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Tourist Expectation and Satisfaction towards Physical Infrastructure and Heritage Elements in Melaka UNESCO World Heritage Site

Tourist Expectation and Satisfaction towards Physical Infrastructure and Heritage Elements in Melaka UNESCO World Heritage Site

The expectation and satisfaction level of tourists are required in order to identify the weaknesses that exist in an area. From there, improvements could be conducted to fulfil the needs of tourists regarding heritage elements and physical infrastructure that exists in a Heritage City. Heritage elements are significant as a main attraction force for tourists to visit historic areas. The need for infrastructure is important to improve tourist accessibility when they are visiting a destination. This research is conducted with the hope of studying the expectation and satisfaction of tourists when it comes to heritage elements and physical infrastructure at Melaka UNESCO World Heritage Site. This research applies the quantitative analysis through questionnaire survey forms to a total of 161 domestic and international tourists, together with visual analysis and inventories conducted for the core zone of Melaka City. The results from the visual analysis using the principal component analysis with varimax rotation has identified 24 relevant items that could be divided into three main factors such as heritage elements, infrastructure and supporting elements. From the analysis, the most dominant findings for heritage elements is the museum; in aspects of physical infrastructures, is the most accommodating centres, while facilities factor is in terms of trishaw services. This most dominant finding shows the level of satisfaction accepted by the tourists. On the whole, the satisfaction level is higher than the expected outcomes regarding heritage elements, infrastructure and supporting facilities.
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Closed House of Wonders museum: Implications to the tourism of Zanzibar Stone Town, UNESCO World Heritage Site

Closed House of Wonders museum: Implications to the tourism of Zanzibar Stone Town, UNESCO World Heritage Site

to weak conservation efforts. As a result, the government end up relies on the funding from donors which is not sufficient. Additionally, the closure of this building jeopardises the position of Zanzibar Stone Town as a UNESCO World Heritage Site which could end up being positioned on the list of World Heritage Site in Danger. It should well know that tourism is the backbone of the economy of Zanzibar Island; hence a huge effort is needed to retain this status and the authenticity of House of Wonders Museum. The closure of the House of Wonder has demoralised the attitude of workers as they are not exercising their areas of specialisation and do not benefit anymore ending up allocated to the different working stations. As a result, this perhaps suggests that House of Wonders has a significance value not only to the antiquities government officers but also to the Stone Town of Zanzibar in general. The building might cause the Stone Town World Heritage Site to lose its authenticity hence being in danger of removed from the UNESCO World Heritage Site if the conservation and rehabilitation activities won't be finished as soon as possible.
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An art and design perspective: The development of a 3D interactive Saltaire UNESCO world Heritage site

An art and design perspective: The development of a 3D interactive Saltaire UNESCO world Heritage site

3D interactive Saltaire UNESCO world Heritage site project is intended to build an interactive educational exhibition space for interactive play via the web and is also planned to be located on site at Saltaire. The international and UK visitors to Saltaire receive limited educational cultural or historical engagement in Saltaire. “Saltaire has become the Mecca for thousands of visitors who spend hours trawling through the pristine streets, trying to imagine life as it was 100 years ago and the inspiration behind this extraordinary development.” [CHR09]
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Crowdsourcing for 3D cultural heritage for George Town UNESCO World Heritage Site

Crowdsourcing for 3D cultural heritage for George Town UNESCO World Heritage Site

3D recording of heritage using laser scanning, structured light or photogrammetry are better proxies to reality as they capture a snapshot of the present visible state of objects, including the imperfections of reality. Whilst each technique has advantages, photogrammetry is inexpensive and portable, particularly suited to crowdsourcing works, for landscapes, large structures and small objects. A good 3D laser scanning system typically costs in access of £50,000 and requires specialist skills and software, structured light scans are relatively inexpensive but are unsuited to difficult scanning situations such as narrow, enclosed spaces, etc. In contrast, photogrammetry techniques require high-resolution cameras or modern smartphones and software to produce results seen in Section 4, within a pipeline of work which allows for crowdsourcing activities (Figure 1). Furthermore, aerial photogrammetry with inexpensive, consumer-level drones for capturing entire sites can be part of the documentation process, subject to the country’s current UAV laws. For brevity of this paper, articles reviewing the techniques and applications of 3D imaging techniques are provided here for reference [20–24].
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Volunteered Geographical Information and Digital Social Networks applied to Tourism Dynamics in the “Alta and University of Coimbra” (UNESCO world (Heritage Site)

