ABSTRACT: This paper aims to explore the dualism in TVET and its probable impacts on the implementation of Education for SustainableDevelopment (ESD) in TVET in Malaysia. Dualism in education means there are two different education systems; Traditional Islamic education system and Secular education system. Sustainabledevelopment is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come. Education for sustainability is a process that develops people’s awareness, competence, attitudes and values, enabling them to be effectively involved in sustainabledevelopment. This paper also will discuss about the impact of dualism in education for sustainabledevelopment and how it can affect TVET’s role in it. In the end, we will discuss the way to overcome the dualism in education to ensure success in implementing ESD in Malaysia.
Abstract: Competency framework is a tool that determines the needed competencies for individuals in order to curtail the challenges that are existing currently and to uphold sustainabledevelopment. From the educational perspective, the competencies of TVET teachers are important as they might affect the teachers’ implementation of tasks, career development and graduates’ quality. Therefore, this research attempted to develop a competency framework for TVET teachers in Nigerian TVET tertiary institutions based on the Malaysian Human Resource Practitioners Development (MHRDP) Competency Model. The study adopted a survey design and 427 TVET teachers were identified as targeted sample. A set of questionnaire was developed based on the MHRDP Competency Model (α=0.61). A total of 218 questionnaires were distributed to five TVET tertiary institutions using stratified sampling technique and 205 questionnaires were successfully returned. Exploratory Factor Analysis was used to analyse the data. The findings revealed that 19 elements of competency were significantly relevant to Nigerian TVET teachers who work at tertiary institutions. The proposed competency framework is beneficial to be used as a guideline for the Nigerian TVET institutions and policy makers to plan the competency training and retraining courses for TVET teachers and staff development.
In some European countries, students receive vocationally oriented education as early as at the age of 12. The students transfer to lower secondary school at the age of 10-13, with the youngest entrants found in Germany and Austria and the oldest ones, being at the age of 16, in the Nordic countries. The most thoroughly school-based vocational upper secondary education is provided in Finland, Sweden, Spain, Greece and Portugal. The highest proportion of vocational training delivered at the workplace is to be found in Austria (a little less than half) and the Netherlands (a third), that of training combining the workplace and school in Denmark, Germany, France and the Netherlands. Curriculum denotes the formal specification of what is taught and learnt in educational or training establishments. Curricula are formally specified in such learning and teaching entities as units, courses, clusters, sequences and other specifications. Levels of curricula vary from national to student ones, and types of curricula differ from intended to learned syllabi. The traditions of curriculum vary according to national contexts and to historical periods. Curriculum development in TVET is approached from a broad technological knowledge, activity-oriented theories of learning and from the concept of vocation (Beruf). Ethics of sustainabledevelopment gives a global and future perspective to education and training. The first two chapters illustrate the global, regional and national policy context of curriculum in TVET followed by a historical discussion about a curriculum theory and didactics. Then the learning theories focus on work-based learning issues and an activity approach. Next the ethics and implementation of education for sustainabledevelopment is analysed. Finally a window to the future is opened by a national practice of workforce anticipation.
Malaysia is taking steps to strengthen policy guidance and regulatory frameworks for technical and vocational education and training (TVET) and to improve its governance and programme implementation for economic transformation and sustainabledevelopment. The transformation requires that TVET educators are well prepared to face the challenges of globalization so that Malaysian educators can stand tall and be committed to support an education system that can fulfil the needs and aspirations of a nation. The objective of this paper is to propose the effective competency of a TVET Educator in Malaysia context based on the four series of focus group discussion (FGD). This paper explains the development process of the TVET Educator competencies and the final component generated from the professional and expert in TVET Educator’s Education. The outcome this study concludes the three main components namely Personal Traits and Professionalism; Teaching and Learning and Training and Technical and Innovation. The development of these competencies is to ensure that the quality TVET Educators produce competent TVET graduates who are capable to meet the requirement of industries and professional bodies. Nevertheless, it is important for the TVET providers, industries, communities and the Government to collaborate towards achieving a status of high income nation
As mentioned earlier, TVET is an academic stream that is closely related to the world of work, which is the industry. This fast-changing environment requires the TVET curriculum to be dynamic enough with the needs and demands of the surrounding. The present curriculum without any doubt may lead to unsustainable educational experiences since the future workplaces require knowledge and skills that are somewhat different owing to the challenges of the future. In fact, the sustainabledevelopment design for education also aims to contrast the existing paradigm of learning in public education settings with a more holistic and ecological model which emphasizes the importance and awareness of the human potential and the interdependence of social, economic and ecological wellbeing (Medrick, 2013). Therefore, this study explored the criteria for the sustainable curriculum of TVET teacher education programs to be sustainable and able to produce quality TVET teachers in the future.
