Types of Secondary Headache and Literacy level

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Management of secondary chronic headache in the general population: the Akershus study of chronic headache

Management of secondary chronic headache in the general population: the Akershus study of chronic headache

The present study is based on recruitment from the gen- eral population. The large sample and high response rate should ensure representativity. The secondary chronic headaches CPTH, CEH and HACRS are frequent enough to ensure accurate descriptive statistics, while other types of secondary chronic headache are too infre- quent for statistical analyses. The age range, though it may exclude some secondary headache types, was chosen explicitly to focus on a population without too much co-morbidity of non-headache disorders. Data from the Norwegian prescription registry indicate a high increase in drug prescriptions among people above 50 years [25]. This includes medication used for high blood pressure and pain killers for non-headache pain which both are is likely to influence the headache spectrum, a bias that we tried to avoid. Headache diag- noses are a challenge in people with chronic headache. To ensure precise diagnostic, two neurological residents experienced in headache diagnostics conducted all inter- views. Complicated headache histories were discussed among the authors before classification. The different headache diagnoses were equally frequently by the two interviewers, suggesting that inter-observer variation was low. Whether the participants had been interviewed in person or by phone made no difference to the various
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Management of secondary chronic headache in the general population: the Akershus study of chronic headache

Management of secondary chronic headache in the general population: the Akershus study of chronic headache

Methodological considerations The present study is based on recruitment from the gen- eral population. The large sample and high response rate should ensure representativity. The secondary chronic headaches CPTH, CEH and HACRS are frequent enough to ensure accurate descriptive statistics, while other types of secondary chronic headache are too infre- quent for statistical analyses. The age range, though it may exclude some secondary headache types, was chosen explicitly to focus on a population without too much co-morbidity of non-headache disorders. Data from the Norwegian prescription registry indicate a high increase in drug prescriptions among people above 50 years [25]. This includes medication used for high blood pressure and pain killers for non-headache pain which both are is likely to influence the headache spectrum, a bias that we tried to avoid. Headache diag- noses are a challenge in people with chronic headache. To ensure precise diagnostic, two neurological residents experienced in headache diagnostics conducted all inter- views. Complicated headache histories were discussed among the authors before classification. The different headache diagnoses were equally frequently by the two interviewers, suggesting that inter-observer variation was low. Whether the participants had been interviewed in person or by phone made no difference to the various
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Development and assessment of scientific literacy for secondary level science education

Development and assessment of scientific literacy for secondary level science education

Teachers were also asked to report which competencies and sub-competencies their students used when completing the Assignment. However, there were some methodological considerations that affected interpretation of the results. Firstly, there was a smaller number of teachers than students and while they provided rich qualitative data through in their response to the questionnaire and interview, this cannot provide a meaningful quantitative measure. In addition, a single joint response questionnaire was provided by chemistry teachers meaning that a percentage could not be calculated. This resulted in six biology teacher responses (one biology teacher did not complete the questionnaire), six physics and only one chemistry response. Finally, five of the seven biology teachers participating in the main study had participated in pilot study the previous year. There was evidence that this made the biology teachers more familiar with the competencies and sub- competencies because it affected their reports of student use. For these reasons, the teacher reports of which competencies and sub-competencies of scientific literacy were used in the National 5 Assignment will be discussed more generally.
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Types of Headache and How to Treat Them

