Unemployment and college enrollment

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Cost, quality, and the community college enrollment decision

Cost, quality, and the community college enrollment decision

In earlier work, Betts and McFarland (1995) examine the effect of the business cycle on enrollments at community colleges between the late 1960s and mid-1980s using data from HEGIS, IPEDS, and March Supplements of the Current Population Survey (CPS). They find that a 1 percentage-point increase in unemployment rates of recent high school graduates and of all adults are associated with an increase in full-time community college attendance of about 0.5 percent and 4 percent, respectively. Part-time community college enrollments also demonstrate similar countercyclical patterns. Their works suggests that links between two-year college enrollments and the business cycle are both direct and immediate. Betts and McFarland conclude that promotional efforts to direct displaced workers or traditional-age students to community colleges during economic downturns are unnecessary since labor market signals appear to be quickly interpreted by individuals. They also reveal a disconnect between education policy and labor market policy since state and local appropriations per student are largely procyclical while community college enrollments are countercyclical.
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Housing Wealth and College Enrollment

Housing Wealth and College Enrollment

The relationship between economic conditions and college enrollment has been found to be countercyclical at both the graduate (Bedard and Herman, 2008) and undergraduate levels (Dellas and Koubi, 2003; Dellas and Sakellaris, 2003; Berger and Kostal, 2002; Black and Sufi, 2002; Card and Lemieux, 2000; Light, 1996; Betts and McFarland, 1995; Kane, 1994; Corman, 1983; Gustman and Steineier, 1981). While this has been observed empirically, theoretically the cyclicality of schooling is ambiguous. Low skilled wages decrease during a recession and therefore the opportunity cost of going to college is low, but also during a recession families’ ability to help finance their children’s college expenses decreases. More recent literature (Long, 2014) explores the net effect of the most recent 2008 Great Recession on college enrollment. Using states with large increases in unemployment and large reductions in home prices as the treatment group and states with relatively small changes in unemployment and housing prices as the control, Long (2014) finds that the net effect of the recession on college enrollment is positive, and therefore corroborating past research and found that college enrollment is countercyclical.
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"How the unemployment rate in Spain affects university enrollment"

"How the unemployment rate in Spain affects university enrollment"

Other studies have shown that economic measures are not the only factors that affect college enrollment. Total household wealth strongly affects an individual’s decision to enroll. Michael Lovenheim explores the important question of whether family resources affect decisions to invest in higher education. Using data from the Current Population Survey, college-age individuals in the lowest income quartile have a 33.3 percent enrollment rate compared with 75.5 percent in the highest income quartile. The housing boom caused sizeable changes in college enrollment levels. Families with fewer resources have more of an increase in college attendance with increases in home equity. They find this wealth effect to be true: higher-income families consume more higher education. Housing wealth is important to study because the recent variation in home prices has an effect on the college attendance in middle-class families. This shows that family housing wealth (equity in the family’s home) and household wealth (income and other assets), along with the influence unemployment has on enrollment, are important factors when considering graduate school. I will include per capita income as a measure of economic activity and analyze how it relates to enrollment and family education spending.
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Differences in the College Enrollment Decision Across Race

Differences in the College Enrollment Decision Across Race

neighborhood characteristics such as mean wages and the unemployment and homeownership rates. I address the estimation concern by estimating a multinomial probit, which does not require the IIA assumption. In addition, the multinomial probit is also consistent with utility maximizing behavior. I find that parents’ education, income, grades, and enrollment in a college prep program, impact the college attendance decision for blacks, Hispanics, and whites, but the sensitivities to these controls vary across these three groups. Any estimation that does not take this heterogeneity into account can cause misleading results for minorities since whites constitute the largest portion of the population. I also find that little is known about the decision to attend a private college for blacks, and to a lesser extent Hispanics. While preferential financial aid for minorities that is
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The Effects of Mandatory and Free College Admission Testing on College Enrollment and Completion

The Effects of Mandatory and Free College Admission Testing on College Enrollment and Completion

knows precisely how many students were juniors in public high schools at the time of the treatment. In the IPEDS data, I create a measure of “intensity of treatment” based upon the pre-treatment freshmen residency composition of a college. This then approximates about what percent of the untreated student body would have been treated without the mandatory college entrance exam. This has not been done in any previous analysis, which consistently assumed colleges were either completely treated or untreated based on what state they were physically located. For the ACS data, I estimate whether an individual was treated by assuming they went to high school in the state they lived one year prior to the survey. Due to this much stronger assumption, I believe that the IPEDS data more “accurately” identifies who belongs to the treated group. A common set of critiques of the IPEDS data is that it undercounts first-year, part-time students (Soldner et al. 2016) and that it undercounts online students (Straumsheim 2014). Online universities are more likely to be open enrollment, so I do not expect this to greatly impact my analysis. However, since the college-level analysis only includes full-time students, I may be understating the policy’s impact if we expect that students who are impacted by the policy are more likely to enroll part-time. Since first generation college students are more likely to be part-time (Engle and Tinto 2008), and I expect that first generation students are more likely impacted by the policy than students with parents who attended college, it is reasonable to think I am somewhat underestimating the impact of the policy using the IPEDS data by not counting part-time students.
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Blinn College Dual Credit/Early College Program Enrollment Process

