Additionally, the national employ- ment outlook for agricultural fields in our nation is exceptionally strong, but our academic institutions are hard pressed to meet the demand. The increased AFRI funding will support new efforts to attract undergraduate and graduate students, along with postdoctoral researchers needed for our nation’s agricultural workforce. Discretionary funding in the amount of $375 million will support high-priority issues: Foundational Science Research investments will support the discovery of foundational knowledge in the six farm bill priorities: plant health and produc- tion and plant products; animal health and production and animal products; food safety, nutrition, and health; bioenergy, natural resources, and environment; agriculture systems and technology; and agriculture economics and rural communities. Investments in foundational science also will support Presidential initiatives, including antimicrobial resistance and pollinator health. Additional funds will support the Critical Agricultural Research and Extension program, which helps to develop the urgent tools and technologies that producers need to deploy in their production systems. Funding also will support the Exploratory Research Grants program to fund projects that develop proof-of concept for untested, innovative ideas, especially high-risk/ high-reward work that may lead to significant improvements in U.S. agriculture.
The domestic organic foods market is conservatively estimated at $9.35 billion. 1 The National Organic Program (NOP) specifying requirements for organic agriculture were finalized in February 2001, and became fully implemented in October 2002. The process of unifying the patchwork of U.S. standards into a national rule began more than 10 years ago, and has influenced market development since then. Firms that produce raw or manufactured agricultural commodities in accordance with the NOP for “100% organic” or “organic” and whose operations are certified compliant by a US Department of Agriculture (USDA)-accredited certifying organization are entitled to use USDA organic labels on their products. Certified products may be sold through organic marketing channels throughout the U.S. and may be exported and sold as organic in countries where the USDA labels are legally recognized as equivalent to their domestic standards.
sector. Yet, the fact of the situation is that when it comes to practical implementation the central government cannot do anything in the matter, as agriculture is a state subject. The long-term fiscal policy (December 1985), recognized that taxing agricultural income presents many conceptual and administrative problems. Land revenue and taxation of agricultural income are states subjects under the constitution. The centre has no intention of seeking any change in the position. On such inability of central government the Sarkaria commission observed that such an approach however does not solve the problem and the reforms in sphere of agricultural taxation are long overdue. There is in general unanimity that at least the large landlords should be taxed. A suggestion often made is that in order to overcome the resistance by interested groups and in the interest of uniformity in taxation the union may levy a tax on agricultural income and its net proceeds be assigned to states. v It has also suggested that in the interest of the raising revenue and uniform tax on agricultural sector the Union Government might levy this tax as per arrangements under Article 268 of the Indian Constitution.
nLr began work in this area when it assisted the royal netherlands air Force in the 1970s on how to accurately determine wing-loading on fighters and how to measure Limit Cycle oscillation (LCo), to prevent the aircraft from entering the fatal wing flutter area. Bart eussen, senior r&D Manager in nLr’s Flight Physics and Loads Department: “any wing in an airflow will warp and move as the aircraft flies, it is normal behaviour of the wing. the question is, just how much can be tolerated given changes in manoeuvring and with stores that are hanging from underneath the wings.” Given certain conditions, the aircraft in flight reaches a crossover point where it becomes unstable and enters LCo. these are obvious concerns in aircraft design, concerns that continue to be important whenever an aircraft configuration is changed throughout its service life.
stock-holding to push prices above free market-clearing levels. Planting restrictions and acreage idling are burdensome to farmers. Setting aside productive land to limit supply is also costly to national welfare, although trade competitors are unlikely to complain because land idling provides foreign producers with a competitive advantage in world markets. The FAIR Act reduced these undesirable impacts of farm policy (hence the term “freedom to farm”) and, in this respect, improved the efficiency of American agriculture. The shift to fixed payments also reduced uncertainty about the budgetary cost of the legislation as enacted. The fixed payments were designed to fully “decouple” income support from incentives to produce particular crops, or any crop at all, since the payments were made even when base acreage was left idle, as long as the land was not converted to non-agricultural uses. As shown in Table 3, farmers responded to the increased flexibility the FAIR Act allowed with substantial movements away from the crops to which
Weatherburn and Lind recently examined this issue in a study of the interrelationship between economic and social stress, child maltreatment and juvenile participation in crime across postcode areas in New South Wales. Full details of the study methodology are contained in Weatherburn and Lind (1997a) and will not be repeated here. Suffice it to say that poverty (measured by the percentage of households with an annual income of less than $16 000) was used as an index of the level of economic stress in a postcode area; the percentage of single parent families and the percent- age of “crowded” households (that is with more than 1.5 persons per bedroom) were used as measures of social stress. These measures of social and economic stress came from the 1991 census. For each postcode area the rates of child neglect and abuse (as reported to the New South Wales Department of Community Services) were used as indices of the level of parental disruption, and the juvenile court appearance
Reactions to cesarean Only two non-border Latinas mentioned cesareans at all in their responses. And un- like border Latinas, non-border Latinas did not give their past selves advice about avoiding the procedure. Rather, both women brought up their cesareans to high- light interactions with hospital staff. For instance, Lidia, a mother with an associate’s degree and Medicaid, said that she loved her hospital because “they informed me of the reasons why they recommended certain things, including the c-section.” Karla, a mother with an associ- ate’s degree and private insurance, said she would not go back to her hospital partly because she had to “deal with a c-section all by [herself]” and because her “dr didn’t discharge [her] or visit [her] after [her] c section.” However, both of these women appear to have understood that cesareans are serious procedures. This explains why Lidia appreciated her hospital staff’s thorough information about the need for surgery and why Karla was dissatisfied with her doctor’ s absence after the procedure.
00001t tif N a r r a t in g Id e n t it y a n d T e r r it o r ia l it y T h e Ca se s o f t h e U S M e x ic o a n d U S C a n a d a B o r d e r l a n d s Jason MacGregor Ackleson London School of Ec[.]
Castillo S, Winkle C, Krauss S, Turkewitz A, Silva C & Heinemann E (2013) Regulatory and other barriers to urban and peri- urban agriculture: A case study of urban planners and urban farmers from the greater Chicago metropolitan area. Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development3(3), 155-166. doi: 10.5304/jafscd.2013.033.001. Hendrickson M & Porth M (2012).Urban agriculture- Best practices and possibilities. St Louis, MO: University of Missouri
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C O N T E SS A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
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This article fills these gaps by examining the pressing question of how deliberation designs can aid ordinary citizens with limited education and poor living conditions in the Global South to engage in thoughtful discussions on complex issues. This article examined a Deliberative Poll (DP) that was conducted in Tamale, Ghana, in 2015 on agriculture, environment, and public health chal- lenges. I investigated the design and effects of this DP in three ways. First, I studied what kind of expertise was included in the information material provided to participants and how public delib- eration dealt with expertise. Second, I examined the organization of small group discussions and how these organizations affected the quality of deliberation. Finally, I examined the effects of people’s deliberation on policymaking. This article contributes to scholarship in public delibera- tion and science communication by explaining how communities with poor educational and urban infrastructure can engage in a deliberative process, the richness of their engagement, and the design that facilitates this process.
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・From the N ational Res earc h Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Preventi on website
・Figures are extracted from (descripti on was partially changed for extrac t) the Tsunami Engineering Laborator y of Graduate Sc hool of Engineering, T ohoku U niversity website and the Research Study Report r egarding Meas ures against Ts unamis and Liquef action (the si x prefec tures research meeting f or earthquake measures in May, 1984).