Ultrasonic flow meter

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A Study On An Ultrasonic Flow Meter

A Study On An Ultrasonic Flow Meter

An ultrasonic flow meter is a type of flow meter that measures the velocity of a fluid with ultrasound to calculate volume flow. Using ultrasonic transducers, the flow meter can measure the average velocity along the path of an emitted beam of ultrasound, by averaging the difference in measured transit time between the pulses of ultrasound propagating into and against the direction of the flow or by measuring the frequency shift from the Doppler effect. Ultrasonic flow meters are affected by the acoustic properties of the fluid and can be impacted by temperature, density, viscosity and suspended particulates depending on the exact flow meter. They vary greatly in purchase price but are often inexpensive to use and maintain because they do not use moving parts, unlike mechanical flow meters. There are three different types of ultrasonic flow meters. Transmission (or contra-propagating transit-time) flow meters can be distinguished into in-line (intrusive, wetted) and clamp-on (non-intrusive) varieties. Ultrasonic flow meters that use the Doppler shift are called Reflection or Doppler flow meters. The third type is the Open-Channel flow meter.
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Implementation of a Square Pipe Ultrasonic Flow Meter

Implementation of a Square Pipe Ultrasonic Flow Meter

Ultrasonic flow meter without turbines was developed as a way of settling such problems and is widely used in commercial heating especially in north Europe. Ultrasonic flow meters use sound waves to determine the velocity of a fluid flowing in a pipe. Transit time ultrasonic flow meters send and receive ultrasonic waves between transducers in both the upstream and downstream directions in the pipe. At no flow conditions, it takes the same time to travel upstream and downstream between the transducers. Under flowing conditions, the upstream wave will travel slower and take more time than the (faster) downstream wave. When the fluid moves faster, the
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Computer methods for non-invasive measurement and control of two-phase flows: a review study

Computer methods for non-invasive measurement and control of two-phase flows: a review study

The non-invasive tomographic techniques supported additionally by computer methods like tomograms pro- cessing and analysis, cross-correlation etc. designate a standard in velocimetry. The most common solutions are based on resistance and ultrasonic diagnosis. The three-path ultrasonic flow meter for fluid velocity pro- file identification was proposed in [62]. The ability of the first method is sensitive to the flow profile. In case of non-axisymmetric flow, the metering device has to be reinstalled. Otherwise, it indicates that the flow rate is of reduced accuracy and may be unreliable. Similar approach read in [143] can detect the Doppler shift frequency as a function of time. The authors of this method gave many examples where their solution has already been applied e.g. Flow Mapping of a Recircu- lating Flow in a Square Cavity, stirring and mixing processes in a hyperboloid stirrer vessel, detecting the velocity field in the vicinity of a mechanical valve substitute for simulating pulsatile flow as well as in a 10-mm pipe with raw chocolate and many others. Like- wise, UST and extra convolution algorithm for parallel scan data were applied in [76] to visualise the velocity profile of air flow. In [105], the multiwave ultrasonic excitation was shown to be applied to the autocorrela- tion pulsed-Doppler velocity profile measurement of
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Flow velocity measurement using a spatial averaging method with two dimensional flexural ultrasonic array technology

Flow velocity measurement using a spatial averaging method with two-dimensional flexural ultrasonic array technology

The parameters of this flow measurement configuration, such as the dimensions of the array transducer, the quantity and the positioning of array elements, and the distance between the array transducer and the single transducer, can all be optimized for different flow measurement applications in different diameters of pipe, based on numerical simulation analysis and the orthogonal test method [34]. As the proposed ultrasonic path configuration is formed by an array transducer and a single transducer, the spatial averaging effect varies at different positions on the ultrasonic paths—the closer to the array transducer, the better the spatial averaging effect will be. This configuration could be further improved by replacing the single ultrasonic transducer with another 2 × 4 flexural ultrasonic array transducer, so that invariant three-dimensional spatial averaging can be achieved through all eight ultrasonic paths in parallel. In theory, 64 ultrasonic paths could be formed by two 8-element array transducers, thereby substantially increasing the performance capacity of the flow measurement system and providing the opportunity to implement more sophisticated algorithms. Due to the novel and challenging nature of this research, using one array transducer, operating with a single transducer to prove its feasibility, is the first step necessary to establish the technology. Investigation of configurations consisting of two array transducers will be studied in future research. In practical applications, a compromise between measurement accuracy and the complexities of both the flow measurement configuration and the computational algorithms is necessary. These factors directly affect the design of an ultrasonic flow meter. The array control and signal acquisition FPGA-based system, which has been specifically designed for operating and controlling the flexural ultrasonic array transducer, enables a balance between measurement accuracy and expediency [30,31]. Fundamentally, the flexural ultrasonic array transducer is a relatively inexpensive but robust and reliable solution, due to the inherent simplicity of its structure, and it can therefore be particularly advantageous for a wide range of industrial flow measurement applications.
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A cfd simulation of water flow through a variable area venturi meter

