Successfully finding alignment will require efforts not only at these multiple levels of governance but also among scientists, financiers, business leaders, bilateral and multilateral donors, NGO leaders, and community leaders. Katoomba XX will convene these actors to help to forge alliances and mobilize momentum for a new vision of development for TropicalAmerica.
It is also noteworthy that 6 of the 13 Candiru complex viruses were isolated from febrile people. The clinical mani- festations of illness (29, 60) in these people were similar; non- specific, self-limited febrile illness, indistinguishable from phle- botomus (sandfly) fever and other relatively benign arboviral illnesses (56). Based on the frequency of their isolation (most have only been isolated once), one would predict that the Candiru complex viruses are not a common cause of human illness in tropicalAmerica. However, the paucity of isolates could also be a reflection of their distribution (tropical for- ested regions) and their recognition (all were isolated and identified in arbovirus diagnostic or research laboratories). Because of the limited laboratory capability of most medical facilities in this geographic region and the nonspecific na- ture of the illness, sporadic human cases may be misdiag- nosed or unrecognized. However, given their genetic diver- sity, geographic range and ability to evolve through segment reassortment, it seems probable that other unrecognized FIG. 6. Pairwise sequence analysis. To establish a potential cutoff for phlebovirus classification, we pursued pairwise sequence comparison of all published phlebovirus sequences. Calculations were performed using MEGA software (33) to calculate the p-distance of each segment at the nucleotide level. p-distance values were grouped in three groups representing: blue, distances among different strains of the same virus (intraspecies); red, distances between members of different species (intergroup); and green, distances among members of the Candiru complex.
compound was isolated and assigned the structure 3-methoxy-5-prenylbenzene-1,2-diol (1; chemical compounds and structures are identified by numer- als printed in bold in Fig. 1), as well as an oil with a peppermint-like odor that was not investigated further. During field work in various parts of the Neotropics (Bolivia, Brazil, and Costa Rica) we were able to study several stands of P. rutilans and regularly recognized a distinct odor of peppermint in the species. In contrast, a similar odor could not be recognized in fresh P. gymnocalycina. These ob- servations, in the context of our ongoing work on the systematics of the genus Plagiochila in tropicalAmerica (e.g., Heinrichs et al. 2000; Mu ¨ ller et al. 1999), prompted us to undertake a detailed taxo- nomic investigation of P. rutilans and the syno- nyms proposed by Stephani (1901–1906), using morphological and phytochemical evidence gath- ered from examination of herbarium specimens and fresh material.
support changes in sharks and rays faunistic composition during these geological intervals. After the interruption of ﬂow between the EP and WA oceans, vicariant events took place, resulting in differential speciation or extinction, which could be reﬂected in the differences of diversity of the living sharks and rays in the region ( Fig. 3 ). However, time-calibrated phylogenetic studies in some amphi-American shark genera such as lemon shark (Negaprion), angel sharks (Squatina), and hammer sharks (Sphyrna), suggest regional speciation with endemic species that diverged at least in the last 10 myr ( Schultz et al., 2008 ; Stelbrink et al., 2010 ; Lim et al., 2010 ; Acero et al., 2016 ). The extinction rates estimated for shark genera are relatively low; however, it is important to consider that the boundary crossers method used can be affected by biases that result in underestimation of extinction rates ( Alroy, 2010 ). More accurate methods exist ( Alroy, 2008 , 2014 ), but they are more demanding of the data and could not be used in our dataset. Nevertheless, our analysis revealed a higher extinction rate in TropicalAmerica during the Pliocene ( Fig. 5D ), which corresponds with a global extinction event of marine megafauna ( Pimiento et al., 2017 ).
