This paper investigates the effects of high levels of radiation on structural strength of reinforced concrete (RC) 2-D panels, which represent typicalelements of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) structures. Reduction in concrete compressive and tensile strength due to radiation exposure was determines based on extensive literature review. Material properties, geometry, and load cases are selected based on the structural characteristics of the components in the existing nuclear power plants. A nonlinear analysis program, Membrane-2000, based on the Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) is used to compute the response of RC elements, which included ultimate strength capacity, and ductility index. The results show that ultimate shear capacity of highly reinforced elements subjected to combinations of shear and tension loading are reduced significantly in the highest radiation exposure category. RC panels under shear-biaxial and uniaxial compression show significant reduction in strength in high and moderate radiation levels. Failure modes of the elements change from yielding of steel to shear failure with increasing radiation exposure. Ductility of the RC panels is reduced below the acceptable level when they are exposed to the high levels of radiation.
Abstract— Shape optimization is numerically a very demanding process, where several traditionally separate numerical processes meet together in a heterogeneous multidisciplinary environment. Typicalelements involved are (1) the optimizer itself that implements the selected search strategy, (2) the parameterization procedure that provides the bidirectional mapping interface between the 3D geometric shape of the object and a limited number of parameters that control the parametric model of the geometry, (3) the simulation program that provides the results of the simulated interaction between the object and its environment (such as finite element analysis, FEA), and (4) control procedures that monitor the overall workflow and invoke mutual application calls (process flows and data flows) and handle data mining as well as acceptance or rejection of individual instances of candidate designs which are numerically generated and analyzed. In this paper, the set-up of this complex process, combined with evolutionary optimization, is developed with the objectives of numerical flexibility, computational efficiency in terms of combining sequential and parallel execution of individual applications, and low-cost implementation within an unmanaged computer cluster based on the Windows Communication Foundation, WCF.
Figure 7 is an image of a partially decomposed particle, showing an unreacted core surrounded by a reaction front, which in turn, is delimited by an amorphous gel of iron hydroxide with arsenic Figure 8a is the EDS spectrum of the core, showing the typicalelements of ammonium−arsenic jarosite. Figure 8b is the EDS spectrum of the gel halo, where we can observe how the intensity of sulfur diminishes, while iron and arsenic are still distributed throughout the particle. This indicates that ammonium and sulfur have diffused from the core towards the bulk of the solution. An analysis by ICP decomposition solution was conducted after 50 minutes of reaction and a concentration of 1.08 ppm of arsenic was found, which corresponds to 0.108 percent of the total weight of the compound, so most of the arsenic reains in the particle.
The typicalelements of Germany’s corporate governance, a two-tier board system, employee co-determination, con- centrated ownership with a large proportion of blockholders, dense networks of business and social relations between firms, the common presence of family ownership, and a strong sector of SMEs and industrial firms demonstrate that stakeholder orientation and stakeholder management are deeply anchored in Germany’s economy. Accordingly, stake- holder orientation in Germany can be considered to be highly institutionalized. As firms are constricted not only by the leg- islative framework but also by the structure and characteris- tics of the institutional environment, corporate governance regulations as well as common practices and traditions directly shape firm-level decisions (Aguilera & Jackson, 2003; Dacin, Goodstein, & Scott, 2002). According to insti- tutional theory, institutionalized activities are rooted in val- ues and habits, corporate culture, shared beliefs, or social rules, and represent socially accepted conditions, which are relatively resistant to change and tend to persist even if rewards or advantages of their existence diminish (Dacin et al., 2002; Oliver, 1992). Thus, irrespective of shareholder- oriented changes in corporate governance regulations, German firms generally pursue an active management of influential stakeholder groups, including awareness and monitoring of stakeholder interests in strategic planning to anticipate effects on firm strategies.
This chapter explains how to put the Architecture Elements (AEs) - presented in previous chapters - to use, during the life cycle of a system of interest. These guidelines constitute, together with the presented AEs, the architectural approach. The design and management of CPSs involves tasks like documenting, simulating, analysing and realizing. Yet, these guidelines do not dictate what exact tools the user of the framework should use for these tasks. Rather, these guidelines show and exemplify how to integrate existing tools and methods with the AF to tailor it to the way of working that the user of the framework prefers. By decoupling the AF from the tools used, the AF’s user retains the flexibility to select the best tool for the job and to use the tools they know and trust. So, as a high level tool the AF can and should work together with other design tools that automate tasks such as document- ing, design space exploration, verification and synthesis, testing and debugging. Integrated into a workflow tailored to the specific problems that the user of the method faces, the AF becomes most powerful. Section 5.1 treats the core principles of using the framework.