A cfd simulation of water flow through a variable area venturi meter

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is an aspect of fluid mechanics that utilizes numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze fluid flow problems (Blazek 2001; Chung 2002). The governing sets of equations which are solved include the continuity equations, Navier-Stokes equations and any additional conservation equations like energy and species concentrations. Computers are used to perform calculations required to simulate the interaction of fluids with surfaces defined by boundary conditions. A venturi meter is used to measure the volumetric flow rate ( ̇ ) of a fluid by making use of the venturi effect (the reduction of fluid pressure that results when fluid flows through a constricted section of pipe) (Philip et al., 2012; Morris 2001). It could also be used for mixing a liquid with a gas. This venturi effect is an outcome of applying the Bernoulli’s equation (Eq. 1) to an ideal incompressible fluid flow along a conduit surface with varying cross sectional area (see Figure.1).
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Measurement and control systems for an imaging electromagnetic flow meter

Measurement and control systems for an imaging electromagnetic flow meter

profile. The reference water flow rate obtained from the turbine meter was 17.46m 3 hr -1 . The velocity profiles reconstructed using the on-line VM1 system are shown in Fig. 12(a). From Fig. 12(a) it is clear that the reconstructed velocity is approximately the same for all of the regions – a result which is to be expected from the IEF device due to the relative flatness of the fully developed, single phase, turbulent velocity profile. Note that Fig. 12 also shows results obtained from an off-line system comprising a PC and a National Instruments data acquisition card. It is clear from Fig. 12 that the results from this off-line system are virtually identical to the results from the on-line VM1 system. This result is important because most systems for imaging industrial processes require the computing power of a PC to process and display the data, whereas the techniques outlined in this paper can be performed just as well using a simple microcontroller.
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Possibility of a Straightening Flow Meter by Using Woven Screen

Possibility of a Straightening Flow Meter by Using Woven Screen

It is understood that the velocity distributions obtained at the pipe’s cross section in the case of L = 1080 mm are almost consistent with the 1/6-power law as shown in Figure 2(a). Because the inner flow in the case of L = 1080 mm can be regarded as a developed turbulent pipe flow, thereafter it is called “the turbulent pipe flow”. On the other hand, the velocity distributions in the case of L = 210 mm are almost uniform, except in the vicinity of the pipe wall as shown in Figure 2(b). Because the constant velocity region occupies about 70% in the pipe’s cross section, thereafter the inner flow is called “the uniform pipe flow”. For all pressure measurements, a Got- tingen type manometer (minimum scale 0.05 mm) is used.
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Structural Health Monitoring By Using Damage Evaluation Techniques

Structural Health Monitoring By Using Damage Evaluation Techniques

ABSTRACT: Structural health monitoring is a monitoring process of damage assessment in ant structure such as bridges, culverts, tall buildings, railway lines, underground pipeline etc. damage refers to change in characteristics properties of concrete which includes cracks, spelling of concrete, member separation, and fractures. etc. Due to the overloading lack of maintenance, fire or any environmental affects which causes the failure of structure. To assess the present condition, homogeneity of concrete and critical stage of structure after occurring of any environmental or man- made calamities, damage evaluation techniques has to be adopted. Damage evaluation techniques non-destructive testing methods such as rebound hammer, half-cell potential meter, carbonation measurement and ultrasonic pulse velocity test are adopted. The data’s is collected by adopting multiple NDT methods at various locations of structure and by graphical and tabular analysis and data interpretation.. Based on the graphical and mathematical interpretation from wireless sensor methodology and NDT testing, the proper rehabilitation and repair measures adopted to the structure to strengthening the life and health of structure, in case of damage condition. These are also some implementation takes place in structure design for future point of view to avoid such damages.
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English Cursive Handwritten Character Recognition using OCR (Optical Character Recognition)

English Cursive Handwritten Character Recognition using OCR (Optical Character Recognition)