Skin prick testing was carried out with eight allergen extracts (Greer laboratories, Lenoir, NC, USA): house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus/D.farinae mix), tropical mite (Blomia tropicalis, Leti, Spain), grass pollen, American cock- roach, fungi, Alternaria tenuis, cat, dog, and positive histamine and negative saline controls. A positive reaction was defined as a mean wheal diameter ≥ 3 mm than the saline control 15 min after pricking the allergen onto the forearm. The test was undertaken at the moment of recruitment during the acute attack. Children taking antihistamines were excluded from SPT analyses.
Because of the ever-increasing demand for reference material, we have prepared this more extensive data source. Parts I–TropicalAmerica, II–Africa, and III–Southeast Asia and Oceania contain concise descriptions of tree and timber characteristics for about 370 tropical species or generic groupings. The actual number of botanical entities, however, is many more. Almost all the information was compiled from world literature. This required an extensive search of abstracts and then an amassing of a rather formidable documentation. Focus has been on species already highly favored in international trade.
Although the work was mainly an exercise in collating existing information available from the literature and other sources, a strategic amount of original work was carried out over the region to help standardize criteria and fill-in knowledge gaps. In-field observations of landscapes and soils were made by criss-crossing the region from south to north and west to east by the senior author piloting his light airplane, a Piper PA-18 (nicknamed a “Super- cub”), that he especially adapted for landing on short airstrips in order to reach hinterland areas. In this way, soil profile descriptions were made and samples taken for analysis from many usually barely accessible sites (Plate 1-1). -Incidentally, the presence of a spade and soil auger strapped into the body of the aircraft raised the occasional eyebrow by airport inspectors; more than one asked if the senior author was looking for gold, precious stones or petroleum! The senior author did not mention his aeroplane survey work in his book “Land in TropicalAmerica” on the request of CIAT. For the record, he had spent many years carrying out soil study expeditions on foot in the Amazon regions of Peru and Bolivia, starting with a memorial solo balsa-wood log raft journey down the Alto (upper) Marañon River of north-western Peru in early 1963. Incidentally, the senior author never went thirsty in the jungle even on hot days, as shown by Photo Plate 1-3. Plate 1-2 was taken on one such expedition along the Bolivian piedmont region when he spent three months cut-off completely from the so-called “civilized” of By the late 1970’s there had been a considerable amount of land-
Changes to major ocean currents, wind-driven surface currents, upwelling and other types of hydrodynamic feature could have important effects on the dispersal and survival of tropical fish larvae (Munday et al. 2009a). However, at this time, the projection of how ocean currents will change lack sufficient confidence and resolution at scales relevant to the ecology of marine fishes to allow any meaningful predictions to be made about the likely impact on tropical coastal fishes (Munday et al. 2008a, 2009a). It is more certain that there will be greater vertical stratification of the water column, which will tend to reduce nutrient enrichment of surface waters. This may reduce the productivity of plankton communities that are an important food source for many tropical marine fishes, or are the food source for invertebrates that the fish prey on. Planktonic food chains will also be less productive at higher temperatures (McKinnon et al. 2007). At the same time consumers will have increased metabolic demands due to higher metabolic rates at higher temperatures. Consequently, there might be a general decline in the productivity of fish assemblages in tropical waters (Brander 2007). However, changes in productivity will be highly variable and unpredictable. Productivity will probably increase at some locations where local changes to current and upwelling improve nutrient supplies to surface waters.
