In the algorithm RFTR, the retrospective idea and the filter **technique** are **two** important characteristics. The retrospective ratio uses the information at the current iterate and the last iterate to adjust the trust-region radius, which can give the more effective estimation of trust region radius. The filter **technique** relaxes the condition of accepting a trial **step** comparing with the usual trust region method, which improves the effectiveness of the algorithm in some sense. From the algorithm RFTR, if the trial point is not accepted (Case 3 in **Step** 5 occurs), then the algorithm is similar to the basic trust-region al- gorithm, whose difference is just that we use the retro- spective idea in the algorithm RFTR. However, if the trial point is accepted by the algorithm (Case 1 or Case 2 in **Step** 5 occurs), the retrospective idea and the filter **technique** all play the roles.

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quantified as well. A rather thorough review on new and traditional damage detection methods is discussed in [1, 2]. As a result to high capability of wavelet transform, henceforth referred to as WT, in revealing singular points in a given signal, either stationary or non-stationary, it has been extensively employed in damage detection literature. One of the first scholars utilizing WT for damage detection purposes is [3] in which not only have the authors authenticated that damages will emerge as singular points in the deflection curve, however they have carried out experiments to validate their method as well. This vibrational **technique** and its applications are comprehensively reviewed in [4]. In most WT literature, researchers utilized WT only to pinpoint damage locations and the damage severities were not quantified by this method. An illustration of this can be found in [5] where WT is applied for locating damage in truss structures. An identical approach is adapted in [6] for spotting impairments in plate structures. A new damage index based on wavelet residual force is introduced in [7] in order to compute where damages took place in shear, plane frames in time-domain. Moreover, a complex mother wavelet is utilized in [8] for multiple damage detection in Euler beams. On that account, one of the major demerits of WT is its incapability in directly identifying damage severities especially in the displacement-domain. In order to address this issue, researchers have put forth a number of indirect methods for finding damage severities. For instance, [9] discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is applied to localize structural defects, and a statistical approach is suggested to predict the extent of defects based on wavelet coefficients. Moreover, in a number of recent studies, **two**-**step** approaches are opted to overcome

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cost value is a linear combination of rate and distortion, most of time due to little improvement in the RD cost value, highly distorted blocks are selected. In this paper, we have explored the RD cost calculation of HEVC encoder and come up with a novel **two**-**step** RD cost calculation **technique**. In the proposed method, along with the conventional RD cost calculation method, the structural similarity index (SSIM) is also used. Moreover, we propose an approximated version of SSIM, FSSIM, which has less computational complexity compared to SSIM.

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In this paper, the oxidative cleavage of unsaturated oleic acid by the H 2 O 2 -H 2 WO 4 - NaOCl system is presented. The RSM associated with CCD is utilized to study the effect of adding co-oxidant and other changing variable process of the azelaic acid resulted, and to get a mathematical model that accurately describes the process. RSM is a mathematical **technique** and empirical statistics which are used to build a significant relationship between a set of experimental factors that are controlled with one or more variables by conducting a number of experiments 16,17 . The RSM has been

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Scientists, engineers, economists, and managers always have to take many technological and managerial decisions at several times for construction and maintenance of any system. Day by day the world becomes more and more complex and competitive so the decision making must be taken in an optimal way. Therefore **optimization** is the main act of obtaining the best result under given situations. **Optimization** originated in the 1940s, when the British military faced the problem of allocating limited resources (for example fighter airplanes, submarines and so on) to several activities [1]. Over the decades, several researchers have generated different solutions to linear and non-liner **optimization** problems. Mathematically an **optimization** problem has a fitness function, describing the problem under a set of constraints which represents the solution space for the problem. However, most of the traditional **optimization** techniques have calculated the first derivatives to locate the optima on a given constrained surface. Due to the difficulties in evaluation the first derivative for many rough and discontinuous **optimization** spaces, several derivatives free **optimization** methods have been constructed in recent time.

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The distal end of the ureter was ligated. At this moment, the whole left kidney, including the RA, RV, and ureter, was dissected free. **Two** vascular clips were used to block the AO and IVC together at the lower and upper levels of the left renal vessels. The left RV root proximal to the IVC was tied and transected (Fig. 1). A needle was inserted in the middle of the blocked AO (Fig. 2). After the graft was per- fused with 10 ml of heparin physiological saline (25 U/ml, 4 °C), the RA root proximal to the AO was tied and cut (Fig. 3). The ureter was then cut, and the left graft was placed in ice physiological saline in preparation for trans- plantation. A cross suture was made on the side of needle insertion into the AO. Vascular clips were loosed. After left kidney removal, the donor rat was slowly injected with 3 ml physiological saline via the penile vein. The abdom- inal viscera were replaced in their original position, and the abdominal wound was sutured continuously in layers. The donor rat survived the operation and was prepared for right donor nephrectomy.