Volunteered Geographical Information and Digital Social Networks applied to Tourism Dynamics in the “Alta and University of Coimbra” (UNESCO world (Heritage Site)

Although the main goal of this comparative analysis applied to tourism in the “Alta” and University of Coimbra area is not to interpret data in light of the classic conceptions of desc[r]

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Geostatistics and Digital Social Networks - A study of tourism dynamics in “Alta and University of Coimbra” (UNESCO world heritage site)

Geostatistics and Digital Social Networks - A study of tourism dynamics in “Alta and University of Coimbra” (UNESCO world heritage site)

But the availability of modern spatial analysis techniques, such as density determination, cluster analysis, or pattern identification for turning native vector data into intelligent ras[r]

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Economic Value and Historical Scenic  Beauty: The Case of Chinampas (Raised  Beds) in Xochimilco, UNESCO World  Heritage Site, Mexico

Economic Value and Historical Scenic Beauty: The Case of Chinampas (Raised Beds) in Xochimilco, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Mexico

Wetlands are described as very important ecosystems since they provide a huge amount of goods (such as fishing, wood, edible plants, medicines, etc.) and environment services (such as flooding control, carbon collec- tion, water bodies directed nutrient provision, wild species and commercial-interest species housing, water fil- tration and cleanliness, bird and wild life appreciation, rambling, aesthetical value, etc.) of great value for socie- ty [2]-[6]. However, despite offering such environment goods and services to society, worldwide wetlands re- duction is increasing [7]. According to Barbier [8], since 1900, more than a half of world wetlands have already disappeared, and this is mainly because of: 1) production of most of the goods and services at the wetlands are public and/or have no properly established property rights [9] [10]; 2) decision makers or users who have no full knowledge of wetlands’ economic values commonly [11]; and 3) failures on political interventions or public and/or private projects [7]. As for the United States, it is estimated that 54% of the wetlands has already disap- peared due to farm and urban development mainly [11] [12]. It is a similar situation in Mexico, where according to Landgrave and Moreno-Casasola [13], loss of wetlands reached 62.1%.
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Browse Title Index

Browse Title Index

George Town and Melaka were inscribed as UNESCO World Heritage Site on 7th July 2008. These sites known as the “Historic Cities of the Straits of Malacca”. George Town is the capital city of Penang. This city was the first British port town and the oldest British colonial town in South East Asia. It represents 18th century of British footprint development and different from other places in the East and Southeast Asia (UNESCO, 2008). George Town represents 200 years of multi-cultural trading exchange between the West and the East, in which have created a tangible and intangible heritage. These elements convey a multi-cultural identity to the city. The heritage values of George Town lies on the Outstanding Universal Values (OUV) inscribed by UNESCO. The values of its contemporary uses and functions need to be taken into account during the evaluation.
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Advance Alert Monitor

Advance Alert Monitor

Due to the current civil war in Syria starting in 2011 many cultural heritage sites in the region have been put at risk. This paper discusses two Syrian UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Aleppo and Palmyra. Both date back millennia, and their destruction annihilates not only beautiful structures but our understanding of the past. To be classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, certain criteria must be met; this paper will briefly discuss how both Aleppo and Palmyra came under the protection of UNESCO. Next I will introduce both sides’ histories to give context as to what has been lost. The damage and destruction will be discussed in detail, using first hand sources including media reports. I will conclude with how the damage was confirmed via satellite images, and how drone footage may provide hope in salvaging, reconstruction and exposing people from around the world to this tragedy.
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Makli Sindhi Islamic Architecture consolidation Techniques (Anastolysis)