Example 2.7 . (Two tropical ideals with the same variety.) Let K be the field C equipped with the trivial valuation val : C → R. Consider the principal ideals J = h(x+y +z)(xy +xz +yz)i and J 0 = h(x + y)(x +z)(y + z)i in C [x, y, z]. Their tropicalizations I := trop(J ) and I 0 := trop(J 0 ) are homogeneous tropical ideals in R [x, y, z] with the same variety. This is shown in Figure 1, together with the two associated tropical irreducible decompositions corresponding to tropicalizing the factors in the generators of J and J 0 . However, even though the tropical ideals I and I 0 coincide
An important task in simulating TCs is to aid in the prediction of these storms before, during and after landfall. Within the U.S., the National Hurricane Center (NHC) has done an excellent job of continually improving forecasts. Track forecasts of hurricanes have shown gradual improvements over the years, primarily though improvements to coarse-grid, global models (Marks and Shay 1998; Wang and Wu 2004; Goerss 2006; Bender et al. 2007; Rogers et al. 2006). Rogers et al. (2006) attributes TC forecast track improvements to several areas including improved assimilation of satellite and aircraft observations, better representation of the hurricane vortex, and improved representation of tropical physics. According to Rogers et al. (2006), the forecast of storm track from 1991-2006 improved 45% (or 3% yr -1 ). At the same time, intensity forecasting during that same period improved at a much smaller rate, 17% (or 1.1% yr -1 ) (Rogers et al. 2006; Wada et al. 2010). There are several possible causes for the limited increase of skill in developing accurate intensity forecasts needed for dissemination to emergency managers and the public.
Stronger tropical storms will compound reef degradation caused by coral bleaching and ocean acidification and cause increased disturbances in other habitats beside coral reefs. Such changes affect local fish communities in a range of coastal environments. Changes in rainfall and terrestrial runoff are expected to have greatest effects on nearshore and estuarine species. The ability of fishes to access wetland habitat is influenced by flooding from storms (Sheaves et al. 2006), as well as by tides. A decrease in the frequency of flooding will lead to less regular connectivity (Sheaves 2005). This could impair the viability of wetland habitats in many areas of the dry tropics, and move some wet tropics wetlands towards the intermittent connectivity currently a feature of the dry tropics. Beyond direct effects on the ability to access wetlands, any reduction in the amount or regularity of rainfall would reduce the viability of wetland pools as fish habitats and nurseries. Extended drought allows freshwater pools to dry and saline pools to develop extremely hypersaline conditions (Sheaves et al. 2006). In either case their function as fish habitats is significantly altered, exacerbating the reduction already occurring through the construction of weirs and pasture ponding (Hyland 2002).
Although, historically, humans have had a major impact on forests, technical innovations in logging and mechanised capital-intensive methods, requiring fast returns on investment, have meant that forest conversion and degradation have increased in recent decades. The rise in threats to tropical forests and increasing public concern over the eﬀects on biodiversity during the 1980s was a contributing factor to formulation of the Convention on Biological Diversity at its launch at the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit in 1992. However, this did not halt logging, which not only degraded forests but also made them more susceptible to ﬁre. 145 Controversially, some studies reported that, although logging reduced the density of trees, the number of stems of trees of diﬀerent species did not decline following logging, 146 suggesting that logging might not have the devastating eﬀect predicted by conservationists if post-logging man- agement can help the forests recover. The diﬃculty here is the ability of forest managers to apply suitable post-logging treatments. Whilst the science of forest restoration is well established for temperate and boreal regions, 147 management of tropical forests following logging has been problematic with few, if any, success stories. 148
The epidemiology of P. vivax malaria, response to treatment of acute attack with chloroquine and preventing relapse with primaquine and bulaquine has been reviewed (Anvikar et al., 2016). As P. vivax cannot be reliably differentiated from recrudescence or reinfection, recurrence rates were assessed. There is variation in relapse patterns both across and within states. Strains of differing patterns of relapse can coexist, complicating transmission and control measures. For e.g., in Delhi, Group I tropical type, is most common with relapse between 1month and 3 month, also present are Group II and III (temperate) types with relapse between 3-5 and 6-7 months
The present study evaluates the phytochemical constituents of selected tropical fruits viz, rambutan (Nepheliumlappaceum), mango (Mangiferaindica), avocado (Perseaamericana), and jackfruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus). Preliminary phytochemical compositions were carried out for the hexane, butanol, ethanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts. Solvents were taken based on increasing order of their polarity. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these fruit extracts confirms the presence of various phytochemicals like alkaloids, carbohydrates, phenol, glycosides, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, steroids and tannins.