that unhindered and unregulated market forces are directly responsible for economic “inequalities” and rising unemployment (Bond, 2005:198). Khalil (1992:19) refers to this dominance of the market as “market anarchy” that is the basis for the commodification of labour and exploitation. This situation is being exacerbated by globalisation making unemployment and the exploitation of labour a global problem. As Marx and Engels (1848:8) state: “It is the very nature of the capitalist mode of production to overwork some workers while keeping the rest as a reserve army of unemployed paupers”. The result is that equality is sacrificed for the sake of economic growth and self-interest of the wealthy. According to Bond (2005:198), “globalisation disempowered anyone advocating anything remotely progressive in terms of social policy, workers’ rights, and gender equality”. The reason for this is that the link between globalisation and neo-liberalism resists any policy interference in the market that promotes equality. The result is the rise of global inequality which “is simply an unfortunate side effect of the broader prosperity and inevitability associated with globalisation”. In other words, goods must be produced as cheaply as possible through the reduction of production costs. This is done by cutting the wages and benefits of labourers and increasing part-time or more flexible employment options in order to stimulate higher productivity, but at lower wages and loss of employment security for labourers, thus perpetuating inequality. Another aspect that increases unemployment is technological development that results in the replacement of workers by machines. Positively, globalisation increases the gross domestic product 9 (GDP) of the economy; it also
The Tower of Babel narrative is profoundly connected to the history of South Africa and its interpretation in the Dutch Reformed Church document entitled Human Relations and the SouthAfrican Scene in the Light of Scripture (1976), which was used to justify apartheid. In this article, it is argued that this understanding of the narrative is due to racist framing that morally justified the larger apartheid narrative. The Tower of Babel narrative was later reframed for liberation and reconciliation by Desmond Tutu. However, apartheid had an impact not only on the sociopolitical dynamics of South Africa. Submissions to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission by business and labour highlight the impact of apartheid on the economy and specifically black labour. These revelations are responsible for new questions regarding the economics of the narrative that arise and may enrich the understanding of the Tower of Babel narrative. This focus on the economic aspect of the narrative is also supported by historical research on the Tower of Babel narrative that reveals that the dispersion of the people on the plain of Shinar may refer to the demise of the Sumerian empire, which was among other influences brought about by a labour revolt. In this regard, the narrative is a theological reflection on the demise of an unjust economic system that exploited workers. The purpose of this article is to critically explore this economic justice aspect embedded in the narrative in order to determine whether this reframing of the narrative is plausible. This is particularly important within the post-apartheid context and the increase of economic problems such as unemployment, poverty and economic inequality.
When addressing the effects of HIV-infection on Black SouthAfrican children, it is important to consider the SouthAfrican sociocultural context. Black South Africans constitute the majority of the SouthAfrican population (i.e., approximately 80%) (Outwater, Abrahams, & Campbell, 2005). In addition, Black South Africans face the long-term effects of the apartheid system. Apartheid or “separate development” was “a system of selective development through which Whites became entitled to all the benefits and protections the state could provide, and Blacks were tolerated only to the extent that they served the economic interests of the White minority” (Barbarin & Richter, 2001a, p. 25). 1994 marked the end of apartheid system, yet undeniably not the end of the social, psychological, and economic effects of the system (Barbarin & Richter, 2001a). For instance, many Black South Africans continue to experience poverty, overcrowding, limited access to healthcare services, poor housing quality, unemployment, health threats (e.g., Tuberculosis), inadequate facilities (e.g., running water, sanitation, and electricity), and inadequate nutrition (Barbarin & Richter, 2001a). In addition, in the region of 41% of the adult population is illiterate (van Niekerk, 2001).
