True and Fair View

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Accounting harmonisation and the case of French use of the true and fair view

Accounting harmonisation and the case of French use of the true and fair view

The Italians were fo r their part w orried that companies w ou ld system aticlly use the true and fa ir override to avoid dislosures on a widespread basis. They demanded an amendment to the D irective w hich was agreed at the last m inute by the COREPER, not by the w orkin g party, w hich is the last sentence o f paragraph 2.5 “The Member States may define the exceptional cases in question (where a true and fair view is used to justify a departure from the general rules) and lay dow n the relevant special rules” . In principle this clause is com pletely at odds w ith the underlying idea, in as far as it accepts that true and fair may over-ride the rules, but retains the rig h t to stipulate rules as to when true and fair could over-ride the o ld rules. Since they have not yet finalised the ir im plem entation law, it remains to be seen w hether they w ill make use o f the clause.
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Applicability of IFRS for SMEs in Kosovo

Applicability of IFRS for SMEs in Kosovo

Variable testing addiction from the table above, made through Chi-Square test, shows that variable “IFRS for SMEs is suitable to give a true and fair view for SMEs” is not affected from “profession” of interviewees and from this we can conclude that it hasn‟t dependency between two variables, because the value of p = 0.760 > 0.05, and in this case is confirmed the initial hypothesis on the independence of variables. Thereby we come to the conclusion that IFRS for SMEs is suitable to give a true and fair view of activities of SMEs, something that is evaluated like that, from all groups of respondents despite of their profession, since the interviewees of all groups divided by profession are answered that the standard for SMEs is suitable to offer a financial reporting to satisfy needs of information users from the financial statements.
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European Court of Auditors activity report 2015

European Court of Auditors activity report 2015

Opinions of the external auditor — 2014 financial year Regarding the financial statements: ‘In our opinion, the financial statements give a true and fair view of the financial position o[r]

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The potential to reduce the risk of manipulation of financial statements using the identification models of creative accounting

The potential to reduce the risk of manipulation of financial statements using the identification models of creative accounting

Explanatory power of accounting information is the key question for deciding of users of fi nancial statements. A whole range of economic indicators is available to the users of fi nancial statements to measure the fi rm productivity. When the accounting statements (and applied methods) are manipulated, the economic indicators may reveal clearly diff erent results. The users of fi nancial statements should have the possibility to assess the risk of manipulation of accounting statements in time considering potential risk of accounting fraud. The aim of this paper was based on the synthesis of knowledge from the review of literature, the CFEBT model analysis and Beneish Model proposing a convenient model for identifying risks of manipulation of fi nancial statements. The paper summarizes the outcomes of possibilities and limits of manipulated fi nancial statements and their identifi cation. The testing hypothesis is assessing whether there is a close relation of a loss and an increase in the cash fl ow in 3–5 years time; whether the sum of the amounts for 3–5 year’s time would reveal the same results respectively. The hypothesis was verifi ed on the accounting statements of the accounting entities of prepared case studies respecting the true and fair view of accounting based on Czech accounting standards.
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Will the amendments to the IAS 16 and IAS 41 influence the value of biological assets?

Will the amendments to the IAS 16 and IAS 41 influence the value of biological assets?

Abstract: Th e aim of the paper is the evaluation of the impact of the new amendments to the IAS 16 and IAS 41 – Agri- culture: Bearer Plants on the fi nancial reporting in agriculture. Th e paper is based on the comparison of the current tre- atments for biological assets in a form of bearer plants measurement using the IFRS13 methodology and the treatments of the amendments to the IAS 16 and IAS 41. Statistical data regarding the selected bearer plant were used for the quantifi - cation. Th e orchard of fruit trees was considered as a suitable representative of bearer plants. As it is clear from the results of the research, the measurement at fair value using the DCF method is based on the estimation which requires a relatively large source of input data for this estimation over the useful life of bearer plants. On the other hand, the eff ect on the value of the assets could be controversial and the eff ect on the profi t or loss during the useful life could be volatile. Although the objective of the fair value measurement is to achieve a true and fair view, in this case, the fulfi lment of this objective is at least controversial, since the biological assets in the form of bearer plants cannot be separately traded.
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Review of Truth in Fiction: Rethinking its Logic