A solenoid valve is an electromechanical device used for controlling liquid flow. The solenoid valve is controlled by electric current, which is run through a coil. When the coil is energized, a magnetic field is created, causing a plunger to move. The most commonly used solenoid valve has two ports an inlet port and an outlet port. Advanced designs may have three or more ports. Some designs utilize a manifold-type design. Solenoid valve helps to control fluid and gas flow automatically. Modern solenoid valves offers fast operation, high reliability, long service life, and compact design.
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Performance Analysis and Optimization of Cooling Tower

Performance Analysis and Optimization of Cooling Tower

Abstract- Cooling tower is an integral part of every thermal power generation plant. Basically cooling tower are heat rejection devices used to transfer heat from hot water to the atmosphere air. Investigation involves experimental and two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis of an actual industry operated cooling tower. Inlet water temperature and mass flow rate of water and air are having main influence on the performance of counter flow induced draft cooling tower. Effectiveness of the cooling tower can be increased up to 20% by optimizing the liquid to gas ratio (L/G) of the cooling tower. Likewise other parameters such as range, tower characteristic ratio can also be increased considerably.
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Water quality management system using IOT

Water quality management system using IOT

The differential pressure sensors are suitable for measuring the volume flow rate of gases according to the differential pressure procedure. The sensors records the minimum drop in pressure on a flow element (e.g. screen, nozzle, laminar flow element) which is equal to a measurement of volume flow rate. Robust, highly accurate and extremely low differential pressure sensors reliably monitor how much of the medium flows through the line at any given time.

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Smart Distance Measurement Device Using Ultra...

Smart Distance Measurement Device Using Ultra...

Distance measurement plays a vital role in engineering, science, business. The distance is always measured between two points. Generally distance measurement is possible only by making contact with the target whose distance is to be measured, but this paper discusses the measurement of distance without making contact with the target. This is done by generating 40 kHz ultrasonic waves using ultrasonic transducers. Here the distance is calculated on the basis on time taken by the pulse generated by the ultrasonic transducer to travel to the target and return as reflected echo. This device also makes the use of microcontroller for calculating the distance and displaying it on a seven segment display. The distance up to 2.5m is calculated in air medium at ambient temperature
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Measurement of velocity profiles in multiphase flow using a multi electrode electromagnetic flow meter

Measurement of velocity profiles in multiphase flow using a multi electrode electromagnetic flow meter

This paper describes a measurement technique for mapping velocity profiles in single phase and multiphase flows. The results described in this paper are mainly relevant to flows in which the axial flow velocity varies principally in a single direction such as (i) flows behind partially open valves or (ii) horizontal and inclined multiphase flows in which the continuous phase is electrically conducting. However by using alternative pixel arrangements the technique could be adapted to flows in which the axial velocity profile variation is not principally in a single direction. A weight value theory for an electromagnetic flow meter with multiple electrodes has been implemented and proved to be a valid method for relating the mean flow velocity in a pixel to the potential differences measured between various pairs of electrodes. More- over, this paper has used a matrix inversion method that can be combined with the weight values to reconstruct the mean velocity in each of a number of pixels from a given set of boundary potential difference measurements. In simulations, reconstructed velocities give good agreement with the reference pixel velocities and the reconstructed velocity profiles enable reasonably accurate volumetric flow estimates to be made. Experimental results for the measured water velocity profile, obtained in upward solids-in- water flows inclined at 0 1 and 30 1 to the vertical using a real multi- electrode electromagnetic flow meter, agreed well with the observed water velocity profile obtained from high speed filming. It is believed that the application of the techniques described in this paper to the measurement of highly non-uniform velocity profiles in multiphase flows is novel.
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Ultrasound Power Meter with a Three Axis Positioning System for Therapeutic Applications

Ultrasound Power Meter with a Three Axis Positioning System for Therapeutic Applications