As noted earlier the anti-dumping provisions in the ITAA are designed to establish an anti-dumping regulatory regime that prima facie reflects compliance with the Anti-dumping Agreement (Sibanda, 2013a). According to section 1(2) of ITAA read with section 12(1) of ADR, and pursuant to article 2.1 of the WTO Anti- dumping Agreement, dumping is considered to be occurring in South Africa when there predatory price discrimination or differential pricing of different units of the same good sold at different prices in different markets (Brink, 2004, Sibanda, 2013. See also Viner, 1923,; Viner, 1931). That is, “…, a product is to be considered as being dumped, i.e., introduced into the commerce of another country at less than its normal value, if the export price of the product exported from one country to another is less than the comparable price, in the ordinary course of trade, for the like product when destined for consumption in the exporting country” (Anti-Dumping Agreement, Art 2.1). Numerous reasons can be provided to justify the imposition of antidumping measures ranging including but not limited to preventing predatory trade, price discrimination and protection of infant domestic industries (Sibanda, 2013a). Generally, strategic trade policy and consumer welfare arguments are advanced as justifications for anti- dumping laws (See Messerlin and Tharakan, 1999; Phillips and Turner, 1975) All these reasons are undergird by the “importing country’s desire to protect domestic industry and consumers” (Sibanda, 2013a) from injurious effects of dumped goods.
from 10 to 50 percent to the final product costs. From these very general estimates it is understandable why countries desire to lower the costs of sea transport wherever and whenever possible. South Africa is among the developing nations that wish to reduce the costs of sea transport as foreign owned ships carry most of South Africa’s cargo and much of this has been because there hasn’t been indigenous participation in the maritime industry. South Africa’s wish is to reduce the costs of sea transportation, typically paid to foreign owned ships, by developing its indigenous participation in ship owning. According to the former CEO of SAMSA, Tseitsie Mokhele (2015), “about 98 percent of the SouthAfrican exports are caried by ships, which are dominantly foreign owned and operatored. Thus approximately R160 billion is paid annually to foreign owned ships for seaborne transportation”. At first this sounds irrational, however, the income earned from exports ends up paying for much of the sea carriage charged by foreign owned ships for the loaded export goods. In addition, the loss in revenue earned stems from the fact that South Africa has always shipped its exports under the Free on Board (FOB) 6 agreement whereby the income earned from the sale of export goods to a foreign buyer in turn has to pay for the transportation cost of carriage, which at the end reduces the revenue earned by the exporting party. There is a view that foreign shipping companies can overcharge non-ship owning countries who are mostly dependent on foreign owned ships for the carriage of their goods, normally such cases are found with developing countries with inefficient shipping expertise.
We focus especially on the SouthAfrican economy which is one of the wealthiest countries in Africa receiving a high level of interest as an investment destination from international investors. The SouthAfrican Rand ZAR belongs to 20 most traded currencies in the world. In particular, from an economic point of view, we focus on South Africa for the following reasons: Firstly, South Africa presented impressive macroeconomic performance the previous years after a subdued period according to the SouthAfrican Reserve Bank. Secondly, the recent entrance of South Africa in BRIC countries, as well as the announcement of the establishment of the New Development Bank (NDB) carrying out the objective of the establishment of the Development Bank of the emerging economies, changed this notation into BRICS (Brazil, China, Russia, India and South Africa), thus increasing the country’s importance internationally. Thirdly, South Africa exerts major influence on the wider region. What is more, the geographical position of South Africa is in Sub-Saharan Africa. Its economic growth was quite high the previous years. The region still remains a fast-growing country worldwide. Finally, the declining trend in oil prices in recent years influenced greatly competitive economies in the region, such as Nigeria, which is expected to result in a significant influx of investment capital in non-oil producing countries, such as South Africa. 1 From a financial point of view, the contribution to the existing literature is that we extend previous studies by examining the JSE SouthAfrican market, which is the oldest and largest market in Africa (see Degiannakis et al. 2010). According to the World Federation of Exchanges (https://www.world-exchanges.org), the JSE belongs to the Major stock exchange groups (top 20 by market capitalization) of issued shares of listed companies.
Background: There is growing evidence of an interaction between HIV-infection, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological studies in Europe and North America have been observing a shift towards an increased incidence of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected populations compared to the general population even after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Despite South Africa (and sub-Saharan Africa, SSA) being regarded as the epicentre of the global HIV epidemic, very little is known about the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and precursors of vascular disease in HIV-infected populations in this region. The knowledge gap is further widened by the paucity of data from prospective studies. We present the rationale, objectives and key methodological features of the EndoAfrica study, which aims to determine whether HIV- infection and ART are associated with altered cardiovascular risk and changes in vascular endothelial structure and function in adults living in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.
