Air and auto are both large contributors to the overall US economy; neglect of these sectors from DOT would be an ineffective way to answer the transportation energy problems. Long distance HSR may not be able to compete with air due to slower speeds and ticket pricing. Also, Americans have developed a cultural norm of individualized car travel; to neglect that sector could result in a poor HSR system. Therefore, each region developing HSR travel in between highly populated urban centers would provide the highest potential to develop the most cost effective transportation system.
Part I provides an overview of technology-based standard setting and its shortcomings as an environmental regulation, and compares it with market- based alternatives. Part II explains the background of the environmental consumerism movement. As consumers demanded eco-friendly products and the industry responded by producing products claiming to be eco- friendly, various stakeholders—including non-governmental organizations, federal agencies, and state governments—contemplated methods for protecting consumers from unsubstantiated environmental claims. Part III evaluates three mainstream ecolabel programs in the UnitedStates: UnitedStatesDepartment of Agriculture (USDA) Organic for agricultural products, ENERGY STAR for appliances, and Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) for buildings. After an overview of the program, each ecolabel will be evaluated based on how consumers comprehend the ecolabel and whether the ecolabel program suffers from regulatory issues rooted in traditional command and control environmental theory. Finally, Part IV concludes by advocating for hybrid regulatory controls as effective strategies in promoting consumer comprehension.
Energy is essential to the society’s progress, and its efficient use is necessary in an environment with finite resources. The Brazilian industrial sector demanded a third of all energy consumed in 2017, while in the UnitedStates this share was 22% of primary energy consumption. The American government invests significantly in research and development to promote energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy since the oil crisis in 1973. Energy is the most expensive input for the industry and energy efficiency measures can reduce the structural and production costs, but many projects can imply in high investments. This work classified projects of energy efficiency in order to be used in the decision-making process within the industry for resource allocation. It was used data from 97 energy efficiency projects implemented in 32 companies in the UnitedStates available on the Department of Energy website, which were ranked by the TOPSIS multi criteria decision making methodology using financial and sustainability indicators as criteria, varying the criteria weights in 9 scenarios. The final rankings obtained resulted that maintenance projects for leakage, purge traps and insulation should be the starting point independently of the weights assigned to the criteria.
It consists of silicon pixel, semi-conductor micro-strip, and transition radiation tracking detectors. Lead/liquid-argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters provide electromagnetic (EM) energy measurements with high granularity. A hadronic (iron/scintillator-tile) calorimeter covers the central pseudorapidity range ( | η | < 1.7). The end-cap and forward regions are instrumented with LAr calorimeters for both EM and hadronic energy measurements up to | η | = 4.9. The muon spectrometer surrounds the calorimeters and incorporates three large air-core toroid superconducting magnets with bending power between 2.0 Tm and 7.5 Tm, a system of precision tracking chambers and fast detectors for triggering. A three-level trigger system is used to select events. The first-level trigger is implemented in hardware and uses a subset of the detector information to reduce the rate to at most 75 kHz. This is followed by two software-based trigger levels that together reduce the event rate to approx- imately 300 Hz. The trigger requirements were adjusted to changing data-taking conditions during 2011.
DNA isolation. A single colony of yeast-phase H. capsulatum var. capsulatum was grown at 37°C in the citrate broth of Pine et al. (18) in a gyratory shaker at 120 rpm for 3 days. The yeast cells were harvested and washed three times in sterile distilled water by centrifugation at 2,000 ⫻ g. Genomic DNA was ex- tracted from H. capsulatum var. capsulatum yeast cells with the Puregene DNA isolation kit (Gentra Systems, Inc. Minneapolis, Minn.). For atypical strains, which were not able to convert to the yeast phase, the DNA was extracted from fungal hyphae by a previously described method (7). DNA quantification was done in a Gene Quant pro RNA/DNA calculator (Amersham Pharmacia Bio- tech, Cambridge, United Kingdom).
The typical cycle of daily LHC operations involves a period of beam injection and energy ramp, optimisation for collisions, declaration of collisions with stable conditions, a long period of physics data-taking, and finally a dump of the beam. The SCT remains continuously powered regardless of the LHC status. In the absence of stable beam conditions at the LHC, the SCT modules are biased at a reduced high voltage of 50 V to ensure that the silicon sensors are only partially depleted; in the unlikely event of a significant beam loss, this ensures that a maximum of 50 V is applied temporarily across the strip oxides, which is not enough to cause electrical breakdown. Normal data-taking requires a bias voltage of 150 V on the silicon in order to maximise hit efficiencies for tracking, and the process of switching the SCT from standby at 50 V to on at 150 V is referred to as the ‘warm start’. Once the LHC declares stable beam conditions, the SCT is automatically switched on if the LHC collimators are at their nominal positions for physics, if the background rates measured in BCM, BLM and the ATLAS forward detectors are low enough, and if the SCT hit occupancy with 50 V is consistent with the expected luminosity.
