In chapter 2, the historical relationship between China and the Korean peninsula was discussed, as well as the role of Koguryŏ/Gaogouli history within Korean nationalism. It was also established that the current conflict about Koguryŏ/Gaogouli started much earlier than the UNESCO listing, but gained more traction once it was recognized by UNESCO, which then also sparked further nominations of other heritage practices in order to gain the upper hand. In chapter 3, we explored the present-day border conflict between China and Korea as well as China’s role in other border region-related conflicts. What can be concluded from these chapters is that whilst on one hand the Koguryŏ/Gaogouli controversy is regarded as an infringement of Korean national heritage by China, the ‘fight’ is fought not in the diplomatic realm, but mostly through academic efforts as well as UNESCO officiality. It is lingering under the surface and ignored possibly for the betterment of the economy. In China’s efforts to secure stability in the border regions, the venture into Koguryŏ/Gaogouli heritage is an attempt to secure that stability through national identity. The parties involved aim for ownership over heritage, but both have different goals within this conflict. In chapter 4, the UNESCO listings of relevant heritage sites and practices were discussed. Taking in consideration all of the aforementioned conflicts over ownership of national heritage and the way both South Korea and China claim heritage by registering it on the UNESCOWorldHeritage List before the other has only exasperated the conflict over who has more cultural authority and autonomy. In this history of unequal relations, Chung points out that “given the crucial role of asymmetry in international politics […] it is perhaps more up to China to determine whether the relationship can remain genuinely symbiotic.” 127 As of yet, there are no signs of the current conflict halting, seeing as new heritage
many developing countries hosting UNESCOWorldHeritage Sites need to consider. The setting up of a new national committee of ICOMOS to address the use of ‘Big Data’ and ‘Digital Technologies’ in culture and cultural heritage is a further testament of the importance of using digital technologies for the preservation and communication of heritage. These together with the recent Victoria & Albert Museum’s ReACH Initiative (Reproduction of Art and Cultural Heritage), which has reviewed and redrafted Henry Cole’s 1867 charter on the Reproduction of Art with a technical policy focusing on 3D facsimiles may suggest the global trend and technological challenges in this area. The book launch  and ReACH conference at UNESCO, at the Paris headquarters on 22 June 2018 with the accompanying speeches  addressing the member states are providing a way forward for the barriers the ReACH Initiative is trying to address.
The expectation and satisfaction level of tourists are required in order to identify the weaknesses that exist in an area. From there, improvements could be conducted to fulfil the needs of tourists regarding heritage elements and physical infrastructure that exists in a Heritage City. Heritage elements are significant as a main attraction force for tourists to visit historic areas. The need for infrastructure is important to improve tourist accessibility when they are visiting a destination. This research is conducted with the hope of studying the expectation and satisfaction of tourists when it comes to heritage elements and physical infrastructure at Melaka UNESCOWorldHeritage Site. This research applies the quantitative analysis through questionnaire survey forms to a total of 161 domestic and international tourists, together with visual analysis and inventories conducted for the core zone of Melaka City. The results from the visual analysis using the principal component analysis with varimax rotation has identified 24 relevant items that could be divided into three main factors such as heritage elements, infrastructure and supporting elements. From the analysis, the most dominant findings for heritage elements is the museum; in aspects of physical infrastructures, is the most accommodating centres, while facilities factor is in terms of trishaw services. This most dominant finding shows the level of satisfaction accepted by the tourists. On the whole, the satisfaction level is higher than the expected outcomes regarding heritage elements, infrastructure and supporting facilities.
In art and design we believe that 3D environments should be created for a purpose and also be functional. Art, design outputs usually demands intellectually stimulating visual exhibitions; our team evaluated and used technology where ease of use and speed was available. The project team are building 3D interactive Saltaire UNESCOworldHeritage site for online and public exhibition where culture, social heritage, history of Industrial revolution in the Victorian era can be experienced, observed and communicated in combined physical and virtual realities.