Zulu is spoken by more than 8,8 million people in South and Southern Africa. Of all the languages (including Afrikaans and English) spoken in South Africa, Zulu has the largest number of speakers. Zulu is an agglutinative language, which means that grammatical information is conveyed by attaching prefixes and suffixes to roots and stems. All Bantu languages are divided into classes or sets, called grammatical genders. Each gender has two distinct prefixes, one for singular and one for plural nouns. The classes far exceed the familiar European classifications of masculine, feminine and neuter, and are roughly associated with semantic characteristics relating to, for instance, human beings, kinship terms, animals, plants, artifacts, abstract concepts and so on. Umlimi and abalimi are, for example, the singular and plural forms of the noun meaning farmer, and most words denoting human beings are in the umu-, aba- class (Class 1) of nouns. Verbal nouns, on the other hand, belong to the Class 8 group of nouns, of which the prefix is uku-, for example ukugula, which is the Zulu word for either death or the infinitive to die.
Westphal’s argument is that perhaps freedom requires more than the respect and separate spheres of action for individuals. 7 Going back to the Louvain scenario, these professors acted within their rights and freedoms, as prescribed by Hegel and within Belgian law, to divide their university. However, in doing so, they also failed their mission towards the society which created, sustained, and above all needed them. Although Hegelian freedom enjoins a respect between individuals within society, it can also be used to separate society; the ‘we’ disintegrates in light of so-called ‘respect’ when one wants to exert their right to autonomy from others. To be fair to Hegel, a society can build on to this issue of respect to provide rights that are more than property rights – such as the right to clean drinking water in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa or the right to an attorney at trial in the U.S. Constitution. This is the beginning for Hegel, not the end point. Yet still, by initializing the first moment of intersubjectivity and all concrete forms of freedom with a basic self-interest for recognition through possession and property rights, Hegelian freedom becomes foundationally a conceptual desire for an autonomous existence in light of a world populated with other selves. Though there is a duty and responsibility to respect other’s autonomy, this is still self- interested: it is a contract between two selves to not attack the other’s possessions.
Phrase chunking remains an important natural language processing (NLP) technique for intermediate syntactic processing. This paper describes the development of protocols, annotated phrase chunking data sets and automatic phrase chunkers for ten SouthAfrican languages. Various problems with adapting the existing annotation protocols of English are discussed as well as an overview of the annotated datasets. Based on the annotated sets, CRF-based phrase chunkers are created and tested with a combination of different features, including part of speech tags and character n-grams. The results of the phrase chunking evaluation show that disjunctively written languages can achieve notably better results for phrase chunking with a limited data set than conjunctive languages, but that the addition of character n-grams improve the results for conjunctive languages.
Introduction: The SouthAfrican public health system plays an important role in the delivery of HIV testing and treat- ment services. The health system is also an important conduit for targeted behaviour change communication with the expectation that clients who undergo counselling from health personnel, adopt safer sexual practices. Literature remains mixed on the impact these HIV services have on risky sexual behaviour. This analysis examines the sexual behaviour of clients following the utilisation of HIV testing and treatment services in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods: Data were used from two consecutive cross-sectional household surveys undertaken from June 2014 to June 2015 (2014/2015 survey) and from July 2015 to June 2016 (2015/2016 survey) in the uMgungundlovu District of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Collectively, 20,048 randomly selected individuals aged 15 to 49 years old were interviewed across the two surveys. Utilisation of HIV testing and treatment services were used as independent variables and three sexual risk behaviours were used as dependent variables. Multiple regression models assessed the impact HIV testing and treatment services had on sexual risk behaviour while controlling for socio-demographic characteristics.