Makli Sindhi Islamic Architecture consolidation Techniques (Anastolysis)

Makli Hill Tombs, Unesco World Heritage Site, Thatta, Sind (Sindh), Pakistan. This is one of the largest necropolises in the world, with a diameter of approximately 8 kilometres, Makli Hill is the burial place of some 125,000 Sufi saints. It is located on the outskirts of Thatta, the capital of lower Sindh until the seventeenth century, in what is the south-eastern province of present-day Pakistan. The tomb of the Samma King, Jam Nizam al-Din (reigned 1461–1509), is an impressive square structure built of sandstone and decorated with floral and geometric medallions. The semi Monolithic, dry assemblages of the joints from the sites between the Jamia Masjid and Jam Nizamudin tomb, is Jam Tamachi canopy this case study, situated on an irregular typography; is inclined towards west, hence here a systematic chronological aspect attributes, in the context because the canopy is situated on an inclining slop, this
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Conserving history in changing arid environments: A geomorphological approach

Conserving history in changing arid environments: A geomorphological approach

As an example, let’s look at northern Africa. Climate change projections for Mediterranean Africa show an increase in extreme events, with higher temperatures but lower precipitation. According to the latest IPCC report, Tunisia is one of the countries where climate change will be most acutely felt, with approximately 1.5 times the global average temperature increase (Solomon et al, 2007) and a decrease in overall precipitation. These changes in climate regimes could have a disastrous effect on the conservation of heritage in this region which abounds in Roman monuments that document its rich and turbulent history (Ennabli, 2000). Salinization of arable land, caused by over-irrigation in low-precipitation areas, is known to be a large problem in northern Tunisia (Hachicha et al, 2000) but this increased level of salt may also pose a serious threat to the conservation of its built Roman heritage. Increased temperatures lead to increased evaporation of moisture from stone surfaces, leading to an accumulation of soluble salts on the surface. The salts, in combination with the increased thermal stressing of the stone surface, can speed up the already rapid deterioration process. El Jem is a UNESCO World Heritage site, described as ‘impressive ruins of the largest colosseum in North Africa, a huge amphitheatre which could hold up to 35,000 spectators (…). This 3rd-century monument illustrates the grandeur and extent of Imperial Rome” (UNESCO World Heritage List). Due to its location in an arid environment with close proximity to the Mediterranean Sea, and it’s high salt levels, as well as high levels tourism interest, this site could be at risk of rapid decay within a relatively short time span. It faces the same problems which Petra is currently dealing with, increased chemical weathering of the surface due to the proximity of large crowds of people, but in addition now faces
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Scenario-based application of neighborhood greening methods towards mitigating urban heat environment in a world heritage site - Malacca, Malaysia

Scenario-based application of neighborhood greening methods towards mitigating urban heat environment in a world heritage site - Malacca, Malaysia

Malacca city, located on the west coast of the central part of the Malaysian Peninsula, has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. At present, it is feared that the urban heat environmental condition will gradually worsen in the future. Employing a new design approach that modifies the surrounding heat environment by creating organically linked neighborhood green spaces, which encourage pedestrian walkability, will assist in efforts to conserve and improve the town as a sustainable heritage site. Through this research, firstly, future greening potential area were extracted based on the field survey and the results of the overlaid site appraisals which encompass microclimatic factor, visibility to the historical landscape elements and theoretical pedestrian movements by implementing computer simulation techniques. Based on the identified potential greening area, the three neighborhood greening scenarios were set: 1) based on the existing condition, 2) type of following existing conservation design guideline, and 3) type of maximized greening area with new pedestirian pathways. Then, the microclimate simulation was carried out for respective scenarios and the comparative study was made specifically from the viewpoint of where and how much each scenario could contribute to the urban heat environment mitigation through the investigation of changes of micrclimate conditions such as ambient temperature and surface temperature. From the results, we confirmed that the neighborhood greening approaches proposed through this study has been effectively functioned as a streetscape conservation-oriented urban heat environment improvement methods for historical town in a tropical region.
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The UNESCO World Heritage List as a stage: The case of the ancient Koguryŏ/Gaogouli Kingdom