Types of Headache and How to Treat Them

B. Distinct and clearly remembered onset, with pain becoming continuous and unremitting within 24 hours C. Present for >3 months D. Not better accounted for by another ICHD-3 diagnosis New daily persistent headache is a relatively rare disorder, and evidence is limited to case series. 3)-5) This headache has also been reported in Japanese, but the number of cases is relatively small. 4)6) In summary, the male to female ratio is slightly higher in female. The mean age of onset is in the thirties. The day of headache onset is usually clearly remembered by the patient. While the headache often has features resembling those of tension-type headache, it may also manifest characteristics of migraine such as nausea, photophobia and phonophobia. The headache may remit, or recur and remit repeatedly, or persist, but many patients follow a chronic course. Robbin et al. 5) divided new daily persistent headache according to headache properties into two groups: a group with migraine-like headache that has a female preponderance and frequently a history of anxiety or depressive disorder, and a group with features of tension-type headache in which patients recall accurately the day of headache onset. Their report emphasizes that new daily persistent headache may manifest migraine-like headache. In a Norwegian population-based study of a sample aged 30 to 40 years, the 1-year prevalence was 0.03%. 7) Among children and adolescents who are less likely to overuse medications than adults, onset of new daily persistent headache is typically secondary to infection and trauma. 8)9)
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When Is a Headache More Than Just a Headache? : The Secondary Headaches

When Is a Headache More Than Just a Headache? : The Secondary Headaches

A common fallacy is that headaches commonly result from chronic high blood pressure (hypertension) and that one can predict the blood pressure level according to the presence or absence of headache. In fact, chronic hyper- tension rarely causes chronic headache, and even acute, severe elevations of blood pressure may not necessarily produce acute headache. If individuals rely on the pres- ence of headache as an indicator of hypertension, this means that many people will not receive proper treat- ment for regulation of their blood pressure. The only sure way to know if your blood pressure is high is to have it measured. It is true, however, that acute, severe migraine headache commonly will cause an elevated blood pres- sure even in individuals who typically are normotensive.
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Influence of L1 literacy in learning L2 on the students of secondary level in Bangladesh

Influence of L1 literacy in learning L2 on the students of secondary level in Bangladesh

Bell (1995:690) explains that the literate learners of ESL classrooms finds it comfortable and familiar while doing classes in L1 which ultimately helped to learn L2.Moreover, Bell discu[r]

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Literacy Guide for Secondary Schools: Literacy Guide for Secondary Schools National Literacy Trust, August

Literacy Guide for Secondary Schools: Literacy Guide for Secondary Schools National Literacy Trust, August

© National Literacy Trust, August 2012 7 General advice for developing teachers’ active reading approaches • The use of DARTs. There are four main types of DARTs – cloze, text reconstruction, text marking and text sequencing - and they all help pupils make sense of a text, and can be used as pre, during or post-reading activities. For example, text reconstruction uses graphic organisers (also known as visual diagrams) to help readers make sense of a text. The type used will depend on the purpose of the text or what needs to be drawn out. For example, a venn diagram would enable pupils to compare and contrast, a story board or timeline would help pupils
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Information literacy and the secondary school

Information literacy and the secondary school

In assessing the Google generation’s information literacy skills (Rowlands et al 2008 p.295) there is little evidence of improvement which raises some serious concerns about the lack of progress made in the teaching of information literacy in schools and universities. My own experience agrees with this research finding that when internet searching, young people spend very little time evaluating information for relevance, accuracy or authority. When they extract items, it is often in large pieces which are then pasted into homework documents. The level of synthesis taking place is low. The behaviours I observe in my practice resonate with Limberg’s findings (2007) that in the culture of a school, students are set tasks which encourage a find-the- fact response, rather than develop a questioning attitude which lends itself to the critique of information. Research has also found that they do not analyse their information needs accurately and often develop poor search strategies in the absence of identifying useful keywords, tending to view rather than read documents (Rowlands et al 2008 p.295). In the school setting I have observed that students wish to find the answer in the Google list of results itself, just as they once searched for answers on the spines of books. Research on the views of secondary school teachers (Williams and Wavell 2007, p.206-7) found that they did not include defining information need as a step in the process. Perhaps this is so, because it is implicit in the setting of the task and this is usually done by the teacher when planning the lesson.
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A Study of Secondary District-Level Literacy Coaches’ Beliefs about How to Teach Reading

