2.1 Ten largest Australian mines using minefill 15 2.2 Specific gravity values for a range of hydraulic fills 24 2.3 Published porosity values for hydraulic fills 26 2.4 Recorded relative density values of hydraulic fills 27 2.5 Published permeability values for a range of hydraulic fills 37 2.6 Hazen’s constant values reported by various authors 43 2.7 Mount Isa fill and pouring resting regimes (Cowling et al., 1988) 51 3.1 Summary of Harr’s Fragments (Harr, 1977) 75 3.2 Summary of Griffith’s form factors (Griffiths, 1984) 76 3.3 Outputs by different mesh arrangements 82 3.4 Summary of equations for **two**-**dimensional** **analysis** 89 3.5 Summary of pore water pressure equations and design charts for

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c. Gravity dam stresses are analyzed by either approximate simplified methods or the finite element method depending on the refinement required for the particular level of design and the type and configuration of the dam. For preliminary designs, simplified methods using cantilever beam models for **two**-**dimensional** **analysis** or the trial load twist method for **three**-**dimensional** **analysis** are appropriate as described in the US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), “Design of Gravity Dams” (1976).The finite element method is ordinarily used for the feature and final design stages if a more exact stress investigation is required.

These performances have been estimated in such mock-up tests, however, such tests are of long duration and costly. Therefore, it would be better to develop a numerical method to estimate separator performances so as to develop an innovative separator. In the present study, an idea of low cost simplified innovative separator using lattice core configuration is proposed where swirl- ing is caused by the orthogonal driving flow. The four fuel assemblies around the control rod of BWR, the con- ventional separator with swirler and the proposed con- cept of the separator are shown in Figures 1-3, respec- tively. But the performance of the separator is still needed to be assed. Hence, the objective of the present study is to develop a numerical model to estimate the performance of the proposed separator and to validate the developed model with the experimental results. A **three** **dimensional** **analysis** of steam-water separation has been performed with the commercial numerical **analysis** code ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 which consists of a **three**-dimen- sional **two**-fluid model [4]. In the **analysis**, the geometry and flow conditions are chosen according to the experi- mental study of Hirai [3] who studied experimentally the performance of the vapor-water separation of the pro- posed model.

This chapter discusses the one-**dimensional** **analysis** of the coating die bar using beam theory and **two**-**dimensional** **analysis** of the bar using finite element method. The coating die is divided into cross-sections along the length of the bar to carry out the analyses. Each section is modeled as a beam cantilevered at the inner cavity edge and analyzed for deflection using beam theory. The beam theory results are compared with **two**- **dimensional** finite element **analysis** predictions obtained using ANSYS in plane strain condition. The beam theory and finite element **analysis** results are further compared with the **three**-**dimensional** finite element **analysis** predictions. This chapter also explains the **two**-**dimensional** thermal analyses performed on the die which gives an upper limit for temperature variations that can take place within a coating die.

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possible to shift the focal plane while keeping telecentri- city and magnification ratio [30]. We evaluated the light wave of the iTero and TRIOS scanners using polarization beam splitter and quarter-wave plate (Thor- labs Inc., Newton, NJ). It was found that the light of the TRIOS scanner was polarized, whereas the light of the iTero scanner was not polarized. The TRIOS scanner was found to use linear-to-circular polarization by the quarter-wave plate. A wave plate is an optical device that alters the polarization state of a light wave traveling through it. **Two** common types of wave plates are the half-wave plate, which shifts the polarization direction of linearly polarized light, and the quarter-wave plate, Table 3 **Three**-**dimensional** discrepancy between each intraoral scan and model in the incisor and molar regions and its comparison between the iTero and TRIOS scanners (unit: mm)

Using method of fragments (Harr 1962, 1977) and the finite difference software FLAC, the drainage and pore water pressure developments within a **two**-**dimensional** hydraulic fill stope were investigated in this chapter. It was shown that the flow region can be divided into **three** fragments, for which the form factors can be determined from the dimensions of the stope and the drain. The flow is vertical at heights above the stope width (B), and is horizontal within the drain a short distance (0.5D) from the stope face. At the bottom of the stope, up to a height of the stope width, flow is **two**- **dimensional**. Since the bottom of the stope (fragment 2) does not conform to any of the fragments suggested by Harr (1962), a new fragment was developed. The dimensionless form factor of the new fragments was expressed as a function of the dimensions of the stope and drain. Analytical solutions were proposed for determining the entry hydraulic gradient at the top of the stope, flow rate and the maximum pore water pressure that occurs at the bottom corner of the stope. The model was verified through several numerical examples of hydraulic fill stopes with randomly selected dimensions and was found to be in excellent agreement. Several other points within the **two**-**dimensional** stope were also analysed and equations developed to determine the pore pressure development throughout the stope. For all **analysis** in chapter 3, tight filling was assumed in the access drive.

