One of the resources that best shows the reflections of these loan words that enter into the language from other languages for various reasons is dictionaries. Dictionaries are “reference sources that record, explain, give examples with sentences chosen from literary texts, and note etymologies for all the words of a language or just in a certain period, in terms of writing, parts of speech, pronunciation, fundamental and side meanings, and properties of use.” . At the point of determining the words that Turkish has borrowed from other languages, the Turkish Dictionary has an important function. Eleven editions of the Turkish Dictionary have been printed by the Turkish Language Society, since its first edition in 1945. The Turkish Dictionary, which was most recently published in 2011, has a vocabulary of 122,423 words, terms, idioms and meanings of the words included in the dictionary. There is a total of 92,292 words found in the dictionary, including 77,005 lexical entries and 15,287 intermingled entries. Of these words, 53,451 are nouns, 12,666 are adjectives, 3,312 are adverbs, 88 are pronouns, 40 are postpositions, 299 are interjections, 50 are conjunctions, and 9,912 are verbs . When considering the areas of use of the words, it is understood that the words are used in fields such as theology, philosophy, plant and animal sciences, astronomy, law, medicine, literature, navigation, music, cinema and theater, informatics, physics, chemistry, biology, and geography.
Although a study (Erdem & Uzal, 2018) can be found in Turkishliterature on the use of technology in improving physics education, there is no study on this subject covering teacher's views. The research was carried out in order to eliminate this gap in the literature. Using technology effectively in physics courses has gained importance since students have difficulty learning physics subjects. Therefore, the aim of the research is to determine the views of physics teachers on the use of technology in improving physics education in high schools. This research is limited to the 238 physics teachers in some high schools in the province of Kocaeli during the 2014-2015 academic year, and their answers to the questions in the data collection tool.
In light of the results obtained from the study, the Turkish version of NSS has been concluded to be a valid and reliable scale instrument to measure 72-83-month-old children‟s number sense. Introducing a scale instrument to be used for measuring the number sense skills of children aged 72-83 months to the Turkishliterature constitutes one of the strong aspects of this study. In addition, the validity and reliability of data obtained from NSS being proven through more than one analysis methods represent another strong aspect of the study. Besides these aforementioned strong aspects, the study has some limitations as well, which bring along various recommendations for future studies. In the first place, the results from this study have been obtained only from 672 children aged 72-83 months studying at primary schools in Afyonkarahisar province, Turkey. In this respect, it is thought that extending sample groups to span various other provinces in Turkey and retesting the validity and reliability of the scale instrument with new studies will provide important contributions to the scale instrument itself, and in turn the field. Considering the fact that number sense is related to demographic variables such as at-risk children and later mathematical achievement (Jordan & Levine, 2009; Jordan et al., 2010a; Dyson, Jordan & Glutting 2013), studies can be performed to determine what kind of a link exists between number sense and such variables. In addition, with intercultural studies, number sense levels of children can be compared through several versions of NSS in multiple languages. Conducting studies in which NSS is used is extremely important since it will contribute to the measurement capability of the scale instrument.
In this study, World Literature course that are given in Turkish Language Teaching Departments of the universities in Turkey have been evaluated within the scope of "World Literature" that was used by Goethe in the 1820s and developed afterwards. With the purpose of conducting this evaluation, course contents of World Literature of Turkish Language Education Departments in Turkey and European Credit Transfer System forms have been obtained, and these contents have been examined within the context of the conceptual field that is pointed out by the definition. In this study where document analysis was used among the qualitative research methods, the data have been evaluated under the headings of "learning outcomes" and "course flow chart" based on multiculturalism, multidiscipline and multitime which are the key words of world literature. The first remarkable point is tackling the topic of Turkishliterature as a world literature sub-unit that is independent from East and West. Considering the axis of the study, it is observed that the Turkish language teaching programs focus on the relationship between written work and writer within the scope of multiculturalism in world literature teaching course. These written works exceed beyond the culture elements they belong to, and they are worldwide famous and generally novels.