Abstract— The total output power from medical ultrasound devices should be determined and strictly regulated to ensure patient safety and to ascertain whether the ultrasound devices are performing satisfactorily. The objectives of this work were to design and develop an ultrasound power meter with a three axis positioning system to measure the ultrasonic power produced at the output of medical ultrasound devices especially for therapeutic applications. The implementation of this work utilizes a radiation force balance technique based on the method recommended in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 61161). Ultrasound therapy unit and its transducer were used as an ultrasonic source. To verify the performance of the developed system, the ultrasonic power measured from our developed ultrasound power meter were compared with those measured from the commercial ultrasound power meter (UPM) and compared with those measured from the standard ultrasonic power measurement system at the National Institute of Metrology, Thailand (NIMT) at 5 nominal intensity values (0.5 W/cm 2 , 1 W/cm 2 , 1.5 W/cm 2 , 2 W/cm 2 , 3 W/cm 2 ) with three frequencies, 0.86 MHz, 2 MHz and 3 MHz, and four different output pulse modes; continuous wave (100% duty cycle), 1:2 (50% duty cycle), 1:5 (20% duty cycle) and 1:10 (10% duty cycle). The correlation coefficients were then calculated and presented. The results show that the developed system is currently able to determine the ultrasonic output power in the power range from 100 mW to approximately 12 W. Current efforts are being made to focus on testing the frequency range of the developed system.
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03   Introduction to Circuit Protection, Control, and Measurement pdf

03 Introduction to Circuit Protection, Control, and Measurement pdf

The ZERO OHMS control is a potentiometer for adjusting the 0 reading on ohmmeter functions. Notice that this is a series ohmmeter. The RESET is a circuit breaker used to protect the meter movement (circuit breakers will be discussed in chapter 2 of this module). Not all multimeters have this protection but most have some sort of protection, such as a fuse. When the multimeter is not in use, it should have the leads disconnected and be switched to the highest voltage scale and AC. These switch positions are the ones most likely to prevent damage if the next person using the meter plugs in the meter leads and connects the meter leads to a circuit without checking the function switch and the dc/ac selector. MULTIMETER SCALES
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An Arduino Based Monitoring, Leakage and Theft Detection for Water Supply

An Arduino Based Monitoring, Leakage and Theft Detection for Water Supply

The system is provided with an electrically operated solenoid valve to supply water to the consumers. The valve turns on/off by the central processing station PC to supply the water for a particular time period. The system is provided with another electrically operated solenoid valve to stop the water supply whenever the flow rate exceeds a predefined limit. The microcontroller will switch ON/OFF the solenoid valve using a transistor as a switch. It is proposed to employ a GSM modem for wireless communication so that the information can be passed to particular responsible officer’s cell phone for immediate action as well as to the central processing database.
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Method of measuring flow rate of flowable material under continuous flow conditions, and an in line continuous flow meter

Method of measuring flow rate of flowable material under continuous flow conditions, and an in line continuous flow meter

A method of determining the rate of flow of a flowable material, particulate or liquid, through a flowable material passageway, comprising causing the material passing through the passageway to move downwardly by gravity slowing the downward movement of material as compared to free falling gravitational movement measuring the weight of material passing slowly downwardly with respect to the passageway; causing an electronic signal to be generated in response to the magnitude of the weight measuring; and connecting the electronic signal to a read out display to reflect the flow rate of material with respect to units of weight with respect to units of time.
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Method of measuring flow rate of flowable material under continuous flow conditions, and an in line continuous flow meter

Method of measuring flow rate of flowable material under continuous flow conditions, and an in line continuous flow meter

A method of determining the rate of flow of a flowable material, particulate or liquid, through a flowable material passageway, comprising causing the material passing through the passageway to move downwardly by gravity slowing the downward movement of material as compared to free falling gravitational movement measuring the weight of material passing slowly downwardly with respect to the passageway; causing an electronic signal to be generated in response to the magnitude of the weight measuring; and connecting the electronic signal to a read out display to reflect the flow rate of material with respect to units of weight with respect to units of time.
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The Effect of Gas Flow on Plasma Parameters Induced by Microwave

Sabah N. Mazhir|Nada A. Abdullah|Hazim I. al-Ahmed|Noha H. Harb|Nisreen K. Abdalameer

The Effect of Gas Flow on Plasma Parameters Induced by Microwave Sabah N. Mazhir|Nada A. Abdullah|Hazim I. al-Ahmed|Noha H. Harb|Nisreen K. Abdalameer

The first step of this paper is applied a variable input AC voltage on the microwave source (magnetron) ranged from 150 to 220 volt. After operating the magnetron, argon as a working gas was inserted through a discharge quartz tube with diameter 10 mm at different flow rates (1 ,2 ,3,4 and 5 ) ℓ/min. Optical emission spectroscopic was used to measure a microscopic parameters of the plasma jet such as electron temperature and electron density.

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overall diagram pdf

overall diagram pdf

Cruise Control ECU Combination Meter Airbag Sensor Assembly Stop Light SW TAIL RelayUSA Combination SW Canada.. M1 Mass Air Flow Meter.[r]

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