The UNESCO World Heritage List as a stage: The case of the ancient Koguryŏ/Gaogouli Kingdom

it, as that is when it would be most effective. Visiting a heritage site or participating in cultural practices help the creation of heritage as it encourages people to actively identify themselves with it. 27 This interaction with heritage also includes discourse, as that would also have an effect on how people view, experience and relate to that heritage. As will become clear in chapter 4, the relation between Koguryŏ/Gaogouli heritage and the ethnic Korean people living in the Yanbian prefecture near the North Korean border is a clear example of how Koguryŏ/Gaogouli heritage is currently being used and placed into a different context by the Chinese government. Heritage has become an integral part of national identity. However, the link between heritage and identity is forged. As heritage is given meaning by local communities or a nation’s people, it also gives heritage a representative quality to outsiders and allows for tourists from other communities and nations to visit institutions such as museums or heritage sites in order to experience that culture and its corresponding heritage. Since the creation of the WHL, UNESCO has become an internationally renowned authority on heritage matters. When a heritage site is approved for the list, it means the site has gone through rigorous examination that takes in consideration the site’s authenticity and how valued it is universally. This UNESCO “seal of approval” brings in additional tourists and boosts the economy. The acknowledgement and recognition of heritage practices or sites by authority figures confirms its legitimacy and endorses its importance. As heritage sites have to meet certain criteria in
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Italian UNESCO World Heritage: Forms of Protection and Management Experiences

Italian UNESCO World Heritage: Forms of Protection and Management Experiences

As  an  example,  I  would  like  to  explain  the  case  of  the  49th  Italian  site:  The  Medici  Villas   and  gardens  in  Tuscany,  just  inscribed  on  the  World  Heritage  List  (WHL)  through  the   decision  of  the  World  Heritage  Committee  that  was  taken    in  Cambodia  in  June  2013.   The  property  is  made  up  of  14  monumental  complexes,  chosen  out  of  the  36  Medici   estates  that  were  surveyed  only  in  Tuscany.  The  14  properties  that  were  selected  are   located  in  the  territories  of  4  different  provinces  (Florence,  Lucca,  Pistoia,  Prato)  and  10   municipalities   (Barberino   del   Mugello,   Carmignano,   Cerreto   Guidi,   Fiesole,   Poggio   a   Caiano,   Quarrata,   San   Piero   a   Sieve,   Seravezza,   Vaglia).   The   ownership   varies:     6   of   them   belong   to   the   Italian   State,   1   to   the   Region   of   Tuscany,   1   of   the   Province   of   Florence,  2  to  Municipalities  and  4  are  privately  owned  and  with  very  different  kinds  of   use.    
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'Value in Change': What do World Heritage Nominations Bring to Chinese World Heritage Sites?

'Value in Change': What do World Heritage Nominations Bring to Chinese World Heritage Sites?

International authorities such as UNESCO emphasise that education is one of the significant purposes of heritage tourism (see Pedersen 2002). However, some visitors, such as WL078 and WL038, said that they wanted to learn something related to the culture or history of West Lake. The majority of tourists to West Lake were not there for education, but rather for the ‘feel’ of the site. As Coleman and Crang (2002:11) argue, 'tourism is a practice of ontological knowledge, an encounter with space that is both social and incorporates an embodied "feeling of doing"'. Being at the heritage site invoked tourists’ sense of feeling and was further tied to their various forms of agency, including a sense of empathy, sense of social or family connection and sense of pride, etc. Another dominant concept that is of concern to international heritage policy is about authenticity, in which unregulated heritage tourism is often defined as destructive of the authenticity of a material heritage site. As McKercher (1993) and McKercher and du Cros (2002, 2003) argue, tourists are marketing oriented, they come to heritage sites for cultural education or amusement, and the presence of tourists threatens the authenticity of heritage. International authorities have promulgated policies to ensure that ‘authentic’ heritage can be recognised by tourists. As I mentioned in Chapter 2, ICOMOS promulgated The Seoul Declaration on Tourism in Asia's Historic Towns and Areas in 2005 and stresses the ‘importance of accurate and aesthetic interpretation and presentation of heritage places for tourism’ (Ashworth 2009:80). Therefore, tourists have been defined as 'culturally inauthentic' and as passive sightseers, with little or no agency in the meanings they construct at heritage sites. However, the interviews at West Lake show that the performances of tourists at heritage sites can be mindful and complicated. The respondents often expressed their aspiration to experience authentic experiences. However, these authentic experiences are not only elicited by seeing or experiencing the 'authentic' objects or environment; rather it emerged from a sense of being emotionally engaged by the heritage site during their visiting. The emotions and feelings were tied to their memories, and helped them to construct a sense of place and influenced their social experiences in the present. Bagnall (2003) has suggested the utility of the term 'emotional realism', which reflects the active sense of tourists’ engagement, based on her survey at heritage sites in the UK, and Smith (2006:71) further develops this idea:
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Governing cultural heritage: UNESCO's World Heritage Convention.

Governing cultural heritage: UNESCO's World Heritage Convention.

Another transformation that occurred within the WHC framework was the creation of a new category of heritage by merging the once separate categories of natural and cultural sites. Some of the experts in the WHC began to recognize that certain cultural groups, especially Indigenous Peoples, have their cultural heritage inextricably linked to their natural environment. The administration of the WHC in 1992 created a new designation of ‘Cultural Landscapes’ that recognized that certain aspects of heritage involved both tangible and intangible components (UNESCO, 2003b). In 1993, for example, Tongariro National Park, in New Zealand was designated as the first ‘mixed’ site placed on the WHL as a natural setting that was culturally sacred to the Maori peoples (Plachter and Rossler, 1995: 17; Posey, 2002: 208). By expanding the horizons of the WHL from simply having monumental appointments as cultural heritage, the WHC is attempting to respond to criticism from its postcolonial members. Federico Mayor, former Director-General of the UNESCO, points out that the WHL “is in no way meant to be an ‘honours list’. . . it does not establish any order of importance between the world-
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Site of Jesus Baptism: From Discovery to World List Heritage

Site of Jesus Baptism: From Discovery to World List Heritage

Abstract: The Baptism Site “Bethany beyond the Jordan” (Al-Maghtas) is located in the Jordan RiftValley, north of the Dead Sea between two major sites Jerusalem to the west, and Mount Nebo to the east. The site was discovered during 1996,excavations revealed the presenceof threedistinct archaeological areas on the eastern bank of Jordan River, first,Tell al-Kharrar, also known as Jabal Mar Elias (Elijahs Hill) second, the area of the Monastery with its Large Pool, and third,Churches of St. John the Baptist. “Bethany beyond the Jordan” is of immense religious significance to the majority of denominations of Christian faith all over the world, who have accepted this site with its architectural remains and arts as the location where Jesus of Nazareth was baptized by John the Baptist. This reference encouraged generations of monks, hermits, pilgrims, priests and believers to reside in and visit the site, and to leave behind testimonies of their devotion and religious activities, dating to between the 1st and the 18th century AD.At present, the site has regained a popular status as pilgrimage destination for Christians, who continue to engage in baptism rituals on site. The site has gained the recognition of various churches around the world as World List Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2015 and considered as the actual site where early believers formed the early community of Christianity. The recovered architectural remains such as churches,mosaic floors,caves, andwater system,represent a majorcomplex built during Byzantine Period to commemorate sacred events for early believes.Since the excavations completed during 2002,the site has been extensively developed by the joint ofJordan Ministry of Tourism and Department ofAntiquities, but sensitively so - visitor numbers are controlled and the Visitors' Centre has been located at some distance from the site in an effort to preserve its sanctity. Other facilities include a restaurant, parking, and new churches werebuilt in the Baptism Sitefor praying.
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Ghosts of Sorrow, Sin and Crime: Dark Tourism and Convict Heritage in Van Diemen’s Land, Australia.

Ghosts of Sorrow, Sin and Crime: Dark Tourism and Convict Heritage in Van Diemen’s Land, Australia.

Convict settlement is not the only tourism draw to the area from which Sarah Island benefits. Sarah Island was added to the UNESCO World Heritage register as a cultural site in 1982, as part of the wider Tasmanian Wilderness area—a broad region com- prised of the Franklin and Gordon Rivers, in addition to Macquarie Harbor into which these rivers drain. Beyond its notoriety as an outstanding natural wilderness and site of dark convict heritage, this remote region generates broader public awareness and political interest as a nationally significant focus of popular protest and civic action. The Franklin and Gordon Rivers were subject to a popular campaign from the late 1970s to the early 1980s, when an attempt was made to construct a hydroelectric dam on the Franklin River. Popular support for BNo Dams^ on the Franklin below Gordon River became a divisive issue across Australia. The anti-dam campaign was a success, and retains a significant place in the popular history of both Tasmania and the BMainland.^ As such, the UNESCO conservation area created after the campaign has itself become a national destination for ecotourism and green activism (Fig. 5).
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Evaluating tourist sensory experience in melaka world heritage site

Evaluating tourist sensory experience in melaka world heritage site

4 Melaka is the most dominant urban heritage destination alongside with George Town, Penang after being listed as the World Heritage Sites (WHS) by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) on 8 th July 2008. Melaka and George Town have been jointly listed as the WHS because of their strong characteristics of living heritage and historical city for almost 500 years along the Straits of Malacca. Hence, Melaka and George Town have owned their Outstanding Universal Values (OUV) based on four criteria through their long history from the glorious port of the Melaka Sultanate (ca. 1400), until the occupation of the Portuguese, Dutch and British (Chin and Jorge, 2005; De Witt, 2010; Melaka Historical City Council, 2011a, 2011b). As a result, Melaka offers various eclectic architectural traces from the different eras (i.e., the Melaka Sultanate, the Portuguese, the Dutch and the British) such as The Stadthuys, A’Famosa, shophouses and also the vibrant and unique characteristics of Malay, Chinese, Indian, as well as Peranakan Baba and Nyonya cultural landscapes. Thus, Melaka provides a strong influence of sensory experience for its tourists to appreciate each unique element of the cultural heritage attractions from the built heritage, local food, arts and crafts as well as the local people’s daily activities.
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Analysis of Trace Metals in Commercially Important Crustaceans Collected from UNESCO Protected World Heritage Site of Indian Sundarbans

Analysis of Trace Metals in Commercially Important Crustaceans Collected from UNESCO Protected World Heritage Site of Indian Sundarbans

The shrimp species Penaeus monodon, Penaeus indicus, Penaeus semisulcatus, Penaeus marguensis and Metapenaeus brevicornis are commonly available in the mangrove dominated Indian Sundarbans region at the apex of Bay of Bengal. The knowledge of heavy metal concentrations in crustaceans are very important with respect to nature management, human consumption of these species and to determine the most useful biomonitor species and the most polluted area. Information on the distribution pattern of toxic heavy metal pollutants in aquatic environment becomes important so as to know the accumulation of such pollutants in the organisms and final transfer to man through sea foods. The International official regulatory agencies have set limits for heavy metal concentrations above which the fish is considered unsuitable for human consumption. However in the Indian sub-continent there is no safety level of heavy metals in fish and shrimp tissues. The present zone of investigation situated in and around Indian Sundarbans, a world Heritage Site, demands regular monitoring of metal status for effective management and conservation of this famous mangrove gene pool. The present study is important not only from the human health point of view, but it also presents a comparative account of heavy metals in edible shellfishes from two different sectors of Gangetic delta that are physico-chemically different. The high concentrations of heavy metals in commercially important crustaceans sampled from Nayachar Island (station 1) is a cause of concern, and requires regular monitoring of water quality around the point sources
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