In his famous work Essays, French writer and philosopher Montaigne wrote: “What we call friendship is a coincidence that makes our souls be together or affections we gain by necessities. In friendship, souls are so close, attached and joined together that the stitches might eventually become invisible. If they want me to tell why I love him (Etienne De La Betie) I believe I can put it only this way: Because he was just himself; and I was just me.” . Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar, one of the most important figures of Turkishliterature describes his intimate friendship with Nurullah Ataç as: “Friendship is a fate, too. And it is a good fate. In the beginning of every considerable action and each idea movement, there flows a fountain. In the beginning of every great work, there waits the face of a friend disguised as an angel. The path of cause is always tough. It is essential for the shoulders to touch each other and for the songs to mix with each other in order not to stop in the middle. Fame, the feeling of what you are doing, pride as a crown of foolishness, wrath or hate cannot go beyond a small and blinding drunkenness next to his warmth. (…) Only the palace of friendship has no cracks and its roof does not leak.” . Mustafa Kutlu, an acclaimed story writer and columnist in
When consider the 1990-2014 period as a whole, Turkey's market share substantially increased by 25.48%. As we have seen in similar studies, the greatest part of this increase stems from the competitiveness effect. During 1990-2014 period, price and exchange rates developments in favor of Turkey contributed to a significant increase of the competitiveness effect as well. Increasing foreign direct investments and production activities from developed countries to developing countries like Turkey is another reason that increases the competitiveness effect. On the other hand, the sign of the structural effects (CSE, GSE, SIE) as known as the static effects, is negative except for SIE. Therefore, we can conclude as the improvement in Turkish foreign trade occurred in 1990-2014 period is not a result of structural changes. Despite all the government incentives given to the research and development and product development activities in Turkey, CSE has a negative sign in the analysis. We can conclude that Turkey experienced a market share loss of 5.02% in terms of commodity structure. Turkey’s labor- intensive production is the reason of this result.
Within the discipline of Islamic mysticism, great Turkish thinkers such as Mevlana Celaleddin, Haci Bayram, Haci Bektash and especially Shaykh Bedred- din, Simavnali, were raised. Apart from these, Turkish philosophers who worked in the fields of philosophy of religion, philosophy of mysticism, philosophy of law and politics, theology and sociology can be listed as follows: Kınalızade Ali, Molla HasanülKafi, Lütfi Pasha, Koca Şekbanbaşı, Mehmet Nahifi Efendi, Mus- tafa Paşa, Eşrefi Rumi, Aşık Pasa, Hacı Hüseyin’s son Musa, Eşref’s son Abdul- lah, Birgivi Mehmet, Koca Nişancı Mustafa Pasha, Durmuş’ son Abdullatif, son of Idris of Bitlis Head of Provincial Treasury Mehmet, Abdülaziz of Hasan Can- lar, Sururi Çelebi, Taşköprülüzade Ahmet, Nihali, Pertevi, Nerkisi, İbni Melek- zade Mehmet, Muhyi, Ibni Firuz Mehmet, Lamil Celebi, Cemaluddin Mehmet Aksarayi, Shamsuddin Sivasi, Azmi, Osmanzade Ahmet Taip, Tosyalı Kucuk Mustafa, Nureddinzade Muslihuddin, Nasuh Nevali, Ibrahim Hakki of Erzurum, Ismail Hakki of Bursa, Ziya Gokalp (Rasid, 1996: p. 46).
Some museums throughout the world were founded as “educational museums” since the mid-19 th century (Hooper-Greenhill, 1994). The first educational museum in the world, Haslemere Museum, was opened in 1894- 1895 (San, 1998). Art education through museums emerged in the 19 th century in the West. The European mu- seums became centers that collect information about the area, protect the nature and conduct social and cultural studies (Atasoy, 1978). Children museums have a long history in America where the first children museum was founded (Hooper-Greenhill, 1994; Şahan, 2005). Museums are non-profit living places that deals with archeol- ogy, art, science and people, collects, protects and displays any kind of product in people’s lives, becomes a bridge between the past and the future, provide entertainment to people with its education, information and re- search opportunities and supports learning and creativity. They are universal and have continuity (Mercin, 2002). In many countries and our country, museums have sustainability policies. While in some countries museums are autonomous in every aspect, in other countries, including Turkey, they work under a ministry (Taş & Yıldız, 2015). For example, in England museums and protected historical sites have resorted to many new methods to promote themselves. In Museums, displays and shows are increasing because of computer programs that can spread light and sound. Furthermore, protected historical sites are using actors in historical costumes to promote the sites (Corbishley, 2000; Güleç & Alkış, 2003). Since the Hittites, Sumerians, Urartians, Lydians, Phrygians, Ionians, Romans, Byzantines, Seljuks and Ottomans left uncountable traces and remains, our country is like an open museum. Each of our seven geographical regions has unique importance because of its natural beauty, his- torical remains and rural and urban sites. A total of 2,634,662 works are being displayed in 191 museums and 115 archeological sites under Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism (Emekli, 2005). In this context, the Gen- eral Directorate of Turkish Cultural Artifacts and Museums worked hard and our 10 cultural artifacts were add- ed to the UNESCO World Heritage List. 26 provisional artifacts were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List and Turkey implemented many national projects through non-governmental organizations
Turkish Language Literature and Critical Reading Critical reading is a set of activities related to an individual’s pursuit of attaining the better, the more appealing and more accurate by filtering what is being read and learnt through reviewing from his/her personal knowledge and background; it is an act of demonstrating the better, the more appealing and more accurate intellectual products through the acquisitions from reading . “In critical reading the reader should demand to be aware of what is written to what end and in which manner as well. The reader should pay heeds to the attitude adopted by the writer in conveying a given text, consistency of provided information and selected words. This ability calls for additional knowledge, skills and habits in addition to basic literacy skills” .