Antenna is designed to be fed by CPW in order to keep the feed and radiating structure on a single layer of PCB as shown in Figure 1. As the design is inspired from a typical tapered slot (vivaldi) antenna, CPW to dual tapered slot transition is used as the two radiating elements to achieve omnidirectional radiation. Elliptically tapered proﬁle ensures smooth ﬁeld transition in the radiating element.
frared abundance analysis by Lamb et al. (2015) revealed typi- cal globular cluster abundance patterns for all studied elements in that it shows light element variations and neutron-capture abundances indicative of pollution from AGB stars. Despite its state of distrubance, and a possible connection to the Sgr dwarf galaxy, Lamb et al. (2015) could not detect any obvious differ- ences from the prevailing halo distribution at those low metallic- ities. NGC 5466’s α-elements are depleted to a similarly extent as found for Pal 5, albeit at half a dex lower metallicity. We note that those authors used a combination of optical and infrared spectroscopy and accounted for departures from LTE for several elements so that slight differences to the literature halo and glob- ular cluster samples (performed in LTE from optical data) occur naturally.
In this work we present a characterization of and discuss the research trends connecting social media to learning in the United Kingdom in the last six years. The data set for this research comprises articles published in educational journals indexed in the Web of Science® database. A cluster analysis was used to group similar articles in the data set. We characterized the main research trends by identifying the typical features of the articles within each of the main groups that emerged from this analysis.
In the process of product design, designers may have many humanity connotation elements decoded into typical Chu culture symbols, make the special forms of Chu culture symbols linked with the expression of specific information, encode the Chu culture symbols into a simple and easy design language, upload to the users with the product operating mode or its internal structure, and even more information about the product performance via product visual modeling, let the users be aware of the product images, at the same time deliver Chu culture connotations of the product to the users, and arouse the spiritual experience of Chu culture.
The use of tissue-specific promoters provides the possibility of controlling the expression of the therapeutic gene in a spatially-specific manner; however temporal control is also a key element in gene therapies. The tetracycline regulated system, which was originally described in Escherichia coli, is one of the best characterized and versatile types of system used for this propose. It is composed of two basic elements: the Tet repressor (TetR) and the tetracycline response element (TRE). By fusing the trans-activator domain of the HSV viral protein VP16 (a protein that recruits transcription factors), the TetR has been converted to the tTA trans- activator, and the tetracycline operator sequence (tetO) together with the minimal CMV promoter constitutes the TRE, which drives the gene expression. In the presence of tetracycline, the tTA is inactive, and the expression of the transgene is also repressed (Tet-Off). A mutant variant of tTA, called rtTA (reverse tTA) is capable of activating the transgene expression in the presence of doxycycline (Tet-On). Despite the fact that in the Tet- On system, the activity of the transgene is suppressed in the absence of doxycycline, there is basal “leakiness” of this system in the off state . A recent study used the property of microRNA to silence gene expression to
The C30927EH-01, C30927EH-02 and C30927EH-03 types are quadrant silicon photodiodes made using a double diffused “reach-through” structure. The quadrant structure has a common avalanche junction, with separation of the quadrants achieved by segmentation of the light-entry p+ surface opposite the junction. With this design, there is no dead space between the elements and therefore no loss of response at boresight.
As shown in Figure 3, given the XML specification of WebML schemas, first a Pattern Extractor module applies the XSL rules stored in the Pattern Descriptions repository, to detect all the occurrences of the described patterns in the WebML specification. The identified patterns are returned in XML format, and stored in the Pattern Occurrences repository. The Pattern Analyser module uses them for verifying if the extracted elements satisfy the quality criteria coded as XSL rules in the Quality Criteria repository. The result of this analysis is a further XML document, stored in the Results repository, containing the aggregate values of measured attributes or a set of warnings, depending on the analysis method. Finally, a GUI module displays the analysis results, by showing the aggregate values in form of charts and warnings in form of textual sentences.
At high switching speeds, parasitic circuit elements complicate the analysis. The inductance of the MOSFET source lead, inside the package and in the circuit wiring which is common to both the drain and gate current paths, produces a voltage at the source which reduces the gate drive current. The voltage is determined by Ldi/dt, but since di/dt is a function of drain current, the mathematical solution is complex. The MOSFET output capacitance also complicates the mathematics. And finally, MOSFETs have finite internal gate resistance which effectively adds to the resistance of the driving source, but the internal resistance is difficult to measure and, consequently, is not specified.