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To obtain personal properties from gait becomes popular and some researches begin to try personal identification by gait. A primary approach for a gait **analysis** aims to construct a feature space from input images suitable for discrimination and to improve classification accuracy using machine learning schemes with the feature extraction. However, there are few researches show what is the most significant for a gait **analysis** considering a skeletal structure that might strongly relate to human’s gait. Considering this background, we made a hypothesis that joint motions might be different owing to skeletal structures and confirmed the hypothesis by evaluating classification performance of personal identification with feature extraction based on joint motions using actual data. In this evaluation, **two**-**dimensional** coordinates are generated from **three**-**dimensional** coordinates obtained from the Kinect v2 to simulate image acquisition of a generic camera. Experimental results show that the feature extraction based on joint motions can achieve moderate classification accuracy when feature vectors are constructed from only **two**-**dimensional** information in an image plane. In addition, the results include interesting knowledge: the classification accuracy is not degraded even if gait is measured from right in front. The average classification accuracy by the scheme was 78.95% but the proposed scheme can perfectly classify several targets in the best case. These results indicate that the proposed scheme can be improved when it is modified to treat some targets that are not currently suitable for the scheme. We will try to improve the classification accuracy for these targets in the future.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 124 patients treated with 3D and **two**-**dimensional** (2D) laparoscopic D2 lymphadenectomy for distal gastric cancer at the China Academy of Medical Sciences Cancer Hospital and the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Guangxi Medical University from January 2014 to January 2015. The effects on operative time, bleeding, hospitalization time, complications, and the number of lymph nodes removed were analyzed. Results: The difference between the general data of the **two** groups was not statistically significant (P.0.05). In **analysis** of the subgroups, the number of lymph nodes removed in the 3D laparoscopic group was significantly higher than in the 2D laparoscopic group ([2.52±1.88] vs [2.22±1.80], P=0.001; [2.22±1.80] vs [1.47±1.99], P=0.019). However, the differences among the total number of lymph nodes removed, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, postoperative recovery time, and postoperative hospital stay were not statistically significant.

The 3D FEA model allows for the stress **analysis** of boundary eﬀects where 2D FEA model fails. The proposed hybrid layer method is developed to save the eﬀorts of computational time and post process keeping with 3D boundary eﬀect. The proposed method involves obtaining traction distributions from a relatively coarse 3D FEA model to use as an input loading in 2D plane strain FEA model. The schematic of contact traction distribution along the axial line at the contact surface is shown in Fig. 4. The hybrid layer method assumes that the forces converge much more quickly than the longitudinal normal stress peak occurring at the edge of contact. The traction distributions at the local contact zone are normal contact force and **two** shear forces along the specimen length and width (x and z direction in Fig. 4). In this work, tangential shear stress along the specimen width (z direction in Fig. 4) is ignored. This is because the geometry is symmetric along the width and the axial load and induced shear stress are applied to the axial direction only. The resultant normal traction and shear traction from 3D coarse mesh are obtained as follows.

25%, otherwise a random-effects model was chosen. Primary endpoints were additionally divided into multiple subgroups based on different study types and surgical types. Sensitivity **analysis** was conducted by removing low-quality studies and interchanging calculation models (fixed-effects and random-effects), in order to observe the outcome stability. Publication bias was analyzed by Begg’s test, Egger’s test and Trim-and-Fill method. Statistical significance was indicated by P < 0.05.

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Abstract: In the Shirakawa River, remarkable deformation due to sediment deposition was observed after the river channel improvement work. The sediment deposition was observed at the bend of the river channel. In this research, a model experiment, a quasi-**three**-**dimensional** numerical simulation and planer **two**-**dimensional** bed variation **analysis** were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of river bend curvature variation caused by improvement works on channel response and flow capacity. In the model experiment, large sandbars were formed, and the channel become narrower. In the numerical simulation, flood flew over sandbars and gravel deposited on sandbars, which caused decreasing of flow capacity. The gravel deposition was most active when the flow charge was in its peak. There was less inundation at the areas where sediment deposition was occurred.