There is no argument over the fact that new infrastructure will need to be put in place for the full transition to a Green Economy to occur. This will, more often than not, involve significant up-front costs. In many cases, developing countries will lack the resources required to support the development of Green Industry in their countries be it a lack of technology, knowledge and expertise, or simply a matter of insufficient capital. Without financing and the transfer of knowledge, skills and technologies to the developing world, the global transition to a Green Economy will take place at a very slow pace. The need to address environmental problems grows every day, and therefore, a serious push is needed on the part of developed countries to facilitate and aid developing countries in making their transition to a Green Economy, if serious damage to ecosystems and climate is to be avoided.
normalization in the architecture, engineering, construction and (AEC) industries, the concept of sustainability is gaining increased momentum than before. In addition, Building Information Modelling (BIM) has begun to embrace the sustainabledevelopment aspects namely, social, economic and environmental. In order to gain a balanced sustainable performance, the impact of BIM on all the various aspects of sustainabledevelopment have to be considered. This paper reviews and reflects how key sustainability aspects are achieved through BIM in the AEC industries. Using building information modelling (BIM) data that is generated during design over the whole project lifecycle enables faster, efficient, safer, less wasteful construction and more cost-effective, better sustainable operation, maintenance and eventual decommissioning. The paper also reviews the trending issues surrounding the implementation of BIM alongside sustainable design practices and the problems associated with attempting to evaluate benefits in a purely quantitative way. The development of a broader framework that integrates both quantitative measurement and a more qualitative understanding of the method of integrating BIM and sustainable design to measure the real potential of BIM for sustainability are suggested. In this paper, uses of BIM supporting sustainability both in theory and practice were identified. This renders useful insights for future development of BIM uses in achieving greater sustainability benefits in all aspects of sustainabledevelopment.
Leadership development programs have been a priority for every business or government organizations to build and enhance leadership qualities in a person. Highly successful organizations focus on creating a comprehensive set of assessment and leadership development practices that support the wide range of talents across the organization (Groves, 2007; Charan et al., 2001). Changing mindsets, a global focus, personnel development and improved business and leadership skills are the several elements key that can contribute to successful leadership among the leader. The concept of a leadership development culture is similar to the idea of a learning organization (Vardiman et al., 2006; Senge, 1990). A learning organization facilitates change, empowers organizational members, encourages collaboration and sharing of information, creates opportunities for learning, and promotes leadership development. According to Allio (2005), the primary goal of a good leader is to reinforce values and purpose, develop vision and strategy, build continuity, and initiate appropriate organizational change. Allio (2005) adds that it is important that leadership developers first establish a metric for assessing leadership effectiveness, and then design experiments that can establish a causal or statistically significant relationship between training initiatives and leadership competency. It is also necessary to develop a better understanding of the conditions or contextual factors needed to enable the development of effective leaders. Also in the process of leadership development, the head should be wise in giving the opportunity to practice their skills and knowledge in a real work environment.
Interaction and understanding (though not necessarily mutual acceptance) of worldviews is thus required to develop a discourse of shared terms and language that are needed in order for analysis, debate, negotiation and problem-solving to occur (Dryzek 1997). The need for dialogue of this nature is ﬁrmly located within the relevant literature, with it being argued that the basic causes of conﬂict between stakeholders are the differences in their knowledge and values (Dorcey 1986), and that these shape the way information is gathered, perceived and acted upon by these various groups (Simmons 1993). Thus, it is argued, for example, that in order to incorporate all the appropriate components of sustainabledevelopment, the identiﬁca- tion of criteria and indicators of sustainabledevelopment must not only be approached by scientiﬁc means, but also include perceptions and values set by society as a whole (Cairns et al. 1993; Young 1997) and by indi- vidual stakeholder groups (Schwartz and Thompson 1990; Thompson et al. 1990; Vreis 1989). (This understanding, in part, has focused attention on the need to create and manage a participatory dimension to sustainable develop- ment, to ensure that all relevant stakeholders are closely involved in deﬁning their own needs and engaging relevant decision-making authorities and processes.).
