions, can be found in Wen et al. (2003), Nadim (2007), Wang et al. (2009), and Aven and Zio (2011). Probably the most widely used uncertainty treatment methods in seismic haz- ard and risk calculations are Monte Carlo simulation tech- niques and logic trees, their modifications and their combi- nations. The logic trees, in particular, are often considered as the state-of-the-art tool to quantify and incorporate epistemic uncertainty (Bommer and Scherbaum, 2008). As well, in our study, which focuses on the analysis of epistemic uncertain- ties, we use the logic tree approach, which is useful for both uncertainty evaluation and parametric sensitivity analysis.
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15. Mohammad Zeynali, Leili Mohammad Khanli, and Amir Mollanejad “TBRP: Novel Tree Based Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network” International Journal of Grid and Distributed Computing Vol. 2, No. 4, December, 2009.  A. K. M. Muzahidul Islam; Koichi Wada, Jiro Uchida and Wei Chen “A Better Dynamic Cluster-Based Structure Of Wireless Sensor Network For Efficient Routing” International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control , Volume 8, Number 10(A), pp. 6747-6760,October 2012.
The objective of this project is to provide a quantitative method of evaluating the risk of third-party damage (TPD) on natural gas distribution pipelines and to develop a practical tool to identify third-party damage hot spots, develop proactive third-party damage prevention measures, and prioritize damage repair activities using a risk-based approach. TPD is any activity not related to the pipeline, such as residential construction, that causes damage to the distribution pipeline. Distribution assets are the last stage of the natural gas delivery process and generally range from NPS1¼ to NPS16 diameter and usually operate at maximum operating pressure (MOP) between 2.5 -1900 kPa. For the purpose of this analysis risk is defined as the likelihood of an event occurring and the consequence of that event should it occur.
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families of 3-sort species of connected digraphs. As said before, this is generally a very difficult task. However, the analysis can be done, for example, for the class of cyclic graphical sentences (for which the underlying sim- ple graphs are unoriented cycles) by making use of (3-sort) cycle index series related to subgroups of the dihe- dral groups. The analysis can also be done for the whole class of all graphical sentences since the cycle index series of the 3-sort species, = ( X Y Z , , ) , of all digraphs (with labelled vertices of sort X, arrows of sort Y and loops of sort Z) turns out to be tractable 15 . In fact,
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A performance analysis of the various tree parameters showed how the parameters impact the total execution time, resulting throughput, and even the cache level usage and hit rates to improve the overall performance. When a tree grows to a sufficient size and has a through- put greater than 520 MB/s, it will be faster than a sequential implementation. For a number of testing scenarios, the throughput was found to be more than 3000 MB/s. Using the CPU clock for a cycle count, this was operating at a speed of 1.03 cycles per byte. The type of memory that is used in a GPU implementation plays a large role in the overall throughput because it may be possible to avoid some overheads. As shown with using global memory in the GPU, data transfer overheads cannot be ignored and cause a significant decrease in throughput when they are accounted for.
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Lastly, the cashew plant was measured by field data survey and geoprocessing measure tools. Geographical points were taken in the perimeter of the individual and then marked on satellite images (Digital Globe 2016), next the area occupied by “Cashew King” was measured using geographic information system tools from ArcMap 10.3.1.4959 software (ESRI 2015). In the 90s, the analysis of rbcL gene of Anacardiaceae chloroplasts was held in conjunction with the morphological anatomy to interpretation of the phylogeny (Terrazas 1993). The advancement of molecular biology, other genes as matK, rps16 and intron trnL is used for phylogenetic analysis of Anacardiaceae (Pell et al. 2010).
This method introduced by Quinlan . It is the simplest and most understandable method in decision tree pruning. For every non-leaf sub tree of the original decision tree, the change in misclassification over the test set is examined. The REP incremental pruning developed by Written and Frank in 1999 is a fast regression tree learner that uses information variance reduction in the data set which is splited into a training set and a prune set.
The remainder of this paper is structured in the following way: in Section 2 we first describe the transfer-based architecture of the rule-based Lucy LT engine, giving special focus to its analysis phase which we are trying to optimize. Afterwards, we provide details on the implementation of the stochastic selection component, the so-called “tree selector” which allows to integrate knowledge from a stochastic parser into the analysis phase of the rule-based system. Section 3 reports on the results of both automated metrics and manual evaluation efforts, including examples which show how the proposed approach has improved or degraded MT quality. Finally, we conclude and provide an outlook on future work in this area.