Blinn College Dual Credit/Early College Program Enrollment Process

revised 2-5-2013 Credit by Examination Program (CLEP & AP) Application for Credit-Blinn College Students may be awarded up to 12 semester hours based on credit-by-examination test results. Students must take the College Level Examination Programs test (subject matter tests only) or the Advanced Placement examination. To receive credit for English 1301, English 2322 and English 2328 using the CLEP test, the student must qualify on both the objective and essay parts of the exam. A grade of “CR” will be posted to the transcript when the student has successfully completed 6 semester hours at Blinn College and also earned a cumulative grade point average of 2.0 at Blinn College. The application for credit by examination may be made at any time while the student attends Blinn College as long as he or she has not attempted the course for which credit is being sought. There is no charge for this service. Return this form to the Office of Admissions and Records; 902 College Ave.; Brenham, Texas 77833 or fax to 979.830.4110. Blinn College does not administer the CLEP exam. It is the responsibility of the student to locate a CLEP testing center and to have exam scores sent to the Office of Admissions and Records at Blinn College.
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College Enrollment, Dropouts and Option Value of Education

College Enrollment, Dropouts and Option Value of Education

Our paper has three main results. First, our model shows that papers that assume risk neutrality, such as Keane and Wolpin (1997), Cunha and Heckman (2007) and Heckman and Navarro (2007), overestimate the value of college, college enrollment and graduation rates because the outcome of college education is risky. Second, we show that the option value of learning is much more important when agents are risk averse rather than risk neutral 1 . These two results imply that any serious model of college education should deviate from risk neutrality assumption and any model with risk averse students should take the option value of dropping out into account. Finally, we suggest a welfare improving policy that decreases both the pyschic costs, college enrollment and graduation rates whereas a decrease in the psychic costs in the aforementioned papers would increase both the college enrollment and graduation rates.
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The Effects of Mandatory and Free College Admission Testing on College Enrollment and Completion

The Effects of Mandatory and Free College Admission Testing on College Enrollment and Completion

I will be treating the ACT and SAT tests as the same treatment, unlike many previous studies have done. While we list states that adopted the policy post-2012 since these states could be incorporated in further analysis with more data, only states with at least two years of the policy (thus allowing juniors to complete their senior year and be in at least their first year of college) are included in our sample.

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Expanding the Enrollment of International Students on College Campuses: Predictors of Enrollment Rates and Strategies for Recruitment

Expanding the Enrollment of International Students on College Campuses: Predictors of Enrollment Rates and Strategies for Recruitment

The Institute of International Education (IIE) Open Doors reports that one out of three international students chooses to study in California, New York, or Texas. Where do the rest of them go? Georgia ranks 15 th in states with the most international students, which sounds respectable, but of the more than 21,000 international students in Georgia, 15,870 went to University of Georgia, Georgia State, Georgia Tech, Emory, and Savannah College of Arts and Design (2016). That means that slightly over 5,000 students were spread out across all the other public and private institutions in Georgia. It is clear that the big draws for international students who come to Georgia are doctoral research-intensive universities or in the case of SCAD, specialization of the programming, and the reason they selected these programs was because of their reputation for academic excellence. This is not just the case for Georgia, but a pattern across the United States. In the 2015-2016 academic school year, there were eight United States institutions in which more than 10,000 international students were enrolled: New York
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College Enrollment Decision for Nontraditional Female Students

College Enrollment Decision for Nontraditional Female Students

Mothers of older children are more likely to enroll in college as they may feel less burdened with child care responsibilities and have more time available. The time needs to be right for the adult female to decide to enroll in college. A study conducted by Miller, Pope and Steinmann (2006) supports the theory of “the right time” to enroll in college for adult females due to their multiple roles and time constraints. The study was conducted to better understand the unique characteristics and behavior of adult female students in comparison to male students. A total of 272 survey responses from students at six community colleges around the United States were included in the data analysis. The research found that women perceived college as an investment to be budgeted for and to be used to make a substantial increase in financial security. In addition, the study revealed some services that attracted adult female students to enroll, such as tutoring and counseling services, computers on campus, and exercise facilities.
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The Place for Dual Enrollment in College to Career Readiness