Along with the changes in the educational approaches and the emphasis on global education, the qualifications and roles that are required of teachers should have also changed. The said change in teacher profile necessitated further reforms in education of teachers. Due to this requirement, several reforms have been and are implemented in teacher training systems in several countries including Turkey. Turkish teacher education system has a history of 169 years starting with the first teacher school established in 1848 (Aydın, 1998: 275). In this 169-year period, several changes were introduced in the Turkish teacher education system, and the related institutions were assigned different titles such as Darulmuallimin, Teacher Schools, Village Institutions, Primary School Teacher Schools, Educational Institutions and Faculty of Education until today (Akdemir, 2013; Üstüner, 2004). On the other hand, in 1997 and 2007, faculties of education were restructured due to the fact that the current teacher training system was inadequate to fulfill the current requirements. The teaching professionals were reorganized as "teaching technicians" with the teacher training model adopted in 1997 (Üstüner, 2004). On the other hand, the teacher education programs adopted in 2007 aimed to "train teachers who solve problems and teach how to learn, instead of the technician teacher who obeys what she or he is told to do". New program included general culture, social service courses, and social service course aimed the students to prepare projects to determine current problems in the society and produce solutions and motivate the students to participate in conferences, symposiums, panels, etc. It was also proposed to open elective courses on “professional ethics” similar to those available in Europe and in the United States in teacher education programs (Higher Education Council [YÖK], 2007). Finally, YÖK President Prof. Dr. Yekta Saraç stated that as an input-based regulation for education faculties, the achievement ranking system would be introduced and also a process and output-based alteration would be implemented (YÖK, 2016). It could be argued that these changes were implemented due to several reasons, including particularly the globalization. In fact, it was claimed in the debate on educational reform by various parties that the thesis of globalization was effective in these changes (Maguire, 2010). The real objective of these changes implemented in the teacher training system was the approach to train active and successful teachers who could comply with current requirements.
The investments of Turkish entrepreneurs to other countries increased in the 1990s. This paper explores Turkish FDI abroad focusing on the factors influencing the FDI decision and location choice, using micro data collected from investor firms. A micro level data set for the Turkish FDI abroad is constructed using the information gathered through questionnaires conducted at some selected firms, which have engaged in FDI abroad. The data is explored using statistical and econometric techniques by grouping the countries based on their geographical location. Among the factors that determine the location choice of investors access to consumers and suppliers, market penetration; the presence of Turkish firms and Turkish population, and similarity to Turkey; trade opportunities and preferential trade agreements; together with labour costs and availability of skilled workers affect the location choice of Turkish transnationals.
The contributions of this paper are: First, it verifies the significance of emigration on trade concerning the “sending” country perspective rather than “receiving” country. Second, it tracks the importance of the Turkish emigrants in the dynamic trade process in connection with the “home bias” and “network” effects. The trade figures illustrate that Turkey exports to the European partners mainly consumption goods, intermediary goods and capital goods; whereas imports mostly intermediate goods, capital goods and consumption goods, respectively. In addition, a large amount of imported goods are used for producing either domestic consumption goods or exporting by the Turkish industries.
Piano lessons, which are among the music field information courses in professional music education programs, are defined by The Council of Higher Education (YÖK) as piano education and teaching which constitute the basis of the music teaching program, embraces technical exercises and etudes, compositions from Turkish and other composers around the world, educational music samples, and comprises piano literature and teaching and learning techniques for school music (YÖK, 2007, p. 181-202). The phrase “piano education and teaching constitute the basis of the music teaching program” in the course of the music education program indicates that the piano is an effective instrument in fulfilling the aims of music education.