A Study of Secondary District-Level Literacy Coaches’ Beliefs about How to Teach Reading

tutor ESL students. In 2000 the consortium partnership ended and her district was now ready to hire more literacy coaches. At the district level, Peggy took full advantage of her desire to keep doing something new. She said, “I went with Reading First for a while, and then I saw this opportunity to work with the Jr. High students.” So, Peggy transitioned into working with SRIP under Nora. She brought to her job there a will-defined perspective about how to teach reading that had developed over time. When she first entered college to become a teacher, the program she entered was strongly whole language. “I remember a children’s lit class...being fun and fluffy.... We had a great time, but not a lot of meat there.” She transferred to the university where she received her teaching certification, and her new reading classes had a somewhat stronger focus on reading. She remembers talking about phonics a little bit, but she also remembered “spending about as much time talking about how to teach kids handwriting.” She felt reading was not a dominant part of these two elementary classes she was involved with while she studied for her teaching credentials. This changed when she went back to graduate school to get her master’s degree.
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Body types following obesity surgery and skin re-countouring: a secondary level of analysis.

Body types following obesity surgery and skin re-countouring: a secondary level of analysis.

examination of the context involved. The rigor and worth of the primary study and data components, then, will determine the reliability of the secondary analysis. As noted previously, the primary data sets were robust and satisfi ed the criteria for a secondary analysis. Importantly, the researcher who conducted the primary data collection and analysis was able to transfer her contextual knowledge to the secondary procedure. Following the secondary analytic coding, all three of the current authors discussed and developed the dimensions of the body types which formed the basis for the typology, and these were revised as appropriate. This coding process was followed on by construction of typologies yielded by the grouping of meaningful cases. The grouping strategy is important: the elements within each type must be identical, to the greatest extent possible to facilitate internal homogeneity, and the differentiation between the types as robust as feasible
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An Empirical Study on the Traits of Information Literacy Level among Senior Secondary Students in Ilorin, Nigeria.

An Empirical Study on the Traits of Information Literacy Level among Senior Secondary Students in Ilorin, Nigeria.

1 Abstract This study examined the information literacy level among secondary school students in Ilorin. This study adopted the disproportionate stratified random sampling techniques. The total population for this study 1958 students. The data for the study was collected through structured questionnaires which were distributed randomly to 210 students. However, only 192 copies of the questionnaire were properly filled and returned for analysis and thus form the basis as sample for this study (N=192). The findings of the study revealed that more than half of the respondents can identify lack of knowledge in a subject area. The study also revealed that majority of the respondents can articulate current knowledge on a topic. Furthermore, it also revealed that a large number of the respondents cannot identify specialist search tools. Also, from the study, it was revealed that noteworthy numbers of the respondents do not use Boolean operators in their search for information. Conclusively, the study shows that information literacy skills are essential for every human being because information is vital to everyone and every walk of life. It was recommended that policy makers in education sector should try and introduce information literacy skills as a subject in the secondary school curriculum so as to ensure that the students have the necessary information literacy skills rather than developing these skills through self-education. It was also recommended that teachers that have skills in information literacy skills should be employed as the facilitators in this subject.
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Early Literacy in the Secondary ESL Classroom

Early Literacy in the Secondary ESL Classroom

Parental consent and student assent forms were obtained from all participants. The school division interpreter provided translation and interpretation services as needed for informing parents and students of my research. Upon collecting the necessary consent and assent, I collected baseline data by conducting formative fluency and high frequency word screening assessments for all participating students. Each participating student’s current fluency level was identified. Subsequently, during five instructional weeks, I assisted the high school ESL teacher with implementing multiple components of early literacy instruction. I developed and shared a literacy cheat sheet for Spanish-speaking ELLs (appendix p 31). This tool identifies
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The level of Financial Literacy in Pakistan