8 When one wants to gain knowledge about how relations of dependence translate themselves into alignment in international decision-making procedures, hardly any literature focusing on small states or any sample of small states, can be found. In Armstrongs’ article, for example, the depicted dependent states are countries like Japan, France, England, and other relatively big powers (Armstrong, 1981; p. 401). Carney focusses on lesser developed countries, while Richardson & Kegley only focus on Third World countries (Carney, 1989; Richardson & Kegley, 1980). None of these focus groups can be equaled to small states as small states often come with an inherent set of characteristics related to their smallness, such as low level of military capabilities and limited resources for conducting foreign policy activities (East, 1973; p. 577). This neglect is rather surprising considering the general assumption that small states tend to be reliant on superpowers for resources, partnerships and protection (Hey, 2002; p. 5). Moreover, only very few of above mentioned articles focus on the patron-client relation, which can yield valuable insights due to its focus on loyalty and affectivity. Lastly, the dates of the above quoted articles indicate that most literature on the relation between dependence and loyalty is fairly outdated and that there is a high need for more recent research on the topic. This is especially so since much of the literature can said to be stuck in the Cold War area, in which patrons and clients had different motives for alignment, and many issues have since then variably lost and gained salience.
response, Eisenhower insisted on a more positive promotion of the nuclear industry which emphasised the potentiality of 'peaceful' nuclear applications and the highly rhetorical 'Atoms for Peace' program was launched shortly thereafter^93 The program title, was however, value-laden as all language is. Just like the names given to many nuclear power plants, such as Rhapsodie, Phenix (sic) and Joyo294^ the 'Atoms for Peace' title was designed in part to help sell U.S. nuclear technology abroad. 'Atoms', in addition to denoting physical entities, suggested building blocks - the nuclei of development, while '[F] or' suggested that atoms were usable, under control, able to be directed towards 'Peace', downplaying accident risks. 'Peace' in the context of 'atoms', and the program objectives, suggests the use of nuclear technology for non-military purposes and to avoid war; industrial development and nuclear trade expansion. The language also has certain spiritual or psychological overtones - the opposite of existential angst, guilt and fear which was also prevalent in the 1950s^95 At the U.N., then President Eisenhower also claimed that peaceful power from atomic energy was no dream of the future, but a proven capability, open to development and transformation into 'universal, efficient and economic usage'296 The IAEA was to be responsible for mobilising experts to apply atomic energy for agriculture, medicine and other peaceful activities. Eisenhower's speech did not address the links between 'peaceful' nuclear capabilities and proliferation which had been identified by the earlier Acheson-Lilenthal Plan, nor the Candor Report recommendations urging public disclosure about the dangers and extent of both nuclear arms stockpiles and the growing nuclear arms anarchy.
The well-known “Rosenfeld Curve” (Fig. 25) shows how the state of California slowed the growth of its per capita electricity consumption as early as the 1970s con- trasted against the continuing rise of consumption in the rest of the U.S [121–123]. While advocates of energy efficiency regulation commonly make a simple one-to-one correlation between California’s significant regulations and the relative difference in electricity con- sumption to the rest of the U.S., the reasons for the dif- ference are more complicated. California’s temperate climate, industrial composition, level of urbanization, building size, household composition, demographics, and many other factors all help it achieve lower energy use. Further, many of California’s energy efficiency initia- tives have led to lower energy consumption in the rest of the U.S. For example, California policy requirements may lead a manufacturer to increase the energy effi- ciency of a product wherever it is sold resulting in a lower relative difference in electricity consumption and obscuring the impact of regulation in California.
When an earthquake occurs near a nuclear power plant (NPP), specific information is quickly needed to support accurate real-time situational awareness, assessment of the potential impact to the installation, informed decision making, and effective communication with key stakeholders. To address this important need, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the UnitedStates Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in collaboration with the UnitedStates Geological Survey (USGS), are developing and implementing a custom ShakeCast system for post-earthquake real-time notification of ground shaking at NPP sites. The custom system, called Nuclear ShakeCast, is being developed to meet the unique informational needs of the global nuclear community. The project is currently focused on developing and implementing the Nuclear ShakeCast system within the IAEA and NRC. However, the software will be freely available to the international nuclear community once developed.