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The economic load dispatch plays an important role in the operation of power system. The main objective of this paper is to determine the optimal combination of power outputs of all generating units so as to meet the required demand at minimum cost while satisfying all types of constraints. In this paper the lambda iteration method and the **two** main types evolutionary **optimization** **technique** genetic algorithm and particle swarm **optimization** which are generic population based probabilistic search **optimization** algorithms and can be applied to real world problem are respectively applied to solve an ELD problem and at last the comparison between all three method has been presented. The PSO provides the generation level such that the generation level is coming out to be lower than the cost resulted with genetic algorithm method.

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The Ant Colony **Optimization** algorithm is well known for its shortest path finding **technique** first proposed by M.Dorigo in 1992. The ACO algorithm is based on food searching behavior of ant colony. Real ants or Ants are capable of finding the shortest path from their nest to food source. Ant deposits pheromone on their path while travelling and information exchanged through environment by particular type of communication. In every ant cycle the pheromone values updated at the end of its tour. Pheromone get evaporated after certain time and calculated based on their density. Ant probably chooses the path that previously chosen by ant based on their density to find the shortest path. Pheromones get updated by the ant if it chooses the same path and improves the pheromone density. The ACO algorithm is a multi-agent approach for solving Combinatorial **Optimization** problems, searching problem and decision problem to find optimal solution [9].

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The **optimization** of truss structures can be classified into three categories depending on what component of the structure is used as design variable : sizing configuration and topological **optimization**. In sizing **optimization** of trusses the cross-sectional areas of the members are the design variables and the coordinates of the nodes and the connectivity between various members are fixed. This can be made more practically useful by restricting the member areas to pre-specified discrete values. In configuration **optimization** the design variables are the nodal coordinates, and in topological **optimization** the number of nodes and the connectivity between nodes are the design variables. These **optimization** problems have been discussed separately however the most efficient design will be obtained by considering all three simultaneously. In general, multilevel **optimization** methods are used in which topological **optimization** is first performed keeping the configuration and member sizes fixed. When an optimal topology is found, configuration and/or sizing **optimization** is performed on the topology found in the previous **step**. As mentioned earlier this method will not provide the most optimal solution as all the three problems are not linearly separable. As a result, traditional methods of **optimization** have failed and the use of other tools such GAs is gaining popularity in the field of structural **optimization**.

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The consensus statements were developed using a Del- phi methodology [7] incorporating three successive rounds. The first **two** consecutive rounds were web-based with anonymous voting, and explicitly asked for feedback and suggestions from the international experts. The comments recorded were included into the iterative development of the consensus statements. The third round was a dedicated expert meeting during the European Colorectal Congress in St.Gallen on November 30th, 2016 with face-to-face open discussion and finalisation of the consensus document. Con- sensus was defined as agreement by 80% or more of the experts. The final manuscript was then drafted by the four convenors of the consensus with only minor editing of the consensus statements if required. The discussion further developed practical advice, including perspectives from the expert radiologist and oncologist. The final consensus docu- ment was reviewed and approved by all involved experts.

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Long Term Evolution (LTE) known as 4G technology is developed to solve exponential demand for higher data rate by the users. This research work carried out measurement on a captured LTE wireless network of a 4- way Transmit, 4-way Receive (4T4R) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) **optimization** **technique** and existing 2x2 MIMO to assess the throughput. The assessment was conducted on a mobile network set up of four sites and unit inter connection on LTE continuous coverage with inter-site distance of 500m using **two** terminals user equipment to download and upload data by drive test. Monitoring and results collection were carried out using Local monitoring Terminal (LMT) and Test mobile system (TEMs) Drive Test (DT) kit as well as analysis of data using TEMs DT kit and NetPerSec. The results showed that Terminal 1 recorded a maximum achievable downlink and uplink throughput of 47.5 Mbps and 14.2 Mbps respectively against the system baseline 2x2 MIMO of 33.6Mbps and 10.7Mbps respectively. Terminal2, on the other hand, achieved maximum downlink and uplink throughput of 44.0 Mbps and 14.1 Mbps respectively higher than the same baseline 2x2 MIMO. This improvement indicates that increasing the number of transmit and receive antennas expands the network capacity thereby yielding more throughput.