Review of Truth in Fiction: Rethinking its Logic

Woods also holds that fictional entities are concrete objects, not ab- stract objects: Holmes “is a man of the human kind and a human of the fictional kind” (p. 153). Being human, Holmes has hair and a spine, for example, as all humans do; he is no “freak.” This leads to a kind of specificity or full realization for fictional objects that at least initially seems implausible. For instance, vagueness aside, Woods maintains that for any time t of Holmes’ fictional existence, there is a particular n that numbers the hairs on Holmes’ head (or the cells in his body, etc.). How can that be, you might object, Doyle never specified any such thing in the novels, and there is no way to determine n at t for Holmes, unlike there may be for a real human? Yet Woods has several good arguments for his view that fictional objects are fully determi- nate. One is that this objection mistakes “epistemic indeterminacy for ontic indeterminacy” (p. 80). Just because you may not be able to find out the number of cells in your body, does not mean that there is not that number (again, vagueness aside). Another argument derives from the indisputability of something like Woods’ “world-inheritance the- sis” (p. 81). A simplified version of this idea is what Friend (2017) calls “the Reality Assumption: the assumption that everything that is (really) true is also fictionally the case, unless excluded by the work” (p. 29) (in his review of Woods’ book, García-Carpintero 2018 also makes this simplification). The argument is that for any time t of a real human’s life, there is (e.g.) a particular n that numbers the hairs on the person’s head. Thus, given world-inheritance, the same is true of any fictional human.
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What You See Is Not What You Get, Always! A Distorted but True View of Company Financials when Distressed

What You See Is Not What You Get, Always! A Distorted but True View of Company Financials when Distressed

When the items of the balance sheet are reconsidered, given the risk of distress, I realise that, the balance sheet of a distressed firm will shrink considerably and the balance between the two sides would definitely be lost. In this case, the company is faced with either liquidating some of the assets and pay out debt to release the pressure from the distress or all of them putting up the shutters. Both situations are stressful, the first one being the less. Hence, the finance management should always be vary to not fall into such a position and manage the balance sheet accordingly, and the analyst should be careful about the likelihood of distress and warn the management of the possibility. Therefore, a periodical risk-focussed analysis of a balance sheet should be devised and carried out, informing the stakeholders. I would like to call this type of analysis as fleshing the cash out of the entity. This, in fact, is the process of objectivising the balance sheet, skimming the lean cash and leaving out the items that are either not cashable or of no use when there emerges an unexpected and immediate need of liquidation. Most might think of the existence of the good old cash flow statement analyses but one should not be confused as the cash flow statement views the company again as a going concern and not in distress, and, therefore, some items may not reflect a true cash flow in case of distress.
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A Quantitative View of Short Utterances in Daily Conversation: A Case Study of Thats right, Thats true and Thats correct

A Quantitative View of Short Utterances in Daily Conversation: A Case Study of Thats right, Thats true and Thats correct

Short utterances serve a multitude of different communicative functions in interactive speech and have attracted due attention in recent re- search in dialogue acts. This paper presents a quantitative description of three short utteranc- es i.e. that’s right, that’s true, that’s correct and their variations based on the Switchboard Dialogue Act Corpus. Particularly, it offers an overview to account for how they are deployed by native speakers in daily conversation. At the same time, it attempts to provide a comparative account of that’s right and that’s true, showing that while almost 75% of them are mutually exchangeable, they nonetheless exhibit prefer- ences in interactive speech. This insight is ex- pected to form a useful approach towards automatic dialogue act tagging.
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Measured crop performance small grain 1958

Measured crop performance small grain 1958

11 Cornanc he vv Poor Poor Good Medium Excellent -- Fair Short Good. 12 Tenmarq** Poor Fair Fair Medium Excellent -- Fair Short Good[r]