There are certain reasons for this poor achievement in English. However, the root problem is that the ESL teachers are not proficient in their English language skills. Though they have fairly gained subject knowledge as determined by the criteria of the selection that assess their English language knowledge but it does not check their proficiency. They only teach the subject knowledge of English but not the English language skills that are required to develop the proficiency of the ESL students and resultantly they show poor achievements in English. As, in Pakistani ESL context, neither the time of appointment and nor after the continuation of the professional job, the assessment of the ESL teachers have been taken. For instance, according to PEELI report conducted by British Council, the private and the government English teachers (62% of the private English teachers and 56% of government English teachers) have shown the lowest possible score in their APTIS test. 35 Gul & Aziz explain that listening
In the SouthAfricancontext, different researchers have carried out incredibly important work in the areas of children and childhood. Deevia Bhana (2005, 2015; see also Govender 2015) is doing extensive research in the areas of gender and child sexuality. She views children as agents making choices and constructs knowledge therefore through ethnographic work and focus groups allowing for deep and engaged conversations with children and teenagers. In her writing the voices of children clearly emerge as speaking for themselves. Another important resource for child theologians in our context is the Human Sciences and Research Council publication Growing up in the new South Africa: Childhood and adolescence in post-apartheid Cape Town. Edited by Bray et al. (2012), the research that is reflected here is a combination of rich ethnographic research with quantitative data, reflecting both the environmental factors that affect the lives of children and adolescents and also the agency that they themselves practise.
Moster & Rothmann, 2006). Individuals with high levels of work engagement are assumed to have the skills to deal effectively with the demands of their job (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004). This was also confirmed by Harter (2001; as cited by Olivier & Rothmann, 2007), who found a relation between the amount of work engagement and business outcomes. Engaged workers are more often presented in well performing units than non-engaged workers. Additionally, highly engaged individuals seem to experience pleasure, while dealing with the demands of their job (Jackson, Rothmann, & van de Vijver, 2006). With respect to the concept of life satisfaction, as measured through the SWLS, can be stated that life satisfaction plays a major role within the conceptualization of emotional wellbeing (Burns et al., 2011; Gallagher et al., 2009; Keyes 2002, 2005, 2007). According to Pavot and Diener (1993) this comes due to the fact that both constructs depend on evaluative appraisals. In the studies conducted by Keyes et al. (2008) and by Perugini et al. (2017) the highest correlations were found between the emotional wellbeing scale and the SWLS. Furthermore, both studies indicated low to moderate correlations between the SWLS and the psychological and social wellbeing subscales (Keyes et al., 2008; Perugini et al., 2017). The correlation of the total MHC-SF and the SWLS differ among the two studies. Keyes et al. (2008) confirmed a correlation of 0.37 and Perugini et al. (2017) found a correlation of 0.54 between the MHC-SF and the SWLS. Du Plessis and Guse (2017) confirmed also a correlation between the MHC-SF and the SWLS, but compared to Keyes et al. (2008) and Perugini et al. (2017), the correlation is with 0.62 somewhat larger. Lim (2014) confirmed the relation between the SWLS and the MHC-SF for the Korean context. However, within the study of Lim (2014) the strongest correlations were found between the SWLS and the psychological wellbeing scale. At the same time Lim (2014) confirmed a strong correlation of 0.51 between the SWLS and the emotional wellbeing scale.
The preparation and filing of financial reports emerged out of the Great Depression of the 1930’s in an attempt to provide potential investors with sufficient information to make informed investment decisions (King, 2011, p. 1). These reports have gradually grown increasingly complex and voluminous due to ever-increasing accounting standards and disclosure requirements, yet they are increasingly less relevant and useful for analysts and investors as they are difficult for “even the most sophisticated users to understand” (Eccles & Krzus, 2010, p. 51-52, 56). Corporate reporting based only on accounting standards are also increasingly being criticised as it allows companies to externalise environmental and social costs due to the fact that financial results are not placed within the context of the greater economy, society or the environment in which the firms operate (Terry, 2008, p. 178).
