In this paper, the main assumptions of a new approach to representing business rules in UML has been presented. This approach allows for modeling business rules as UMLstatediagrams. It makes modeling rules similar to modeling system behavior, which may shorten the time required for modeling the system. A rule is represented by a well-known concept of a stereotyped class; thus, there is no need to define any new UML artifacts except for stereotypes. Consequently, almost every UML 2.0 compatible modeler might be used for rule modeling. It is easy to find the business vocabulary since it is explicitly shown in UMLdiagrams. With the help of stereotyped rules, the well known statechart concepts, such as action, guard and event, retain as much as possible from their original meaning. E.g. since applying the rule is represented by following the transitions of an state diagram, a guard concept remains a kind of expression deciding whether we may apply the rule, i.e. whether we may follow the transition.
programming language as discussed in . It is de- scribed a way of creating tables and SQL code for Z specifications according to UMLdiagrams in . A case study is discussed by a formal verification method for Cooperative Composition Modeling Language (CCML) in . In another work, a relationship is investigated between Petri-nets and Z notation in . An integration of B and UML is presented in . It is investigated the reliability issues using fuzzy logic and petri-nets in . The mathematical induction technique is used to prove correctness of recursive programs in . Formalization of the UML is proposed by focusing on basic constructs of class structures by taking simple case studies in . A tool is developed in  which takes UML class diagram in the form of petal files, ASCII format files generated by Rational Rose, and evaluates it automatically and pro- duces a list of comments. Activity model is proposed by ontology based formal method in . A comparison of UML, state-charts, Z, petri nets and fuzzy logic is pre- sented by taking a simple case study on commerce system in . Some other work is listed in [23-25].
H.S Hong et al. presented a specification-based approach to class testing using UMLstatediagrams. They proposed a transformation method from UMLstatediagrams into flow graphs and showed that conventional flow analysis techniques can be applied to test case generation from UMLstatediagrams. Using this transformation, they flatten the hierarchical and concurrent structure of states and broadcast communication while preserving both control and data flow in UMLstatediagrams. The resulting set of test cases provides the capability of checking that classes are correctly implemented against specifications written in UMLstatediagrams testing whether class implementations established the desired control and data flow specified in the specification .
Grid or even CORBA) increases the complexity of the development process of service-based systems. With the aim of facilitating the development of service oriented solutions, Marcos Lopez-Sanz et al.  propose the spe- cification of an architecture centric model driven devel- opment method. To achieve this, they study the architec- tural properties of the SOA paradigm and follow a de- velopment approach based on the MDA proposal. MDA proposes a separation of the development process in ab- straction levels. This makes MDA suitable to tackle the development of service-oriented systems. This paper describes a UML profile for the PIM-level service-oriented architectural modeling, as well as its corresponding meta model. PIM (Platform Independent Model) level is cho- sen because it does not reflect constraints about any spe- cific platform or implementation technology. To exem- plify and validate the profile, a case study is presented in which the proposed profile is used. They propose UML profile to be used in the definition of the architecture model for SOA at PIM-level. Our Paper proposes UML for knowledge capture, and adopts a Knowledge Based approach for arriving at a PIM level service oriented model for consolidation of services.
INEVENTITY(x) ∧ INEVENTITY(y) ∧ CAUSE (x, BECOME (AWAKE(y)))(s) Comparing (2) to Fig. 2, the diagrammatic represen- tation is to be preferred for several reasons, one of these being the intuitivity that is brought forward in the graphical structure: those modeling elements that are cognitively connected are graphically con- nected via connectors, containment resp. nesting, or visual attachments. That is, the cognitive structur- ing is reflected in the diagrammatic representation in a straightforward way, which is not the case in the linearized representation in (2). Moreover, the ex- plicit partition of static and dynamic aspects within one eventity frame as well as the specified syntax of the modeling elements facilitates not only the un- derstanding of the representation, but at the same time forces users of the UER to make sure they produce sound diagrams. That entails reflecting on what exactly causes, for instance, the undergoer’s transition in WAKE UP 2. In (1) and (2) it is x as a participant that directly causes the transition, while in Fig. 2 it is some action of x that causes the tran- sition. The latter is more appropriate and also sup- ported by speakers’ intuition and conceptualization — something has, in a very broad sense, to ‘happen’ (even if it was pure presence) in order to cause a transition. 7 To represent that ‘something’, a feature
Reduction of software complexity in the modeling phase is important since it directly affects coding and testing phases and it is well known that these phases of software development cycle generates major cost of software production. This section gives generalization for software reduction based on usage of interaction overview diagrams. In the following text some simplification are made to show qualitative aspect of the method instead of accurate quantitative approach. In any case exact quantification is an artifact for each software project itself.
Abstract: There is a wide range of formats and meta-models to represent the information extracted by reverse engineering tools. Currently UML tools with reverse engineering capabilities are not truly interoperable due to differences in the interchange format and cannot extract complete and integrated models. The forthcoming UML 2.0 standard includes a complete meta-model and a well defined interchange format (XMI). There is an available implementation of the meta-model, therefore it is a viable option to use UML 2.0 the modelling format for reverse engineered models. In this paper we propose a technique to automatically extract sequence diagrams from Java programs, compliant to the UML 2.0 specifications. The proposed approach takes advantage of the Eclipse platform and different plug-ins to provide an integrated solution: it relies on a new dynamic analysis technique, based on Aspect Oriented Programming; it recovers the interactions between objects also in presence of reflective calls and polymorphism.
AI based approaches assume in general that an expert system could use its knowl- edge to ask users key questions, cope with the initial statement of the vague, badly organised and contradictory requirements, summarise (i.e. paraphrase) current infor- mation for the user to review. It can also prompt for missing information, criticise the developing requirements (from a semantic and syntactic viewpoint), organise collected requirements, and create requirements specification documents in requested formats on demand. Among the AI based systems is the IDeA (Intelligent Design Aid) system  which was built around a knowledge base design schemas. IDeA captures the domain knowledge and stores it in IDeA's knowledge base as abstract design schemas, essentially dataflow diagrams with inputs and outputs defined in terms of domain oriented data types and properties. The analyst obtains requirements for an application in the domain, expresses them in an unrefined requirements specification document in terms of the predefined system inputs, outputs and functions, and then inputs the specification to IDeA which automatically selects the abstract design schema which best matches the unrefined requirements specification. Mismatches between the speci- fication and the abstract design schema are identified by IDeA and placed on an issue list for later resolution by the analyst. The FORSEN (FORmal Specifications from ENglish) system  attempts to produce formal specifications by processing NL (English) specifications. The system attempts to assign a unique structure to each sentence and whenever there is more than one candidate structure the user is asked to select the correct one. The formal specifications are produced in the Vienna Devel- opment Method (VDM). Nouns are used to identify entities and verbs relationships. Quantification and determination of the degree of relationships plays a major role in this research.
There are many researchers involved in doing research on managing syntactical and horizontal inconsistency between UMLdiagrams. However, limitations such as huge complexity of the UML that contains different notations, different types of diagram for different view of a system and lack of UML syntax and semantics are some of the sources of inconsistencies problem in a UML model. Therefore, in order to improve the validating consistency of the UML model requires constant improvements. Numerous approaches related to consistency specification and inconsistency detection has been carried out. However, current solutions using simplified version of the UML result in poor integration between the consistency management with CASE tool environment. Therefore, improvement on consistency rules specification requires the rules to be specified over standard UML elements that adhered to the UML models. Thus, in overcoming the drawbacks as mentioned before, this research focuses on formalizing syntactical rules for part of the UML elements adhering to four (4) UMLdiagrams; use case diagram, activity diagram, sequence diagram and class diagram, into logical specification. Syntactical rules for each of the UML elements are defined in logical specification to give more precise description to their natural language descriptions. The UML elements are then used to formalize twelve (12) horizontal consistency rules that will be used in detecting inconsistencies between those four (4) UMLdiagrams. The consistency rules are integrated into UML Checker and are used to validate the UML model. The next chapter discusses the literature on the existing approaches related to consistency management.
“# φ ( Student ) ” / > < / rdf:Description> ] , where φ ( Student ) is the RDFS class derived from the UML. Such applications will be further dis- cussed in detail in the future work. ( iii ) We will also test more and larger scale UML to further evaluate the tool. Moreover, as we mentioned at the end of Section 3.2, more fea- tures in data modelling may be represented by more expressive knowledge representation lan- guages. On the basis of the work presented in this paper, we may further investigate UML-to- OWL approaches mentioned briefly at the end of Section 3.2. In addition, an UML from a specific domain complies with the ad-hoc vo- cabularies of UML in Section 2.1, and thus a complex domain-specific mapping from an UML model to an existing ontology may be re- alized by jointly using our approach. ( iv ) We will also strive to extend our algorithms to other types of UMLdiagrams besides class diagrams, and work toward unification of the RDFS lan- guage with other similar endeavors in the field. Further, we may test the retrieval of converted diagrams within a suitable expert system envi- ronment. In this paper, our main focus is the conversion of UML-to-RDF ( S ) . All these per- spectives will be investigated and discussed in depth in our future work.
In this section communication channel semantics are ex- tended to include behaviour associated with buffers. In par- ticular, we refine the behaviour of ports that define interac- tion points for objects within UML 2.0. Ports are typically used as connection points for channels. In doing so, commu- nication over connectors (or communication channels) can be further refined. As illustrated in Figure 8, we introduced the concept of a buffer which must be associated with a port. Because a buffer itself can have a defined behaviour and/or architecture we allow for cases where multiple connections and buffers are needed. However, initially we define two types of specialised buffer semantics:
Software requirements are often specified in natural language (NL). These NL requirements are typically coming from a pool of natural language statements which are gathered from interview excerpts, documents and notes . However, requirements specified in NL can often be ambiguous, incomplete, and inconsistent. Moreover, the interpretation and understanding of anything described in NL has the potential of being influenced by geographical, psychological and sociological factors. For this reason, Informal natural language requirements are better to be expressed as formal representations . It is the job of requirements analysts to detect and fix any potential ambiguities, inconsistencies, and incompleteness in the requirements specifications documents. However, human reviewers can overlook some defects while reading complex NL descriptions which can lead to multiple interpretations and difficulties in recovering implicit requirements when the requirement analyst does not have extensive domain knowledge . UML class diagrams are the main core of OO analysis and design systems where most other models are derived from . Natural language processing (NLP) is recognized as a general assistance in analyzing requirements . The NLP systems use different
Many papers can be found in the open literature related to the transformation from objects models into relational tables (SQL’92). Recent examples of these transformations can be read in , ,  and . Articles about the transformations from objects to object-relational databases are not as frequent. Mok and Paper  have presented the transformation of UML models into ORDBMS. Their work was concerned about static and dynamic aspects. In the static aspects they have concentrated the efforts on transforming UML class diagrams into normalized nested tables. They have presented an algorithm to cover this objective. No formalized procedures for more general mappings are presented in this work. Marcos et al.  have listed some guidelines about the transformation of UML class diagrams into objects of the SQL:1999 standard and then to Oracle 8i. A short explanation about those transformations is also given, no further analysis is made and this approach can be considered as guidelines for the design of conceptual schema of object-relational databases. Liu et al.  have proposed an approach for implementing ORDBMS’s by using a heterogeneous database system architecture. Although at that time the SQL:1999 standard was not completed yet, their work is valuable in the sense that they have made some definitions in order to formalize the design of the ORDBMS. Golobisky et al.  have presented a transformation analysis about generalization- specialization relationships modeled by UML class diagram. They have shown several transformations into an ORDBMS. In the analysis they have taken into account several important characteristics for applications linked to an ORDBMS like: implementation flexibility, access mechanisms (index structures) and constraints, navigability thorough the structures. The authors have implemented some examples by using Oracle 9i ORDBMS.
Those differences have been done manually, if we want to do it automatically or semi-automatically, it will be difficult with the graphic form of these diagrams. Thereafter, we would like to represent it in an easier and handle able format. Indeed, the class diagrams contain several links between classes and each class has several attributes or operations. Links can be of different types (combination of inheritance, aggregation, composition and simple association) and be labeled differently (role, multiplicity, and navigability) . For this
The distinction between classes, interfaces, and data types is semantically important in UML. So this element is described as classifiers. We apply data filtering on classifiers . Filtering is a process in which searching of classes occur according to its prefix and name. Now we find out the nodes and edges of classes with the help of their attributes and operation respectively. For example the node attributes can be node width, node height, node dependent etc. and edge operation can be dependent directories, source destination. After finding the dependent classes, the next target on the directories in which classes are lies. Load the classes and directories than apply the fragmentation process. In this process the tokens from loops are divided and resolve the error message and handling . All of these possible through GIF filter (Graphics Interchange Format). GIF filter is nothing but the mapping process in which nodes are converted into GIF Format and than map on the graphics panel.