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Camera Obscura

Camera Obscura

If the script for Camera Obscura was some sort of fortress once the first draft is completed, the rest of the life of the script is about the fortress withstanding a continuous and maybe infinite assault of critique, scorn, and double-guessing. That's not fair, actually, since there's much of this time devoted to polishing, amplifying, securing elements of the story so that depth and fullness and grace is created. In this case, I could speak ad infinitum about how I went through page by page to look for errors and illogical situations and dialogue. I'll forgo such exhaustive depictions and focus more on the general challenges, highlighting major changes and concerns that may or may not be still up in the air. In fact, some of the most important decisions are made after the first draft at least in this experience. Again, the first draft's goals are mainly getting something down on paper, forging that new path. Most of the time, the script is infested with the grammatical plague or cardboard dialogue written by malfunctioning computer A.I. To be bothered with that in the first draft, at least as far as perfection goes, will cause more collateral damage to your story than imagined. After the first draft, one could go crazy on the excruciating details.
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The Burger Court and Labor Law: The Beat Goes On--Marcato

The Burger Court and Labor Law: The Beat Goes On--Marcato

In my view, the same is true of a third case in which the Court, speaking through Justice Brennan, unanimously reversed the Board and held that an employer was obl[r]

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Family agriculture and sustainability in Mirangaba Street Fair, Bahia, Brazil

Family agriculture and sustainability in Mirangaba Street Fair, Bahia, Brazil

In northeastern Brazil, family farming emerged in the colonial period and to date is a significant source of subsistence and financial resources in quilombola communities (Silva, 2017). Regarding education, 50% did not complete elementary school, 16.7% completed elementary school, 33.3% succeeded in high school and 7% did not attend school. This data shows the low level of education of the marketers. Poor education is common among people in this segment of activities, as pointed out by Portugal (2004), family farmers usually have a low level of education. As for age, there is a significant variation between 21 and 80 years for both men and women. However, it is observed that 88.47% is in the age group of 30 years, of these, 69.23% are over 40 years, indicating that this profession is more characterized among the elderly. The percentage of professionals over 60 years old who trade agricultural products at the street fair is 34.61%. This data is directly related to the exodus of young people from the countryside to the urban environment, which is an old Brazilian reality. Some Brazilian municipalities try to reduce the exodus from the countryside by strengthening family farming and investing in rural communities. However, this is still a difficult problem to solve because “incentives and public policies for family farming are in practice bureaucratic, making them inaccessible to most farmers (Santos et al. 2018, p. 214). For Peccini et al. (2015, p. 6) “Some families are able to expand their production to the point of guaranteeing the permanence of their children in the activity”, however, there is a lack of incentives to “increase the production and marketing by the street fair, generating a greater source of income. capable of enabling young people to continue in the countryside”.
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The True Aglaurion

The True Aglaurion

Three things are clear from his wording: first, that the sanctuary of Aglauros was situated somewhere high on the slope of the Akropolis; second, that it was situated above the sanc- t[r]

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True west

True west

twentieth-century images of American manhood. 24 Tom Mix, Gary Cooper, and John Wayne all played cowboys distinctly tied to their roots as men of the West, but it was Wayne who took it a step further, blurring the line between his character onscreen and real life. Wayne’s very American and very masculine persona typified what it meant to be a cowboy. As the western film genre became a defining element of American popular culture, simultaneous to Wayne’s cinematic success, real westerners were once again modeling themselves after fictional characters. Their true West was an imagined West, as they had known it almost exclusively through film. 25 As is evident in my photographic work, the western film genre remains one of the factors with which contemporary western myth is so closely rooted.
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Measured crop performance small grain 1965

Measured crop performance small grain 1965

Fair Good Tall High Fair Coker Hadden Good Excellent Poor Early Fair Good Short Med. Fair Knox 62 ~h~ Good Fair Good Early Good Poor Med o High Good[r]

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On Making the True Look False and the False Look True

On Making the True Look False and the False Look True

On Making the True Look False and the False Look True SMU Law Review Volume 41 | Issue 5 Article 4 1987 On Making the True Look False and the False Look True Murray L Schwartz Follow this and addition[.]