Movement vectors associated with each triangle oscillated in magnitude throughout the tail-beat cycle. In Fig. 8, we depict the magnitudes of the movement of each of the tail triangles in all **three** dimensions. For all triangles in the x dimension, scaled vector magnitude builds to a large, positive value early in the tail-beat cycle (just after the maximum lateral excursion from the previous beat) and then slowly declines to zero as the tail beats towards the opposite side. Only very rarely did triangle orientation and velocity produce a small, negative component, indicating that the x movement vector pointed into the flow (not seen in the beat plotted in Fig. 8). For example, triangle A (which contains point 3 as one of its vertices) shows maximum posterior movement 0.05 s into the beat, just after the maximum lateral excursion of point 3 at approximately 0.04 s. As the tail beats back towards the opposite side, posteriorly directed movement is reduced, as might be expected on the basis of the triangle orientation (angle with the yz plane) discussed above, and does not build again until the opposite maximum lateral excursion is reached.

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elemental **analysis** and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The Zn II cation is located on an inversion centre and is coordinated by **two** O atoms from **two** symmetry-related nitrate groups and four N atoms from four symmetry-related 4,4 0 -bis[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl]-1,1 0 -biphenyl ligands, forming a distorted octahedral {ZnN 4 O 2 } coordination geometry. The linear 4,4 0 -bis[(1H-1,2,4-

the pressure mat to identify the landing area could have affected the normal landing mechanics used by each subject to perform the DVJ task, as they had intended to land in the desired space. We considered this as a random error, as it was constant throughout the entire study. However, it may become a factor if mean values for each of the outcome measures are later compared against other studies. Given the inherent inability for 2D motion **analysis** to measure transverse plane motions, there is no way to determine the rotational components occurring at the hip and knee during valgus measures performed with 2D systems. Finally, there is a discrepancy in the clinical assessment of the KASR and KSD in both systems. Based on our 2D and 3D results of the KASR, our participants were not exhibiting valgus, while, based on the results from the KSD, they presented a minimal amount of valgus. We hypothesized the main reason for this discrepancy is the dynamic nature of the measurement. The KASR takes into consideration a single point in time (peak knee flexion) to assess DKV. Mean- while, KSD is the combination of the time of initial contact and peak knee flexion, resulting in a value that takes into consideration the trajectory of the knee during the stance phase of the landing maneuver. Therefore, we need to be aware of these differences at the time of making a clinical decision, given that 2D methods are not the gold standard to determine predisposition to knee injuries.

The process of creating and developing an effective multimedia learning material needs an instructional design model that is well arranged to ensure a systematic development process (Ahmad Zamzuri, Laili Farhana, & Syamsulaini, 2012). This is no exception in the process of developing instruction materials based on the talking‐head animation, which also needs a pertinent instructional design model for maximum impact in terms of enhancing student performance. According to Andrew and Goodson (1980), the evaluation and implementation involve almost 40 instructional material design models. Hence, most of these models consist of the same elements such as **analysis**, design, evaluation and implementation (Boyle, 1997; Gustafson & Branch, 2002). Among the instructional material design models are the ADDIE model, the Assure Model, the Product Orientation Model and the Dick and Carrey Teaching Design Model (Kailani & Muhammed, 2011). Thus, most of the novice developers of instructional materials faced problems in establishing the assignments in each phase of the instruction design model because the framework presented is only represented by words (Ahmad Zamzuri et al., 2012). To overcome this problem, the DIDEA

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The **three** **dimensional** flow field obtained has a slightly different geometry than that of the earlier simula- tions. Also, different slices have been used, but this should not influence the result much, as the previous **analysis** showed that the geometry of the ice is quite similar but for the volumes of ice. In the **two** dimen- sional analyses it was assumed that the far field velocity would consist of **two** velocity components. These components are the free stream velocity of the plane and the velocity induced by the rotation. The latter is measured by multiplying the radius times the rotational speed. The graphical representation of the apparent velocity was shown in figure 4.5. The velocity component is the radial direction was neglected as this was assumed to be minimal, especially in the mid-sections of the propeller. This is known to be the case close to the propeller. However, it might not be the case for the droplets moving in from further away. Therefore, it needs to be checked if the droplet trajectory / flow streamline will be following this assumed apparent velocity as they approach the propeller.