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Besides humanoid robots, some other robots may work in a non-stationary environment, such as a singe spherical wheeled mobile robot (Nagarajan et al., 2009, 2013) and multi- wheeled robots balancing on and driving a ball (Endo and Nakamura, 2005; Lauwers et al., 2006; Kumagai and Ochiai, 2009). In that case, the wheels always make three or four symmetric contacts with the ball, which greatly benefits the balance control of the robot. In my case, however, the feet of a biped robot can only make one or **two** contacts with a cylinder, which are usually asymmetrical about the top of the cylinder. Furthermore, because of the limited foot size and support region, the ideal COP, which is continuously changing on a rolling cylinder, may go beyond the support region. Hence, I have to not only design controllers to maintain system’s balance but also combine them with a stepping motion generator to provide the robot with timely support on the rolling cylinder during walking, which will be discussed in the next chapter.

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environmental pollutant inventory (Frey and Bammi, 2002, Frey and Zheng, 2002). Distinction between variability and uncertainty has rarely been done in probabilistic analysis or **optimization** of process technologies only until recently by Frey and Zhang (2003), Rooney and Biegler (2003). Rooney and Biegler consider **two** types of unknown input parameters, uncertainty model parameters, and variable process parameters. In the former case, a process is designed that is feasible over the entire domain of uncertain parameters, while in the later case, control variables can be adjusted during process operation to compensate for variable process parameters. However, their work does not address uncertainty in parameters that characterize variability in an input.

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Ciprofloxacin (1) is used to treat a wide variety of infections. Ciprofloxacin is broad based antibiotic of the fluoroquinoline class. It is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Figure 1). It functions by inhibiting DNA gyrase and a type-II and type-IV topoisomerases necessary to separate bacterial DNA, there by inhibiting cell division. The drug was invented by Bayer in 1983 and introduced in 1987. It became a blockbuster drug and sales reached **two** billion Euros in 2001. Now generics are introduced (after 2014). It is included in the essential medicinal list of WHO (2015).

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authentication, it is much more difficult for someone to impersonate you online. This **step** will help to protect direct deposit information, research, intellectual property and faculty, staff and student personal information. Stanford will likely require additional measures in the near future, including password strength requirements, upgrades/replacements of old operating systems such as Windows XP and encryption of laptops and mobile devices.

are shown in Additional file 1: Table S3. Since different chromosome regions showed diversity of transcription levels, Jens Nielsen’s group characterized 20 different integration sites of the S. cerevisiae genome by insert- ing lacZ as a reporter gene under the control of **two** different promoters and determined expression levels through enzyme activity measurement. Seventeen of these sites are solo long terminal repeats (solo LTRs), none of them was located in close proximity to an open reading frame. Higherβ-Galactosidase activity (The lacZ expression levels) of S. cerevisiae strains with integration sites of YORWΔ17, YORWΔ22, YPRCΔ15, and YPRCτ3 was observed. Thus, we selected three sites YORWΔ17, YORWΔ22, and YPRCΔ15 as our integration targets [26]. As common yeast chromosomal integration method, these modular parts were co-transformed into S. cer- evisiae by electroporation. PCR analysis was used to verify correctly integrated strains with designed universal primers.

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We explored a **two**-**step** approach of combin- ing **two** classifiers - one to classify abusive lan- guage and another to classify a specific type of sexist and racist comments given that the lan- guage is abusive. With many different machine learning classifiers including our proposed Hy- bridCNN, which takes both character and word features as input, we showed the potential in the **two**-**step** approach compared to the one-**step** ap- proach which is simply a multi-class classifica- tion. In this way, we can boost the performance of simpler models like logistic regression, which is faster and easier to train, and combine different types of classifiers like convolutional neural net- work and logistic regression together depending on each of its performance on different datasets.

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In 2011, Zhang and Deng [1] introduced and considered the system of mixed varia- tional inequalities in Banach spaces. Using the generalized f-projection operator techni- que, they introduced **two**-**step** iterative methods for solving the system of mixed variational inequalities and proved the convergence of the proposed iterative methods under suitable conditions in Banach spaces.

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selection of cyclic (4-6 membered ring) ketones containing O, S or N-heteroatoms all reacted smoothly with the -amino-- ketoester to give the desired piperidines 4a-s. The **two**-**step** procedure is easy to carry out and robust as is demonstrated by the synthesis of 2-spiropiperidine 4h on a 1.5 g scale. The piperidines existed as a mixture of diastereomeric methyl esters, with the relative stereochemistry shown predominating, and there was no evidence of the diastereomers interconverting during chromatographic purification. Interestingly, in the major [a] Mr. S. D. Griggs, Mr. N. Thompson, Miss M. Fabre, Dr. P. A. Clarke,

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