The offline E T miss calculation includes the momentum of identified muons, which is important to reject background events from SM processes with muons, such as Z → µµ, that pass the calorimetric E T miss trigger. For events with metastable R-hadrons, the offline E miss T requirement is very efficient (around 95%) due to the neutralinos in the event. For stable R-hadrons that pass the trigger requirement, the offline E T miss cut is also e ffi cient (around 90%), as the R-hadrons do not deposit significant energy in the calorimeter and in most events the R-hadron pair is boosted from initial-state radiation. Many R-hadrons fail to be identified as muons because they are in a neutral charge state going through either the inner detector or the muon spectrometer. Even if a charged R-hadron with β < 1 traverses the muon spectrometer, it can fail to be identified by the standard muon reconstruction algorithm as a prompt muon due to its late time of arrival. In a typical R-hadron model considered in this search, only 30% of stable R-hadrons with a reconstructed track in the inner detector are identified as prompt muons entering into the E T miss calculation.
In late November, a report  from the group Environment America made the case that the U.S. could, and should, set a goal of “obtaining at least 10 percent of its electricity from solar power by 2030.” The group said, to accomplish that, solar capacity would need to grow at an annual rate of 22 percent between 2013 and 2030-slower than what has been seen in recent years.“Given the growth of solar over the last few years, getting to 10 percent of U.S. electricity from solar should happen far sooner than 2030,” Sun Edison founder and clean energy entrepreneur Jigar Shah said in a statement released with the report.
Since black holes and string balls are expected to decay predominantly to quarks and gluons, the search is simplified by considering only jets. The analysis uses jets of hadrons, as well as misidentified jets arising from photons, electrons, and taus. Using the hadronic energy calibration instead of the dedicated calibration developed for these objects leads to small energy shifts. Since particles of these types are expected to occur in less than 0.6% of the signal events in the data sample (as determined from simulation studies), such calibration effects do not contribute significantly to the resolution of H T .
ABSTRACT. Objectives. Emergency department (ED) overcrowding has become a national problem. Children account for nearly 25% of overall ED visits. It has been reported that uninsured and publicly insured children are likely to visit the ED for urgent and nonurgent prob- lems, yet it remains unclear to what extent health insur- ance status would influence children’s overall ED utili- zation or ED utilization for nonurgent problems at the national level after controlling for other confounding factors. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of health insurance status on children’s overall ED utilization and children’s ED utilization for nonurgent problems among the general pediatric population in the UnitedStates.
Comorbid conditions of heat stroke ED visits reported in our study are similar to those found in previous studies (Jardine 2007; NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene 2006; Wheeler et al. 2013). Specifically, the most commonly recorded comorbid condition is fluid and elec- trolyte disorders, followed by acute and unspecified renal failure, other connective tissue disease, and essential hypertension. It is plausible that some of these comorbid conditions, e.g., fluid and electrolyte disorders and un- specified renal failure, might be in fact the consequences of heat stroke rather than preexisting conditions.
particles is emulated by a dedicated simulation  based either fully on G eant  or on a faster para- meterisation  for the calorimeter response and G eant for other detector systems. To account for additional pp interactions from the same and close-by bunch crossings, a set of minimum-bias interac- tions generated using P ythia v8.210 , referred to as P ythia 8 in the following, with the A2  set of tuned MC parameters (A2 tune) is superimposed on the hard-scattering events. In order to reproduce the same pile-up levels present in the data, the distribution of the number of additional pp interactions in the MC samples is reweighted to match the one in the data. All samples are processed through the same reconstruction software as the data. Simulated events are corrected so that the object identification, reconstruction and trigger efficiencies, energy scales and energy resolutions match those determined from data control samples.
The ID consists of a silicon pixel detector, a silicon microstrip detector (SCT), providing tracking information within pseudorapidity | η | < 2.5, and a straw-tube transition radiation tracker (TRT) that covers | η | < 2.0. The central electromagnetic calorimeter is a lead and liquid-argon (LAr) sampling calorimeter with high granularity, and is divided into a barrel region that covers | η | < 1.475 and end-cap regions that cover 1.375 < | η | < 3.2. An iron/scintillator tile calorimeter provides hadronic energy measurements in the central pseudorapidity range. The forward regions are instrumented with LAr calorimeters covering 3.1 < | η | < 4.9 for both the electromagnetic and hadronic energy measurements. The MS covers | η | < 2.7 and consists of three large superconducting toroid magnets with eight coils each, a system of trigger chambers, and precision tracking chambers. The ATLAS detector has a three-level trigger system , used to select events to be recorded for offline analysis. The first-level trigger is hardware-based and uses a subset of the detector information to reduce the physical event rate from 40 MHz to at most 75 kHz. The second and third levels are software-based and together reduce the event rate to about 300 Hz.