Recently, industry has taken a direct approach to addressing the problems in the footwear and apparel sector. Major footwear and apparel companies have come together to form the Sustainable Apparel Coalition, a group with a goal to “produce no unnecessary environmental harm and has a positive impact on the people and communities associated with its activities” (Sustainable Apparel Coalition, 2011). The Sustainable Apparel Coalition’s (SAC) member companies include: Adidas, Columbia Sportswear, Environmental Defense Fund, H&M, HanesBrands, Levi Strauss & Co., Li & Fung Limited, L.L.Bean, Inc., Marks & Spencer, New Balance, Nike, Nordstrom, Outdoor Industry Association, Patagonia, Pentland Brands, PUMA, Ramatex Group, Timberland, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, VF Corp, Walmart among other companies. This coalition was funded by sustainability leaders from global apparel and footwear companies, as well as leading
Sustainabledevelopment at the beginning initiated by the groups associated with the green movement who concerned about, the non-renewable resources (Ener- gy stocks), the pollution of the air and water and globally speaking the destruc- tion of environment and the balance of nature (the eco-system) which has a great impact over all living creatures. This subject focuses on the extent of the damages being done to the environment, the responsibility for the current situa- tion. It also tries to elaborate the methods that must be taken in to the action to solve their negative impacts, leading toward promotion of consensus that some- thing is wrong and all the human being has the duty to do something about it . Of course choosing the right method is another matter because there is a spectrum of views. At one extreme side there is a group that suggests we should conserve the environment at all costs, meaning that human being should change the way of living and economic growth in order to reduce consumption.
A great deal of literature, however, deals with the emission implications of some components of privatization programmes, particularly removal of energy subsidies. Energy subsidies removal may also be adopted as a stand-alone policy, independent from privatization. Conversely, subsidies may remain even within competitive markets. Government subsidies in the global energy sector are in the order of US$ 250-300 billion per year, of which around 2-3% support renewable energy (De Moor, 2001). Removing subsidies on energy has well-documented economic benefits. It frees up financial resources for other uses and discourages overuse of natural resources (UNEP, 2004). But, reducing energy subsidies might have important distributional effects, notably on the poor, if not accompanied by appropriate compensation mechanisms. The impact of policies to reduce energy subsidies on CO 2 emissions is expected to be positive in most cases, as higher prices trigger lower demand for energy and induce energy conservation. For example, econometric analyses have shown that price liberalization in Eastern Europe during the period 1992-1999 was an important driver of the decrease in energy intensity in the industrial sector (Cornillie and Fankhauser, 2002). Similarly, removal of energy subsidies has been identified as instrumental in reducing GHG emissions compared with the baseline in China and India over the past 20 years (Chandler et al., 2002). Overall, an OECD study showed global CO 2 emissions could be reduced by more than 6% and real income increased by 0.1% by 2010, if support mechanisms on fossil fuels used by industry and the power generation sector were removed (OECD, 2002). Yet subsidies removal may actually result in increased emissions in cases where poor consumers are forced off-grid and back to highly carbon intensive fuels, such as non-sustainable charcoal or diesel generators. For example, removal of the subsidies for LPG in Senegal under the ‘butanization’ programmes discussed above is expected to increase charcoal and unsustainable fuelwood use (Deme, 2003). For additional discussion on energy subsidies, see Section 4.5.1 and Section 220.127.116.11 and Section 18.104.22.168.
Abstract: The concept of development is one of the most important and controversial issues or challenges particularly in developing countries. The attainment of sustainabledevelopment through entrepreneurship is a model recognized worldwide as the driving engine of sustainabledevelopment. The aim of sustainabledevelopment is permanent development of human capabilities, thereby compensating for the lack of other capabilities. Clearly, a key and strategic mean to this end is to develop entrepreneurial universities. An entrepreneurial university is one that focuses on the generation of knowledge and the expansion of the borders of human knowledge to respond to the educational, research and technical consultation needs of the environment. By encouraging creativity and developing methods of wise thinking, it contributes to the identification, formulation and resolution of the problems whether individually or collectively and, this way, prepares the ground for sustainabledevelopment. Academic entrepreneurship involves laying the groundwork for the development of innovation among academia, commercialization of academic research results and development of economic and entrepreneurial activities. Accordingly, the aim of the present study is to elaborate on the importance of universities in sustainabledevelopment and the way they affect it and also provide an explanation for the structures required to meet the criteria for entrepreneurial universities.