Chile, like much of Latin America in the post–Second World War context at the time, was experimenting with Import Substitution Industrialization, a model of economic development designed to reduce dependence on foreign aid. Progressive segments of Chilean society, however, went one step further in aspiring to a model of “socialism without revolution” (29). The model promised to address not only the issue of development, but also that of social inequal- ity. International responses were mixed. Predictably, the United States was competing with Moscow for control of the future of Chile. Canada, by contrast, approached the Chilean situation with a mixture of caution and curiosity. Peddie emphasizes that the opening and closing of the his- toric opportunity in Chile in the form of the election of the Unidad Popular under Allende in 1970, and the coup d’état in 1973, respectively, coincided roughly with the election of the Liberals in Canada under Pierre Trudeau. Trudeau was looking to expand international trade and relations, in Latin America and elsewhere, and to decrease dependence on the United States. Cold War rhetoric influenced concerns among immigration officials in Canada that Chilean exiles might pose a national security risk; however, a broad-based
its health legislative framework . The Traditional Health Practitioners’ Act of 2007 was passed to regulate TH practitioners. The main aim of the Act was to ensure “the efficacy, safety and control of traditional health care services, to provide for the management and control over the registration, training and conduct of practi- tioners, students…” . In the Act, traditional health practice is defined as a practice enlisting indigenous African techniques and traditional medicine or practice principles . In 2000, CAM and TM were declared in legislation to be on the same footing as bio-medicine. In 2007, approximately 200,000 traditional healers were registered with various bodies and 3600 complementary and alternative medical practitioners were registered with the AHPCSA . These efforts signify a significant commitment by the SouthAfrican government to regulate and authenticate TM and CAM and their practitioners.
This paper presented a study where learners from four uniquely resourced schools interacted with mobile learning system named M-Thuto and presented their views on their interaction process. The research results from the case study, on the M-Thuto experience of the high school learners from both rural and urban school results, show that there are still learners who are in need of supplementary ubiquitous learning resources and materials. M-Thuto was able to provide them with learning notes, drill exercises and related quizzes to support their learning. Even though learners in urban participating schools could acquire and access supplementary learning material, having accessible and ubiquitous multilingual learning material assisted them to learn in their own time, in their choice of language, while introducing them to new methods of ubiquitous learning. Furthermore, by providing bilingual content support, M-Thuto gave learners the opportunity to have options in methods of viewing mobile learning content supporting their code-switching nature. Techniques such as content adaptation and efficient responsive memory provided effective design principles for developing the architecture to suit this context.
Subsequent to the global recession period of 2009, two main fiscal policies were implemented and are currently the blueprint of fiscal spending programmes, those being the NGP and NDP which were both introduced in 2013. These policies programmes acknowledge and attempt to address the key problems currently facing South Africa those being high unemployment, low levels of domestic savings and investments, persistent balance of payments deficits, an overvalued exchange rate, skilled labour shortages, energy and infrastructural bottlenecks, economic concentration, government inefficiency, rent-seeking and regulatory burdens on business. In also differing from previous policy programmes, the NGP and NDP do not rely on an economic model to create jobs but create new solutions through judicious use of government policy in conjunction with private sector influences (Nattrass, 2011). Therefore the overall gist of these policies is the creation of sustainable jobs for the poor and to make the economy to be more labour intensive and efficient. In particular, the NDP has set objectives of alleviating poverty and inequality by 2030 through the creation of 10 million jobs, and this objective has come under critical criticism for being unrealistic in nature. Nevertheless, from an academic point of view the success of these programmes in influencing the unemployment rate is dependent on the evolution process of the unemployment variable.
Figure 3 shows the distribution of unemployment rate across different age groups. Notably, youth unemployment rates (16-24 years) are the highest at 54%, even more than doubling a majority of the other unemployment rates associated with other age groups. One of the issues that could be linked to this predicament is the lack of education and skills among the youth. Another issue is that a large number of the youth who complete their tertiary education and enter the labour market in search of employment, remain unemployed for long periods of time. Seemingly, the SouthAfrican economy is not capable enough of absorbing this huge amount of labour inflow in the market in terms of job creation, and thus resulting in this high rate in unemployment among the youth (Mlatsheni and Leibbrandt, 2011). According to Statistics South Africa (2017), the labour participation rate quarterly change among the youth was 1.6%, thus increasing the labour participation rate of the youth to 27.9% from the previous quarter. Nonetheless, the unemployment rate among the elderly (55 – 64 years) was reported to be the lowest at 10.5% by Statistics South Africa (2017). This low rate among the elderly could also be linked to the fact that majority of them could decide not to be involved in the