Related work includes research that has been conducted to make different types of diagrams and graphs accessible, including UMLdiagrams. While the literature doesn’t have a reach content, lots of tools that help with UMLdiagrams or even solu- tions that could leveraged to make UMLdiagrams accessible. We decided to expand the literature review to more topics that can be connected to our research, where we can use and benefit from some experience or results from other researchers, even if not directly related to UMLdiagrams. For example, even though we are concerned with reading UML class diagrams, we discuss some insightful and helpful experi- ences in creating UMLdiagrams or other kinds of diagrams and graph; mainly we look into tools that used spatial representation. We also include in our literature review experience done with other images like floor plans or eBooks. Generally, re- search related to this one may include surveys, making diagram creation accessible and presenting/reading diagrams.
Requirements analysis and design specification are serious issues in systems development because of the semantics in- volved in transformation of real world problems to computer software systems. Although unified modeling language (UML) is now accepted as a de facto standard for design and specification of object oriented systems but its structures have various disadvantages. For example, it lacks of defining semantics of the systems to be developed. Formal meth- ods are proved powerful, particularly, at requirement specification and design level. To address and realize the benefits of UML and formal methods our project on “formalization of UMLdiagrams using Z notation” is under progress. This paper is continuation of the same project in which some important diagrams namely use case, class and sequence dia- grams are selected for critical analysis. Merits and demerits of the diagrams are addressed after a brief introduction. Applications of the diagrams are observed reducing complexity and proposing a good design of a system. Finally, a treatment to link diagrams with appropriate approaches is suggested to enhance modeling power of UML for facilitating the systems development.
The idea of our work is not innovating, indeed several work exist in the literature tackle this subject. In  the authors proposed a transformation of UML towards DAML at the end of the Nineties, by showing similarities and differences between the two languages. In  the work of “Converting UML to OWL Ontologies” proposed a transformation of Ontology UML Profile (OUP) towards an ontology OWL. In  the OMG notices the interest of such subject and proposed in its turn the ODM which provides a profile for writing RDF and OWL within UML, it also includes partial mappings between UML and OWL as well as mappings amongst RDF, RDFS, Commmon Logic and Topic Maps, it should be noted that several work are carried out like answer to the call of the OMG and gathered in the ODM and thus we do not evoke here. In  the author presented an implementation of the ODM using ATL language. In  the author used a style sheet “OWLfromUML.xsl” applied to a file XMI (UML model) to generate an ontology OWL DL represented in RDF/XML. And finally in  the authors proposed a detailed comparison between UML and OWL carried out in 2008. In the other side Atom3 has been proven to be a very powerful tool allowing the meta-modeling and the transformations between formalisms, in  we can found treatment of class diagrams, activity , and other diagramsUML, in these works the meta-modelisation allows visual modeling and the graph grammars allows the transformation.
The FBN is a design time artifact. Even though the FBN can be considered as a structural specification diagram like the composite structure diagram of UML 2.0 or the internal block diagram (ibd) of SysML, it is actually used, according to the standard, to capture the behavior of Pro- grams and FBs. The closest UMLdiagrams that can be compared with the FBN are the activity and collaboration diagrams. However, the execution semantics of the FBN, and more specifically those related to the execution order and flow of control are quite different from the ones of the above diagrams. Moreover, the level of abstraction applied in FBN is lower compared to the level of abstrac- tion of the UMLdiagrams. In the activity and collabora- tion diagrams of UML, the execution order and flow of control may be captured on the diagrams and explicitly specified by the designer. On the other hand, there are predefined execution semantics in FBN, such as the order of calling functions or FB instances. It is the responsibil- ity of the designer to ensure that the proposed design ex- ploits properly the predefined execution semantics in or- der to get the desired behavior. The FBN is analogous to the abstract syntax tree generated by a C compiler to cal- culate the value of an expression. Like the Activity dia- gram, the FBN diagram captures the activities that have to be performed and the flow of information between these activities. An FBN that includes only FB instances is more close to a collaboration diagram with the restric- tion that every object has one method.
 Sangeeta Sabharwal, Ritu Sibal and Chayanika Sharma, “Applying Genetic Algorithm for Prioritization of Test Case Scenarios Derived from ML Diagrams”, International Journal of Computer Science, Vol. 8, May 2011, pp. 433- 444.  R. Kavitha, Dr. N. Suresh Kumar, “Requirement