statistics of each WorldHeritage site of the area by consulting the Periodic Reports that every six years the States Parties of the Convention have to submit to the WorldHeritage Centre. Since this information is not available for all the sites, we collected statistics on the annual visitor flow for 41 cultural sites in the period 2000-02, representing the 43 % of the 95 cultural sites currently inscribed on the list of the 12 considered countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand). On the whole, at the beginning of the millennium, around 82 484 000 persons yearly visited the UNESCO sites located in South Asia; in most cases, this number was constantly increasing over the preceding years. The type of site visited is highly heterogeneous ranging from historic and religious cities like Kyoto, to small heritage sites like shrines and historic monuments. We stated that the earmarked tax should be applied just on the additional revenues obtained by valorisation strategies and the increasing trend of world tourism. According to the World Tourism Organisation, the estimated annual growth rate of tourist arrivals for the South Asia is of 6.2% in the period 1995-2020. Applying the same annual rate of growth to the visitors of this sub-sample of UNESCO sites, we find that in the next decade the additional flow of tourists could be equal to 116 925 727 (an annual mean of 11 692 572.7 additional visitors per-year in the period 2010-2020). For instance, if the value of the tax revenue is one dollar per additional visitor, more than 10 million dollars per year could be raised from less than half of the sites located in South Asia and the funds would be used both locally and regionally. In comparative terms, the UNESCOWorldHeritage Fund currently provides at the global level about 4 million USD per year for international assistance to State Parties while, at regional level, the African Heritage Fund (together with the Nordic Heritage Foundation, one of the recently formed UNESCO centres entitled to raise funds) amounts in 2009 to 4.4 million USD. As a result, our proposal may potentially draw a relevant amount of financial resources if compared with the current international assets.
As the Japanese government officially exposed its intention to inscribe the Site on the UNESCOWorldHeritage List, the history of those sites drew attention in Korea, and there were demands for the information on the issue. One of the components of the Sites, Hashima Island, was already investigated individually and some of the memories of Koreans were published and broadcasted even before the Japanese government decided to inscribe the site. However, the Korean government did not have comprehensive information on Korean forced labor on the sites which could play a key role to reveal the truth that has been implicitly and explicitly unexposed to the public. In order to bring up a problem on the inscription of the sites, the Korean government should first have detailed information about it. As an organization taking the responsibility to investigate the Korean workers under Japanese colonial rule, the commission set to work on an ‘Investigation on the Damage of the Victims of Forced Mobilization of the Hashima Coal Mine Based on the Death Record’ in 2012. The commission organized an international seminar as well, inviting both Korean and Japanese experts who tried to reveal the life history of the workers related to the Sites.
to weak conservation efforts. As a result, the government end up relies on the funding from donors which is not sufficient. Additionally, the closure of this building jeopardises the position of Zanzibar Stone Town as a UNESCOWorldHeritage Site which could end up being positioned on the list of WorldHeritage Site in Danger. It should well know that tourism is the backbone of the economy of Zanzibar Island; hence a huge effort is needed to retain this status and the authenticity of House of Wonders Museum. The closure of the House of Wonder has demoralised the attitude of workers as they are not exercising their areas of specialisation and do not benefit anymore ending up allocated to the different working stations. As a result, this perhaps suggests that House of Wonders has a significance value not only to the antiquities government officers but also to the Stone Town of Zanzibar in general. The building might cause the Stone Town WorldHeritage Site to lose its authenticity hence being in danger of removed from the UNESCOWorldHeritage Site if the conservation and rehabilitation activities won't be finished as soon as possible.
development. We estimate standard growth equations augmented with a variable measuring tourism specialization using instrumental variables techniques for a large cross-section of countries for the period 1980–2002. We introduce an instrument for tourism based on the UNESCOWorldHeritage List. We find that there is a positive relationship between the extent of tourism specialization and economic growth. An increase of one standard deviation in the share of tourism in exports leads to about 0.5 percentage point in additional annual growth, everything else being constant. Our result holds against a large array of robustness checks.