The level of Financial Literacy in Pakistan

Abstract: This study examines the level of financial literacy in Pakistan. Financial literacy (or finan- cial knowledge) is characteristically an input to assess the requirement for financial education and explain changes in financial outcomes. The study reveals that the individuals, who have the more financial knowl- edge, usually save more. It is inevitable for investors and the general public that they possess sufficient knowledge and awareness about how financial institutions and markets work; types of risks and expected return, that subsequently is fruitful for the growth of the economy. The results show that 1) middle-aged and older people are careful in spending their money; 2) male respondents usually have better saving habits; 3) people with higher qualification and bigger family size advises their peers about managing the finances; and 4) respondents earning high salaries agree that financial literacy does help in leading a financially se- cure life. Further, based on evidence, this paper suggests that it is important for policymakers and financial regulators of Pakistan to increase the financial literacy of the masses in general, and especially the female population, in order to minimize the problem of adverse selection and moral hazard.
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Gender, school and class wise differences in level of Digital literacy among secondary school students in Pakistan

Gender, school and class wise differences in level of Digital literacy among secondary school students in Pakistan

Hargittai (2005) confirms that the differences in digital literacy are due to usability and user experience. Nevertheless, digital literacy can be associated with large differences in age groups or class level. Previous studies (Eshet-Alkalai & Hamburger, 2004) observed differences in digital literacy in different age groups. It can be anticipated that the larger differences in age and class level may lead to differences in level of digital literacy, but slight difference in age and class may not necessarily influence level of digital literacy. Furthermore, the results show a smaller percentage (7.27%) of the variation in the digital literacy scores of students across schools. This variation in digital literacy score can be explained by differences at the School A and individual level. However, Hatlevik (2009) explains, “how students attain digital literacy is connected to systematic factors at the individual level, and the characteristics of the students, rather than factors at the school level” (p. 170). Conversely, in this study, the school seemed to be an important factor contributing to enhancing digital literacy because School C was likely to place more emphasis on ICT and is more resourceful as compared to the other two schools. This school has three ICT experts, and digital studio along with a functional computer lab. On the contrary, School B had no ICT expert or teacher (at the time of data collection) and School A has no digital studio. It seems that teacher competency and efforts contribute in developing digital literacy of students. Shuel and Farber (2001) conclude that the instructor’s use of technology sets the stage for learning. Hence, the difference between the infrastructure and availability of resources might provide the reasons for the differences in the level of digital literacy among the three schools. On the basis of these findings, it can be assumed that ICT related factors contribute to developing students’ digital literacy.
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Towards the Discrimination of Primary and Secondary Headache: An Intelligent Systems Approach

Towards the Discrimination of Primary and Secondary Headache: An Intelligent Systems Approach

In this work we have considered the enduring medical problem of diagnostic differentiation between primary and secondary forms of headache, the misdiagnosis of which may result in immediate and irreversible consequences for the patient. Both primary and secondary headache terms are seen not to comprise a single entity, but in fact encompass a highly complex, heterogeneous space of conditions, within which symptoms relating to causes of markedly differing origins may exhibit significant overlap. Costly specialist procedures such as CT and MRI neuroimaging, while providing rich internal views of the human biological system, do not represent a sustainable, scalable means of diagnosis, since they can be applied only in cases where a priori indication of a problem exists. We therefore presented a strategy grounded in the hypothesis that data intensive biosignals analysis, originating from increasingly available sensor technologies, may be en- abled through an intelligent systems methodology, giving rise to a deepened scope of analysis with the necessary operational features for use over arbitrary diagnostic junctures. Moreover, we recognise that the complexity inherent in bio-domain analysis in fact necessitates the extrication of low level human input, since considerable complexity must be handled within a restrictive time frame. The use of intelligent systems therefore permits a level of utility normally provided through the work of multidisciplinary teams, to be combined into a single unit of operation, driven by a marginal resource footprint. To demonstrate the potential of our proposed strategy, we reported a preliminary experiment, in which the Epilepsies, a group of paroxysmal neurological disorders, known to result in headaches, were considered within the framework of a classi-
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Psychological distress, neuroticism and disability associated with secondary chronic headache in the general population – the Akershus study of chronic headache