ethnic identity, the majority of the Meskhetian Turks believe that they are ethnic Turks but they have different views about their homeland. Some of them think that their homeland is Meskheti and therefore, demand their repatriation to Georgia. On the other hand, some believe that their homeland is Turkey and are in favour of their return to Turkey. Small number of Meskhetian Turks perceive themselves as ethnic Georgians and demand their return to any place in Georgia. There is also a considerable portion of Meskhetian Turks that can not point to any definite ethnic identity and their ethnic denomination changes according to circumstances and political situation. In the early sixties many of Meskhetian Turks referred to themselves as Georgians but when the repatriation movement failed to achieve any concrete results and Soviet government prevented their return to their ancestral homeland, they changed their pro- Georgian orientation with pro –Turkish orientation. Thus, when they failed to achieve their primary goal i.e. repatriation to Georgia, they changed their orientation and demanded their resettlement to Turkey. This movement also failed to achieve any concrete results. (Pohl,2005)
previously reported by Shook et al. . That is, it might be concluded that the bilingual group has as strong lexical access to Turkish as the monolingual group, and that both languages are active in their mind. On the other hand, the number of sentences employed by the former was measured considerably higher than the latter. In return, the average length of sentences produced by the monolingual group was counted slightly lower than those by the bilingual group, which was also approved by the finding that the conjunctions were used more frequently by the bilingual group. Namely, this group of words appeared 114 and 101 times in ATC and TMC, respectively. Not surprisingly, ve (meaning and) was the mostly frequented conjunction across both corpora appearing at similar frequencies in each corpus (52 times in TMC; 56 times in ATC). The groups in question significantly differ in the use of adversative conjunctions meaning but (e.g. ama, ancak and fakat). Indeed, they were used 29 and 26 times by the monolingual group and bilingual group, respectively; however, it was revealed that the bilingual group employed the Arabic originated conjunction ama (ﺎَّﻣَأ ʾammā) approximately as twice often as the monolingual group whereas they never used the conjunction ancak which is originally Turkish during the task. In return for this, the monolingual group used the conjunctions in concern approximately with the same frequency. This particular finding is considered a clear indicator of L1 interference.
As in Turkey, after the collapse of an Empire in which different ethnics (millet in the Ottoman realm) survived for centuries, the new Turkish nation is created merely on the specific Turkish identity. After the ‘birth of Turkish nation’ (as it is used commonly in Turkey), the mystical body of the nation embodies the physical body of the people and establishes a singular sovereignty. The Republic established after the war of independence is considered as a radical absolute beginning and may only be explained by the presence of a creator. Just like the ex nihilo Lord, this new established order is a new one where there is no room for the old. Since it has not taken place in evolution, it cannot be a continuation of the old system, but a part of eternity lack of historical time, a radical break with the past. As a matter of fact, the one which came into being with this new beginning is a total stranger to the archives of the past; it is, after all, an entirely ‘New Regime’ created by one single man – Atatürk.
67 Throughout the late 1920s and 1930s, the republican regime mobilised all its forces to popularise the Turkish language, and propagate the ideas and products of the language revolution (O’Driscoll, 2014). For instance, the ‘Citizen, Speak Turkish!’ (Vatandaş, Türkçe Konuş!) campaign, initiated in 1927 and peaked in 1937, is a “linguicidal” policy – a genocidal attempt made with the purpose of exterminating minority languages – since it condemned the use of languages other than Turkish (Zeydanlioglu, 2012: 103). A significant official institution at the heart of the language revolution was the Turkish Linguistic Society (Türk Dil Kurumu) established in 1932 with the task to generate a cohesive national language to form a homogeneous nation. The goal of the Linguistic Society was the creation of pure Turkish (öz Türkçe) by eliminating non-Turkish (mainly Persian and Arabic) words and influences and in their place discovering new words or integrating ‘pure’ Turkish words assembled from several Turkish dialects (Morin and Lee, 2010; Al, 2015b). The Linguistic Society was part of an arsenal of early republican institutions such as the Turkish Historical Society (Türk Tarih Kurumu), established in 1931 with the essential purpose of writing and disseminating the new national history of the Turks (Hanioglu, 2012; Zeydanlioglu, 2012). These and other institutions allowed the Republican State to maintain control over the nation-wide knowledge production.
This thesis attempts to address a largely ignored undercurrent of change in the Republic of Turkey over the past thirty years. It centers on the village, long neglected in national political and historical analysis, as a dynamic force in larger Turkish society. Using various media as sources, it argues that while there runs a deep cultural gap between the urban and rural populations of Turkey, the way these divisions are reproduced in urban stereotypes fails to actually capture the dynamic social life in Turkey’s rural communities. As demonstrated by this project's detailed analysis of various forms of social media produced by villagers themselves, especially through the internet in the form of village web-sites, I will shed light on a new interactive medium by which the village becomes a more direct agent in not only shaping the country’s past, but in writing it as well. This thesis, in other words, sheds light on the emergence of village web-sites in Turkey, by investigating and analyzing their attempts at adding their own narratives to the dominant histories that have systematically reduced villages in Turkey to a subordinate, peripheral role.