According to Alexander (2013), the current fashionable concept of resilience is multi-faceted, “adaptable to various uses and contexts” (p. 2714), and “can be used with varied degrees of formality and meaning” (p. 2713). Resilience also involves serious conflicts and contradictions among the researchers (Alexander, 2013) because they have manipulated it “with their own disciplinary predilections” to color the results (Rogers, 2015, p. 55). Most of the resilience study in the past was “examined through proxy indicators, such as institutional change and economic structure and through demographic change” (Adger, 200, p. 354). While Berks and Ross (3013, p. 17) explicitly pronounced, “[w]e know about sense of place, formation of social identity, and stewardship, but we don’t know their significance for community resilience,” Cox and Perry (2011, p. 395) stressed that “[r]arer still is scholarship addressing . . . community resiliency and place within the context of disaster.” This study aimed to fill this gap by exploring the role of SOP to examine resilience among indigenous Newar communities living in the vicinity of UNESCOworldheritage sites of Kathmandu after the 2015 earthquake. As such, it was
urbanization and excessive increase in the heights of buildings with the recent development zoning rights have negatively affected historical buildings and even made them impossible to be perceived. Due to being surrounded by extremely high constructions, the effects of historical spaces on the silhouette have considerably decreased. Likewise, density has been causing pressure on the extension of narrow streets in historical settlements. Not to mention the fact that visual integrity and harmony of historical environment has been fading away since the undesired technological elements got involved. Cumalıkızık Village, however, has been added to UNESCOWorldHeritage List by the year 2014. Established
Wetlands are described as very important ecosystems since they provide a huge amount of goods (such as fishing, wood, edible plants, medicines, etc.) and environment services (such as flooding control, carbon collec- tion, water bodies directed nutrient provision, wild species and commercial-interest species housing, water fil- tration and cleanliness, bird and wild life appreciation, rambling, aesthetical value, etc.) of great value for socie- ty -. However, despite offering such environment goods and services to society, worldwide wetlands re- duction is increasing . According to Barbier , since 1900, more than a half of world wetlands have already disappeared, and this is mainly because of: 1) production of most of the goods and services at the wetlands are public and/or have no properly established property rights  ; 2) decision makers or users who have no full knowledge of wetlands’ economic values commonly ; and 3) failures on political interventions or public and/or private projects . As for the United States, it is estimated that 54% of the wetlands has already disap- peared due to farm and urban development mainly  . It is a similar situation in Mexico, where according to Landgrave and Moreno-Casasola , loss of wetlands reached 62.1%.
Transhumance has had a transcendental importance in the organization of the extensive use of mountain, adopting diverse modalities that have left their own mark in the form of constructions, roads, enclosures ... The delivery of the Exemplary Town Prize to Villar de Vildas by the Princess of Asturias Foundation in 2004 came to recognize the relevance of its cultural heritage, especially the vaqueiran brañas (explained below). An excellent autochthonous bovine race (called De los Valles) was maintained in Somiedo at the time when other foreign races were introduced in Asturias. The neighbors have undertaken an adequate transformation of the livestock sector. And they are in charge of the conservation of the cabanas de teito, being one of the traditional trades of Somiedo, which has allowed the maintenance of the ethnographic heritage. In fact, in the brañas of Villar there are some 65 cabanas in perfect condition (Fundación Princesa de Asturias, 2018) (Crit. iii, iv and v: Magn/ Inten., Repr., Rar/Res., Ad., Anc., Cons., Ag.).
To ensure that heritage can serve as fuel for development and profit, it is of utmost importance to guarantee its conservation in optimum conditions as well as its proper management. It has been proved time and again that efficient planning produces a positive impact in local, regional and national economies. There is a need to support and adequately manage cultural tourism as well as pro- duce businesses dedicated to visitor services and the protection of cultural assets.
Italy, with its 49 sites, it’s the country with the largest number of entries in the List of UNESCOWorldHeritage and none of them is in the list of properties in danger. The "Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the WorldHeritage Convention" point out, as a prerequisite for the preservation of the values recognized specifically to a site, the existence of an effective system of protection and management. Safeguard and protection are by now issues entrenched in the Italian legislation and administrative practice while the theme of management as a system of synergy and coordination of actions and interests, sometimes conflicting, which affect more or less directly the safeguarding of assets, it is less historically consolidated. The extreme variability of the situations of national UNESCOheritage in terms of site typology, its size, number and typology of those involved in the management, puts each time in the position of having to find the most suitable form of "governance" and, sometimes, supplementary protection measures. The vast and diverse panorama of the UNESCO sites enabled and continually enables to develop and test particular solutions, which in turn can represent reference models.
Overall, determining HE is difficult in this stage of research. HE cannot be clearly measured without making assumptions. The approach presented helps evaluating and classifying HE. Besides analysing context factors and the directly with HE connected constructs of EA, EO, and ESE, individual impressions of UNESCO WHS stakeholders helped to get a glimpse of the current state of HE. The regional impacts emanating from UNESCO WHSs that were highlighted by survey participants reflect, for example, important anchor points of the HE concept confirming that HE can and will play a role for UNESCO WHSs in supporting and advancing impacts of UNESCO WHSs and developments for the region and its inhabitants. These include, among others, advancing social and educational benefits, employment opportunities, quality of life, cooperations of heritage stakeholders and infrastructure. The concern of some surveyed stakeholders about the destruction of heritage by HE appears to be unfounded, as all studies have emphasised and shown that HE does exactly the opposite and preserves the heritage, as HE does not fully exploit it for other purposes unless it is requested (see Lundberg et al. 2016).