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A liquid politics? Conceptualising the politics of fair trade consumption and consumer citizenship

A liquid politics? Conceptualising the politics of fair trade consumption and consumer citizenship

There are explanations ashore as to why solid political life appears contested in contemporary capitalist societies. The fall of the electoral process is a primary reason for the mourning of citizenship. In Britain, general election turnout has been steadily waning since the end of World War II. Since 1991, the percentage of political participation in the form of voting has shown a dramatic decrease, which is documented as ‘the lowest since before the First World War’ (Root, 2007: 72). In a Baumanian tradition, one can view these tendencies as indicative of a politically apathetic age, where non-political realms, such as consumer- driven activities, fulfil the life worlds of individuals. For instance, reality television has been regarded as detrimental to the health of civic cultures when candidates in such shows can attract more attention and facilitate more participation than political candidates or parties (cf. Lewis et al, 2005). These official articulations increase Bauman’s exposition of liquid modernity as diagnosed with a politically detrimental consumerist syndrome. Beyond solid interpretations of recorded political participation in the form of electoral participation, a recent audit of political engagement in the UK with a focus on MPs and Parliament demonstrates a majority of citizens being disengaged/mistrustful (24% of British adults) or detached cynics (17% of British adults) (Audit of Political Engagement, 2010). The disengaged/mistrustful grouping includes young members of the public (more than half aged under 35) with ‘a lukewarm commitment to voting’ (ibid.: 55), while the detached cynics were positively inclined towards elections, despite the cynicism. The loss of trust and interest in static formations of politics is evident from this cumulative percentage of 41% negatively inclined towards parliamentary procedures.
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Radiography of Clavicle Fractures— A Review of the Literature —Do Various Radiographic Views of Clavicle Fractures  Affect the Management Plan?

Radiography of Clavicle Fractures— A Review of the Literature —Do Various Radiographic Views of Clavicle Fractures Affect the Management Plan?

Middle third clavicle fractures are the most common, accounting for 69% - 82% of clavicle fractures [17]. In most departments, a single standard AP view of the clavicle is used to diagnose the fracture and these are easier to interpret than medial third clavicle fractures as there is less interference from thoracic structures. Occasionally though, a standard AP view is inadequate leading to misinformed treatment or even missing the fracture alto- gether [4]. Quesana views of the clavicle [18] are AP views of the fracture site with 40 ˚ to 45˚ cephalad and caudal tilt of the beam and better visualises fracture displacement [17]. Austin et al. employed the use of Que- sana views in his study and found that it had a significant influence on the decision of orthopaedic surgeons on the management of the fracture, more commonly toward surgical fixation, than a standard AP view and 20 ˚ ce- phalic tilt view of the fracture.
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Are juries fair?

Are juries fair?

Some findings contradict common perceptions about jury conviction rates. Contrary to popular belief and previous official reports, juries convict more often than they acquit in rape cases (55% conviction rate). Other serious offences (attempted murder, manslaughter, GBH) have lower jury conviction rates than rape. Previous HO reports, which claimed that jury acquittals were more common than convictions, were based on less reliable data than the current study. Rape conviction rates by juries vary according to the gender and age of the complainant. Jury conviction rates are high for some female complainants and low for some male complainants, and these findings challenge the view that rape conviction rates are low due to juror bias against female complainants. And while there is no doubt that the proportion of rape complaints to police that end in conviction is extremely low, it is also clear that this cannot be attributed to juries’ failure to convict in rape cases.
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Neighborhood Connected k-Fair Domination Under Some Binary Operations

Neighborhood Connected k-Fair Domination Under Some Binary Operations

This study combines the concepts of neighborhood connected domination in graphs and of k-fair domination in graphs. A neighborhood connected k-fair dominating set (nckf d-set) is a k-fair dominating set S ⊆ V (G) such that the induced subgraph hN (S)i is connected. The neighborhood connected k-fair domination number of G, denoted by γ nckf d (G), is the minimum cardinality of an nckf d-set. An nckf d-set in G with cardinal-

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