Psychological distress, neuroticism and disability associated with secondary chronic headache in the general population – the Akershus study of chronic headache

The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) explores the symptoms of depression and anxiety and is a validated tool for measuring the level of psychological distress [30]. The HSCL-25 corresponds well to DSM-IV defined de- pression and anxiety disorders, depression, phobia and somatoform illness using “the Composite International Diagnostic Interview” (CIDI) as gold standard diagnostic instrument [30–32]. The 25 items are scored on a scale from 1 (not bothered) to four (extremely bothered). If 20 or more of the 25 items were answered, a mean score was calculated. High psychological distress was defined as a mean HSCL-25 score ≥ 1.67 for men and ≥ 1.75 for women [31]. Although the HSCL-25 measures anxiety and depression dimensions, “forced” two-factor analyses are in favour of a one-factor solution [31]. Thus, in the present study both the anxiety, depression and the mean total HSCL-25 scores are given, but we only used the mean total HSCL-25 score to define psychological distress which, thus includes both anxiety disorder and depression.
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Examining Students’ After‐School Literacy Activities and Their Literacy Performance on the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test

Examining Students’ After‐School Literacy Activities and Their Literacy Performance on the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test

ing distinguished the groups the most, followed by the strategy asso‐ ciated with vocabulary. Hence ESL/ELD students did relatively poorer using vocabulary as compared to their non‐ESL/ELD counterparts, sug‐ gesting the OSSLT is largely an English language proficiency test, i.e. a test primarily determines the level of English language, for ESL/ELD students. ESL/ ELD students need to develop more in‐depth vocabulary to be able to perform better on the OSSLT. In addition, the relatively large difference in successfully comprehending narrative text type be‐
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Literacy Guide for Secondary Schools 2012-2013

Literacy Guide for Secondary Schools 2012-2013

General advice for developing teachers’ reading approaches • The use of DARTs. There are four main types of DARTs – cloze, text reconstruction, text marking and text sequencing - and they all help pupils make sense of a text. For example, text reconstruction uses graphic organisers (also known as visual diagrams) help readers make sense of a text. The type used will depend on the purpose of the text or what needs to be drawn out. For example, a venn diagram would enable pupils to compare and contrast, a story board or timeline would help pupils sequence events or steps. These response activities develop pupils’
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Improving literacy in secondary schools : guidance report

Improving literacy in secondary schools : guidance report

Teachers can also consider the types of feedback they provide on errors related to spelling, grammar and punctuation. For example, careless mistakes should be marked differently to errors resulting from misunderstanding. The latter may be best addressed by providing hints or questions which lead students to underlying principles; the former by simply marking the mistake as incorrect, without giving the right answer. 54 Using marking codes can also be an effective way of speeding up the marking process and setting consistent codes at a whole school level is worth considering.
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Senior secondary school food literacy education

Senior secondary school food literacy education

The other major concern voiced by teachers was related to the changes in student assessment methods. The new curriculum encourages the use of different tools, such as podcasts and videos, in assessing students. The use of these tools can be challenging for some teachers due to a lack of resources and expertise (Altinyelken 2010). As teachers play a vital role in students’ assessments (Marksteiner et al. 2015; Looney et al. 2017), it is important to get the opinions and the active involvement of a wide range of teachers (from different types of schools, age categories, education qualifications, and teaching experiences) in designing assessment methods for any new curriculum. Furthermore, teachers need to be convinced of the importance of new assessment methods, and training could be provided to increase their confidence in using them in the classroom. It is crucial to investigate teachers’ opinions about the assessment methods continuously during curriculum implementation (Bantwini 2010; Dargusch 2014). This helps assessment bodies and teachers adopt more successful methods (Hall, Chai & Albrecht 2016).
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