La legge 77/2006, con cifre in continuo aggiornamento, ha approvato e finanziato 240 progetti complessivi, con circa oltre 218 milioni di euro complessivi. Questi 240 progetti sono stati molto importanti perché rappresentano ormai un patrimonio, dei modelli di tutela e valorizzazione che sono di certo stati utili ai Siti, ma che ormai rappresentano anche dei modelli di riferimento importanti per molte realtà, sia italiane che internazionali. Realtà che, proprio grazie a questi modelli di progetti di tutela e valorizzazione realizzati, possono disporre di linee guida utili in molti luoghi del paesaggio culturale italiano, quindi in molti ambiti di beni culturali e beni ambientali che non sono Siti UNESCO, ma la cui qualità è tale che opportunamente possono beneficiare di tali esperienze. Peraltro il Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali ha preparato e stampato un dossier che rappresenta, in maniera adeguata, la sintesi dei 240 progetti finora realizzati e che qualche giorno fa è stata presentata all’ambasciatore permanente italiano presso la sede UNESCO, Professor Francesco Bandarin, Delegato internazionale per gli affari culturali dell’UNESCO.
or governments’ narratives over local discourse (Yan 2015:65). Chinese national heritage management is multi-layered: the Ministry of Education is the department responsible for communicating with the UNESCOWorldHeritage Centre, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development (MHURD) is responsible for the management of natural heritage sites whereas the SACH takes charge of cultural heritage. They are both in charge of Combination Sites and Cultural Landscape management. Wall and Su (2011) note that there is a second layer of governmental management which includes the department of forestry, water resources, environmental protection, religion, ethnic affairs and tourism, all of whom are potentially involved in management, depending on the specific natural, cultural and social characteristics of a heritage site. The third level involves local government, site management officers, visitors, local communities and tourism entrepreneurs. The specific management affairs of heritage sites are implemented by local governments, which are authorised by the MHURD or the SACH. This multi-department and multi-level management structure means that profits and responsibilities overlap, which creates management difficulties for WorldHeritage application and management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the extent to which WHL changes the interrelation between Chinese national governments, and in particular the key heritage authorities, the MHURD and the SACH. At a local level, local governments, which have administrative jurisdiction over WorldHeritage sites, have regarded such sites as new sources of income more than anything else, which may ignore other stakeholder’s interests or values, such as those of local communities (Tao and Luca 2011). Yan (2012, 2015), and Su and Teo (2009) have identified that local governments tend to utilise ‘WorldHeritage’ as a cultural tool to impose legal hegemony on local communities, in order to ensure site management confirms to government and UNESCO policies. However, little attention has been paid to the process of local governments uses of the WorldHeritage brand and policies as a tool to construct local narratives during and after the WorldHeritage listing; and how the government officials and experts formulated the nomination dossier and their purposes in seeking WorldHeritage listing and their understanding of heritage.
• To increase opportunities for lifelong learning and engaging with the conservation of the Jurassic Coast. A major success of our educational programme has been to support local schools across the Jurassic Coast that wish to become more involved in the engagement and interpretation of the WorldHeritage site. This has been achieved through creating educational resources that are relevant, engaging and fully sup- ported by a programme of teacher training. Our education materials inspire teachers through setting the Jurassic Coast in a global context to emphasize the international importance of the site and to promote global citizenship in children and young people. In addition many of our projects help schools to interpret aspects of WorldHeritage through building an understanding of personal and local heritage (such as ex- ploring family stories, local traditions and artefacts in local museums). For example we have led specific projects in local communities through schools where students have researched aspects of their local and worldheritage and worked with an artist to create banners and flags for their towns. The Jurassic Coast also coordinated the first UK UNESCOWorldHeritage Site Youth Summit in 2009, where over eighty young people from around the UK came together to learn and discuss the importance of WorldHeritage sites. The objective of the youth summit was to help schools to learn more about their local WorldHeritage sites and open pathways for future work. Schools that develop exceptional projects on WorldHeritage are encouraged to apply for UNESCO Associated School status. This recognizes their pledge to ensure that they integrate the values of UNESCO into their teaching programme. We believe that this approach is a sustainable way of maintaining a WorldHeritage educational programme.