Ireland has a rich diversity of habitats and species. To halt the loss experienced and maintain that diversity involves taking action to ensure that a sufficient range and number of sites and species are designated for protection from unsustainable development activity (that is, any activity that would undermine the conservation of habitat or species). The greatest threats to biodiversity in Ireland are habitat loss, pollution and introduced species. The absence of adequate data for all plant and animals groups is also a serious problem. Habitats requiring protection include (native) woodlands and hedgerows, bogs and fens, eskers, turloughs, freshwater habitats, and coastal and marine habitats. We need to eliminate all sources of pollution to land, sea and air that undermine the carrying capacity of living systems, and ensure that nutrient and pollutant loads in watercourses do not impair biological diversity. There is need to accelerate the process of transparent sustainable management of designated sites and species and to require all development to be consistent with planning guidelines; this would include strictly regulating and controlling drainage and extraction activity to prevent damage to bogs, fens, turloughs and other wetlands, as well as coastal habitats (including estuarine mudflats, sand dunes, machair and other vulnerable habitats). In addition, guidance should be developed for key professions, and ecological education introduced into all types of education and training.
Development (UNCED) in 1992 at Rio de Janeiro, the term extended into a full concept of development stressing upon the collaboration of government and non- governmental organizations (NGOs), industrialists, scientists, community groups and regional organizations. It became one of the most important interdisciplinary concepts that sneaked through studies on environment, economics, sociology, political science, life sciences and gender. By 2000, the concept of sustainabledevelopment became firmly settled as a guiding document in all international organizations. Since then the UN member states have been publishing reports on the national status of sustainabledevelopment programmes and strategies and submitting them to the specially created UN body called UN Commission for SustainableDevelopment (UNCSD). The term is modified for different user groups as „sustainable human development‟, „sustainable economic growth‟, „sustainable socio-economic development‟ and „sustainable local governance‟ and very recently in 2004 „Information Communication Technology‟ (ICT) for sustainabledevelopment.
Socially: education has developed, state budget expenditure for education and training has reached 20% of total budget expenditure; By 2011, all provinces and cities will have achieved the standard of secondary education. Employment has achieved positive results: in 6 years (2006 - 2011), jobs were created for over 9 million workers. In 2012, new jobs were created for more than 1.5 million people; in 2013, striving to create jobs for 1.6 million people; new vocational training for 1.9 million people; implement vocational training strategies associated with job creation. In 2012, the urban unemployment rate was 3.53%, in rural areas it was 1.55%. The work of hunger eradication and poverty reduction has made much progress, the percentage of poor households has decreased to 9.6% and by the end of 2013 it is estimated at 7.6%. In 2012, Vietnam ranked 127th out of 187 countries and territories in HDI and ranked in the group with high growth rate of HDI. Vietnam has completed 6/8 Groups of Objectives for CompetitionThe term sustainabledevelopment was first used in the report "World Conservation Strategy" proposed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in 1980 . The overall goal of the strategy is to achieve sustainabledevelopment by protecting biological resources, emphasizing the sustainability of ecological development, in order to call for conservation of biological resources . Most of the following concepts agree that the inner meaning of sustainabledevelopment is a
methodology of registering economic results of the society through the SNA, which cannot analyse and evaluate all aspects of the socio-economic activities. However, since their incorporation into the basic current accounts could influence the quality of the main indicators, the so-called satellite accounts were created, the aim of which is to supplement the main indicators by the information not hitherto incorporated, but important from the sustainabledevelopment concept viewpoint. The satellite ac- counts are aimed at the sphere of science, research, health care, education etc., and as the classical SNA operates with the data on the society activities with- out regard to their consequences, a similar satellite account was created also for the environment sphere (Living Planet 2007).
reductions, food competition, and ecosystem protection will be a knowledge-intensive activity. A great deal of R&D is currently focused on the engineering and molecular biology of biofuel production. Some R&D resources are directed towards the relevant aspects of the global carbon cycle and some into biofuel production processes. Very little is going into research on the agricultural and natural resource systems needed to sustainably “scale up” a significant biofuel production system, into the limits of sustainable expansion, or into the ways that biofuel production interacts with the environment at global, regional, and local scales. 6 Indeed, for years, the international system has neglected research and development in the agriculture and natural resource sectors. Even the most basic food and fiber crops have suffered from underinvestment. For the complex, multi-use landscapes 7 that will almost certainly be an essential component of a strategy for sustainabledevelopment of biofuels, only the very beginnings of the necessary knowledge base exist. Along with a lack of investment in biotechnology, irrigation, and roads, this underinvestment in knowledge has resulted in a long-term decline in land productivity. Food, fiber, and fuel production could be stimulated by increasing investment in research and supporting reforms targeted at increased production of multiple crops to serve multiple uses. The interactions among agriculture, energy, and the environment require that more of the research should be interdisciplinary in nature and should focus on the boundaries between these three fields. Some Session participants recommended doubling the public agriculture budget to revitalize the system, including support to the relevant research centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Such a