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2DE: **Two** **dimensional** electrophoresis; 3D: **Three** **dimensional**; ANOVA: **Analysis** of variance; ATPAP: Aqueous **two**-phase affinity partitioning; ATPE: Aqueous **two**-phase extraction; ATPS: Aqueous **two**-phase system; BBD: Box-Behken design; BmimCl: Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride; BSA: Bovine serum albumin; CCD: Central composite design; CHO: Chinese hamster ovary; CPC: Centrifugal partition chromatography; DES: Deep eutectic solvent; DLLME: Dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction; DoE: Design of Experiments; DSPE: Disperse solid-phase extraction; EOPO: Ethylene oxide and propylene oxide; FDA: Food and Drug Administration; fFD: Fractional factorial design; FFD: Full factorial design; FITC: Fluorescein isothiocyanate; HIC: Hydrophobic interaction chromatography; HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography; ILs: Ionic liquids; LLE: Liquid-liquid extraction; LOD: Limits of detection; mAbs: Monoclonal antibodies; MPs: Magnetic particles; MSPD: Matrix solid- phase dispersion; MW: Molecular weight; OFAT: One-factor/variable-at-a-time; PBD: Plackett-Burman design; PCR: Polymerase chain reaction; pDNA: Plasmid DNA; PEG: Polyethylene glycol; pI: Isoelectric point; QuEChERS: Quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe; ROX: Roxithromycin; RSM: Response surface methodology; SEC: Size-exclusion chromatography; SPE: Solid phase extraction; STL: Slope of tie line; TEG-COOH: Triethylene glycol diglutaric acid; TLL: Tie line length; VLPs: Virus like particles

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When collapsed, fibers attain a ribbon-like form. In paper, these collapsed fibers form a self-bonding network with no added matrix. These fibers are kept together by the hydrogen bonds formed at fiber crossings. A hydrogen bond is one where the proton of a hydrogen atom is shared by **two** electronegative oxygen (Baum 1993). Since the hydrogen bonds have a bond length of 2.7 angstrom, the surfaces must be very close to each other to allow bonding to occur. Due to the surface tension force, which becomes very large when water is removed, the fibers are drawn together and bonded during drying. The quality of the bond depends on the amount of contact area available at the bond site, which is also dependent on the flexibility of the fibers. Pulp beating leads to increase swelling and moisture content of the fiber. Since water softens the cellulose, beating the pulp result in greater fiber flexibility. Consequently, the more flexible fiber could bend around the others more easily during consolidation to form denser and better bonded network. As a result, beating improves the strength properties of the paper. In addition, swelling also tends to straighten out fiber irregularities, such as kinks and crimps, which also improve the fiber strength properties.

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An alternative is to study the wake from a Lagrangian perspective. Instead of studying the instantaneous velocity/vorticity field, fluid particle trajectories are used to identify vortices. By following fluid particle trajectories, vortices tend to emerge from the wake as coherent structures since, at the Reynolds numbers of relevance to animal locomotion, fluid particles remain inside a vortex over long convective time scales relative to fluid particles outside the vortex (Provenzale, 1999). This property enables implementation of LCS **analysis** based on FTLE calculation, which identifies boundaries between different kinematic regions. A demonstration was provided by Shadden et al., who used the combination of repelling and attracting LCS to identify the boundary of an empirical vortex ring generated by a piston-cylinder apparatus (Shadden et al., 2006; cf. Figs. 2.3 and 2.4). This LCS approach for vortex boundary identification is analogous to other methods used in time-dependent flows [e.g., hyperbolic trajectory approach (Haller, 2001, 2002 and 2005)], and is preferable because of its relative simplicity and wide compatibility.

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Flow Equation : Here,we consider the **two** point flux approximation scheme, ‘TPFA’ .The **two**-point scheme approximates the flux across a cell face in terms of the difference in pressure between the centers of the adjacent cells.[3] ‘TPFA function assembles and solves a (block) system of linear equation defining interface fluxes and cell pressures at the next time step in a sequential splitting scheme for the reservoir simulation problem defined by Darcy's law and a given set of external influences (wells, sources, and boundary conditions).[3] The pressure equation gives the Darcy velocities v and pressure p for a given water saturation field s: