We propose and assess the novel idea of using automatically induced constructions as a unit of analysis for corpus-based discourse analysis. Automated techniques are needed in order to elucidate important characteristics of corpora for social science research into topics, framing and argument structures. Compared with cur- rent techniques (keywords, n-grams, and collo- cations), constructions capture more linguistic patterning, including some grammatical phe- nomena. Recent advances in natural language processing mean that it is now feasible to auto- matically induce some constructions from large unannotated corpora. In order to assess how well constructions characterise the content of a corpus and how well they elucidate interesting aspects of different discourses, we analysed a corpus of climate change blogs. The utility of constructions for corpus-based discourse analy- sis was compared qualitatively with keywords, n-grams and collocations. We found that the unusually frequent constructions gave interest- ing and different insights into the content of the discourses and enabled better comparison of sub-corpora.
Similarly to classical NLP tasks such as base noun phrase chunking (Ramshaw and Marcus, 1994), text chunk- ing (Ramshaw and Marcus, 1995) or named entity recogni- tion (Tjong Kim Sang, 2002), we formulate the mention de- tection problem as a classification problem, by assigning to each segment (token) in the text a label, indicating whether it starts a specific mention, is inside a specific mention, or is outside any mentions. Those segments are the result of running the segmentation models on the input raw Arabic text. The segment becomes the unit of analysis when do- ing classification where it can be a morph segment, an ATB segment or also a word when no segmentation is conducted. When segmentation is performed, the unit of analysis (i.e., segment) is a prefix, a stem or a suffix.
Hence, if one compares the first and the last column of table 5, one would be tempted to say that the fiscal data lead to higher estimates of the parameters of the tax system such as the tax rate, the redistributive effect and the liability progression, than if they are calculated at the household levels. But one should be cautious with these conclusions, since more elements than the unit of observation alone, differ between the first and the last column. As explained above, we also used a different income concept for the first two and the last two columns of table 5. To single out possible differences that are due to differences in the income concept we recalculated the concepts, reported in table 5, with the same income concept in all columns. We used the pre-tax income of the fiscal data and the results are reported in table A2.1 of appendix 2. It turns out that our conclusion about the robustness of the tax reform measurement with respect to the unit of analysis is unaffected. But at the level of the tax systems, the underestimation of the parameters seems to be caused by the difference in the income concept underlying the columns of table 5.
A semi-Markov model of a cold standby system is developed. The system consists of two dissimilar units and a server. The working unit is taken as standard one whereas standby is taken as some duplicate unit. The standby unit can fail after crossing the maximum redundancy time. After failure the duplicate unit is degraded and went under inspection to check possibility of repair or replacement. The busy period of the server is analyzed using regenerative point technique of renewal theory. A particular is discussed using Weibull distribution.
allow for better management of the business risks. The value of these clauses may be important and should be added to the total value of the concession. However, in these cases, traditional valuation techniques, like the NPV (net present value) of the project, are insufficient. An alternative methodology for the valuation of highway concession is one based on the real options approach. This methodology is generally built on the assumption of the evolution of traffic volume as a GBM (geometric Brownian motion), which is the hypothesis analyzed in this paper. First, a description of the methodology used for the analysis of the existence of unit roots (i.e., the hypothesis of non-stationarity) is provided. The Dickey-Fuller approach has been used, which is the most common test for this kind of analysis. Then this methodology is applied to perform a statistical analysis of traffic series in Spanish toll highways. For this purpose, data on the AADT (annual average daily traffic) on a set of highways have been used. The period of analysis is around thirty years in most cases. The main outcome of the research is that the hypothesis that traffic volume follows a GBM process in Spanish toll highways cannot be rejected. This result is robust, and therefore it can be used as a starting point for the application of the real options theory to assess toll highway concessions.
As stated above, there are two competing analyses within DG regarding the status of auxiliary verbs. There is the traditional analysis that is assumed in DG frameworks such as Lexicase Grammar (Starosta,1988), Word Grammar (Hudson, 1990, 2007) and Meaning-Text Theory (Mel'čuk, 1988), and in numerous prominent DG works such as as Kunze (1975), Schubert (1987), Heringer (1996), Eroms (2000). The central status of the finite verb, which is an auxiliary verb if an auxiliary verb is present, reaches back to the earliest works in DG, namely to the treatises of Franz Kern (e.g. 1883, 1884) – Kern emphasized time and again the central role that the finite verb plays as the sen- tence root. The competing analysis is more recent; it is associated mainly with the annotation scheme of Universal Dependencies (UD) – see footnote 3. Of the 26 initial sentences we tested on in- formants, 15 of them contained an auxiliary verb. The tendency in this area is that informants prefer to chunk the sentence immediately before the auxiliary verb if the subject is a noun (phrase) or immediately after the auxiliary verb if the subject
To visualize the security classications, consider Fig. 2. The shaded area denes the valid data values. Since knowing that the database must satisfy the constraints, the user knows that the available fuel per vehicle cannot exceed 444 gallons (maximum 20,000 gallons fuel available for each unit divided by the minimum number of vehicles 45 for each unit) and, therefore, the maximal travel distance (3 times the available gallons of fuel per vehicle) is less than or equal to 1332 miles. The actual value of available fuel for each vehicle of unit A is 200 gallons, and the destination distance is 400 miles. The total volume of the valid constraint space is 295,704.
Biomechanics provides estimation of various mechanical stresses acting on the body while a person manually handles an object. Estimation of stresses imposed on the body musculoskeletal system based on biomechanical model was found to be successful (Maurel et al, 1996). National Institute For Occupational Safety And Health (NIOSH) recognised the problem of work related back injuries and published the Work Practices Guide (WPG) for manual lifting. Actual biomechanical analysis of lifting exertions often require measured values of applied trunk moments and forces as base line for validation data. Accurate measures of the trunk kinetic data are difficult to achieve from dynamic exertions without significant approximation, cost, or motion constraints. It calls for experimental set up by Granata (1996).
Every business is most concerned with its profitability. Profitability is the ability to make profit from all the business activities of an organization, company, firm, or an enterprise. It shows how efficiently the management can make profit by using all the resources available in the market. One of the most frequently used tools of financial ratio analysis is profitability ratios, which are used to determine the company's bottom line. Profitability ratios show a company's overall efficiency and performance. Profitability and management efficiency are usually taken to be positively associated: poor current profitability may threaten current management efficiency and vice versa; poor management efficiency may threaten profitability. It is related to the goal of shareholders‟ wealth maximization, and investment in current assets is made only if an acceptable return is obtained. While liquidity is needed for a company to continue business, a company may choose to hold more cash than needed for operational or transactional needs i.e. for precautionary or speculative reasons
The need for a new unit root test based on Autoregressive Neural Network (ARNN) nonlinearity is imperative since the evolution of the Neural Network (NN) process. Note that this process is slightly different from an AR process, and the process has gained its popularity due to its ability to approximate almost any nonlinear function arbitrarily close (Franses and van Dijk, 2003). When the ARNN model is applied to a time series that is characterized by nonlinearity, the model will detect this nonlinearity and provide a superior fit compared to the linear AR model. Noting that the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test of Dickey and Fuller (1979) is based on an AR process of order p, and many unit root tests for linearity and nonlinearity are based on this model foundation, there is the need to have an ARNN-unbiased unit root test, upon which unit root testing on NN-based series will be based, similar to ADF test. The Kapetanios, Snell and Shin (KSS, 2003) unit root test, for example, is based on the Exponential Smooth Transition Autoregression (ESTAR) nonlinearity, and quite a number of theoretical and empirical applications have accepted this unit root test as standard nonlinear AR unit root test for testing unit roots in nonlinear frameworks on economic and financial datasets majorly.
This paper provides an overview of possibilities for determining tractor's engine load, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions in real operating conditions. The use of accumulated database in tractor's electronic control modules for the analysis of engine load, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions is analysed. The methodology for analysis of engine power, speed and exhaust emissions dependencies, also for analysis of engine exhaust emissions is presented. This speeds up the process, reduces cycle time and increases efficiency of the process. After these operations the Engine is ready. Now after these operations Engine is forwarded to the Test Shop. There is a complete testing setup for every engine that comes out of the main assembly line. Here engine is thoroughly checked for its working and any possible faults such as engine noise, rpm, loading, leakages, exhaust smoke etc.
In a field where change and growth is inevitable, new electronic packaging problems continuously arise. Smaller, but more powerful devices are prone to overheating causing intermittent system failures, corrupted signals and outright system failure. Current study is focused on the analysis of the optimized working of electronic equipment from thermal point of view. In order to achieve the objective, an approach was developed for the thermal analysis of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) including the heat dissipation of its electronic components and then removal of the heat in a sophisticated manner by considering the conduction and convection modes of heat transfer. Mathematical modeling was carried out for a certain problem to address the thermal design, and then a program was developed in MATLAB for the solution of model by using Newton-Raphson method. The proposed unit is to be mounted on an aircraft having suspected thermal characteristics owing to abrupt changes in pressure and temperature as aircraft moves quickly from a lower altitude to higher altitude. In current study, dominant mode of heat transfer was conduction revealing that the major portion of heat transfer takes place by copper cladding and that heat conduction along the length of PCB can be improved enormously by using even thin layer of copper. The results confirmed that temperatures of all the electronic components were within derated values. Meanwhile, it was known that convection also plays a significant role in the reduction of temperatures of the components. The reduction in nodal temperature was in the range of 13 to 42 %. Furthermore, altitude variation from sea level to 15240 m (above sea level) caused the reduction in pressure from 1atm to 0.1095 atm. Consequently, the temperature of the electronic components increased from 73.25 o C to 83.83 o C for first node ‘a’, and from 66.04 o
Tesis ini mengkaji hubungan antara unit amanah dana pendapatan tetap dan unit amanah ekuiti bagi tempoh Januari 2006 hingga Oktober 2012. Kajian ini dijalankan untuk menyiasat samada prestasi kedua-dua unit amanah ini dapat mencapai prestasi yang lebih tinggi berbanding penanda aras pasaran. Perbandingan prestasi ini dibuat ke atas beberapa kategori sampel ekuiti iaitu ekuiti keseluruhan, ekuiti pertumbuhan dan ekuiti nilai. Indeks Komposit Kuala Lumpur (KLCI) dijadikan sebagai penanda aras pasaran bagi dana ekuiti dan dana pendapatan tetap dengan penanda aras pasaran tambahan iaitu Maybank deposit tetap 12-bulan. Sebanyak tiga puluh satu dana pendapatan tetap dan lima puluh tujuh sampel keseluruhan ekuiti dibahagikan kepada subsample iaitu tiga puluh tujuh dana ekuiti pertumbuhan dan dua puluh dana ekuiti nilai dikaji dengan menggunakan tiga prestasi pengukur iaitu indeks Treynor, Sharpe dan Jensen.
The scope of this research are only for terms in preventive maintenance; types of preventive activities, number of labors, inventory / spare parts, failures and any related terms for preventive maintenance. The terms of cost in labors and inventory for economic analysis will have two parameters as to be comparison, the first one is maintenance cost without optimization and the other one is maintenance cost with maintenance optimization. The result of these two parameters are depends on the characteristic life factors ( ɳ ) and mean time between failure ( MTBF ).
and compression installation so that the integration carried out later should bring economic profits. Such effi- ciency values can only be achieved by optimum technological structures if the best available technologies (BATs) are applied in the field of power engineering machinery and equipment. The paper presents the impact of the efficiency of individual elements of the power unit machinery and equipment on the plant overall effi- ciency. It can be seen that giving values of the power unit electricity generation efficiency without specifying the efficiencies of the unit main components is burdened with a considerable margin of uncertainty which may even be as high as several percentage points.
Two sets o f simulations were carried out using air as a com pressible and incom pressible working fluids. In the compressible case, we used air as an ideal gas and in the incompressible case we used air with constant properties at 25 °C. O f the whole volume flow / pressure characteristics curve o f the suction unit, we analyzed two operating points that match the m easurement points o f the experim ent. N um erical results for both selected volume flows show very good agreement with the pressure/volume flow characteristics o f the suction u n it w ith d isc re p a n c y o f in le t p re ssu re and aerodynam ic efficiency values being within 4%. Residual target o f 10-4 was achieved in converging calculations, usually within 300 iterations.
T HE PURPOSE OF THE PRESENT PAPER IS TO COMPUTE THE SENSITIVE BEHAVIOUR AND FAILURE ANALYSIS OF A F IBRE P LANT WHICH PRODUCES FIBRE FOR MAKING CLOTHES . A V ISCOSE S TAPLE F IBRE (VSF) P LANT CONSISTS OF FIVE SUBSYSTEMS CONNECTED IN SERIES , NAMELY V ENDOR ( WHO SUPPLIES RAW MATERIALS C HARCOAL AND S ULPHUR ), C ARBON DI SULPHIDE (CS 2 ) P LANT , A CID P LANT , P ULP P LANT , AND P ROCESSING P LANT . I N THE P ROCESSING P LANT TEN
The authors gratefully acknowledge the projects’ support of National Key Technology Support Program of China (Contract No.2011BAA02B00-01) and the Science and 2014 Year Technology Research Project of Heilongjiang Province Education Department (Name: Beam Pumping Unit and Motor Coupling Operation and Reasonable Matching Theory Research).