The Place for Dual Enrollment in College to Career Readiness

Of the four urban schools surveyed, three of the schools are within the largest school district in the state with enrollment of 51, 069 students. The Introduction to Teaching dual enrollment course is offered in 3 of the 7 district high schools and while much of the curriculum has recently been aligned, the organization of the courses are quite diverse. While two of the participating schools offer the year-long course daily for 42-minute time blocks, the third school is able to offer the course for 90-minutes time block, everyday, all year. While all of the schools have field experience and observation opportunities, the frequency of those opportunities are also varied with in the Introduction to Teaching dual enrollment course. Due to their block scheduling the school is able to spend the final nine weeks of the second semester in a classroom setting, while the other schools only ten days total for the year in elementary and middle schools. Fortunately, along with the Introduction to Teaching dual enrollment course during the junior year, students have an option to take a senior internship, where they are able to assist classroom teacher for 90 minute time block each day, for the entire school year. In addition to these opportunities students within the district have other coursework that is not required, but very relevant to their interest in teaching, learning, and working with children. These courses include Human Growth and Development, and several levels of Child Development.
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Charis Bible College ENROLLMENT AND ADMISSIONS INFORMATION

Charis Bible College ENROLLMENT AND ADMISSIONS INFORMATION

Charis Bible College has three basic standards by which students' progress is measured: grace, servanthood, and character. Detailed below are "guideposts" by which the working out of these truths may be measured, not a formula by which these qualities may be attained. As a believer we already posses everything we need in Christ, but must yield our souls and bodies so that these qualities are manifested in our thoughts and actions.

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Nova Community College Dual Enrollment Checklist

Nova Community College Dual Enrollment Checklist

Centers offer college and nova community dual enrollment checklist to the math courses allow you may be required at the mission and certificate. Account at the virginia community dual enrollment classes on campus a change is to register after a contract between the class. Materials or learning to nova college dual enroll with your value in the dual enrollment? Other requirements to college enrollment checklist to dual enrollment at the policy. Board for the virginia community college so they can point you. No tuition for the nova community college dual checklist below and college credit at certain courses. Eligible students to college dual enrollment checklist below for the benefits of nova offers dual enrollment right for your links? Equal employment preferences for community dual enrollment form and must be saved, degrees and all courses are not register prior to perform this applies to the enrollment? Unmatched variety of the virginia community college dual checklist to dual enrollment? Search for community college enrollment in college credits while our associate degree, fees and career or higher. No tuition is dual enrollment makes it to take you have to succeed. Process of tuition for community dual enrollment schedule every time and certificate or university for something for students must register in a student support nova is something else? Fields before declaring a nova community enrollment checklist to an open seats and the requirements to identify the same course. Educational and achieve your checklist below and college transcripts from your enrollment classes begin before declaring a mind for college. For remote classes and nova college enrollment checklist to talk to students with the nova email account at nova classes and continue their formal approval if a major. Cybersecurity to apply for community dual enrollment checklist below and advising are nova online courses must complete the steps below for your nova. Easy to college checklist to manage
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Raising College Enrollment

Raising College Enrollment

These schools typically enrolled students from relatively affl uent families, and thus sought detailed measures of wealth and income so that they could measure need among families with complicated fi nancial situations. Today’s FAFSA refl ects its origins, demanding detailed information about stu- dents’ and parents’ income, assets and various other benefi ts and expenditures. With 127 questions to answer, it asks more than the IRS’s Form 1040 – the income tax form for families that itemize deductions, report busi- ness income and the like. The contrast be- tween Form 1040EZ – the one used by the vast majority of Americans with incomes below $50,000 – and the FAFSA is especially striking. With just a third of the FAFSA’s questions, the IRS captures the information needed to determine tax liability for the very population likely to be eligible for need-based college aid.
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Dual Enrollment Programs and Rural Community College Initiative

Dual Enrollment Programs and Rural Community College Initiative

` Provides students with college general education credit that is transferable to a four-year college or university. ` Enables students to explore occupational interests.[r]

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Enrollment Management and Distributive Leadership in a California Community College

Enrollment Management and Distributive Leadership in a California Community College

declines, the culture of prestige at any cost led the president and senior administrators at WCC to set aggressive enrollment growth targets for 2018–2019. An administrator said, “The aggressive nature of pursuing every single FTES and head count and all that has been really challenging, because that’s just the nature of our leadership team.” These targets were established in a top- down manner without a transparent process. To meet aggressive growth targets, campus members had to scramble to perform additional activities, including conducting outreach and admissions efforts as well as scheduling and staffing classes. A dean observed, “it was really tough for folks in terms of the human power” required to meet the targets. Several faculty members expressed fatigue in comments like “It seems like we’re on a rollercoaster” and “Faculty are just tired of the constant drumbeat of, you know, ‘We need more students, we need to make more money.’”
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Northland Community and Technical College Enrollment Management Plan

Northland Community and Technical College Enrollment Management Plan

Northland Community and Technical College has a definite bonus as being the only comprehensive college in Northwestern Minnesota. We are able to offer students an alternative to the traditional college scene, where students can get the first two years of most four - year programs in a smaller more family oriented atmosphere. They may enroll in one of our many technical programs that prepare them for immediate entry into the workforce. Currently Northland Community and Technical College offers over 30 majors as well as 50 plus career programs for students to choose from. Our nationally recognized Aviation Maintenance Program headlines the Thief River Falls campus occupational programs; it is complimented by programs in Nursing, Criminal Justice, Cosmetology Massage Therapy, Welding, Auto Body, Architecture, Automotive Service, and others.
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Community college selective enrollment and the challenge to open access

Community college selective enrollment and the challenge to open access

Community college administrators often confront challenges to the multiple missions of the community college. As the underlying foundation of community college missions, the open access mission supersedes all other institutional goals (Shannon & Smith, 2006). Diverse student needs, coupled with multiple mission priorities and limited resources, force administrators to regularly reevaluate planning strategies. Balancing academic standards of excellence with expanding services while maintaining physical plants requires extensive and informed administrative skill. If the community college is to remain “the people’s college” among institutions of higher education, the open access mission must remain a priority in the planning strategies of executive administrators. Selective recruitment practices, coupled with advanced marketing techniques, have the potential to erode the unbiased execution of the open access mission. These techniques, derived from enrollment management practices, evolved at four-year universities and private colleges, institutions traditionally unfettered by the dictates of maintaining open access to higher education.
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Equilibrium Tuition, Applications, Admissions and Enrollment in the College Market

Equilibrium Tuition, Applications, Admissions and Enrollment in the College Market

This paper departs from ERS in several respects: 1) The college market is subject to information frictions and uncertainty: colleges can only observe noisy measures of student ability, and they do not observe student preferences. As a result, colleges are faced with complex inference problems in making their admissions decisions. Meanwhile, application becomes a non-trivial problem for the student, as is manifested by the popularity of various application guide programs. Both colleges and students will adjust their behavior according to how much information is available on the market. Consequently, evaluating the severity of information frictions is important for predicting the equilibrium e¤ects of various counterfactual education policies. 2) Student application decisions di¤er substantially. For example, over 50% of high school graduates do not apply to any college. However, the college market includes not only college enrollees and/or those who do apply, but all potential college applicants. Alternative education policies will a¤ect not only where applicants are enrolled, but also who will apply in the …rst place. Therefore, to evaluate the e¤ects of these policies, it is necessary to understand the application decisions (including non application) made by all students and how these decisions interact with colleges’ decisions. 3) Given the important role of public colleges, which accommodate the majority of college students, this paper models the strategic behavior of both public colleges and private colleges. 4) Students have di¤erent abilities and preferences for colleges, which are unobservable to researchers. Arguably, such heterogeneity may be the key force underlying data variations unexplained by observables. Hence it is important to incorporate them in the model. As the …rst two structural papers that study college market equilibrium, ERS and this paper complement one another. ERS provides a more comprehensive view on private colleges’ …nancial aid strategy, which is especially important in explaining the
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Executive Summary. College of Education and Human Services Enrollment Management Plan Definition of Enrollment Management:

Executive Summary. College of Education and Human Services Enrollment Management Plan Definition of Enrollment Management:

Completed  applications  submitted  to  WIU  has  increased  by  6.36  percent  for  new  freshmen,  decreased   5.9  percent  for  undergraduate  transfers,  and  increased  7.12  percent  for  first  time  graduate  students.   Although  the  number  of  applications  has  increased  over  this  time  period  for  new  freshmen,  acceptance   rates  have  decline  resulting  in  a  loss  of  189  freshmen  admits.    Of  added  concern  is  the  decline  of   admitted  freshmen  students  who  actually  enroll  at  WIU.    This  has  declined  from  38.2  percent  to  31.0   percent.    Thus,  enrollment  management  plans  for  freshmen  need  to  address  all  areas  of  the  enrollment   funnel:  prospects,  applicants,  admits,  and  matriculants.  
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