available for African Americans (Bonilla-Silva, 2006; Omi & Winant, 2014).
This focus on colorblindness (and potential white as- piration) extends across the American Muslim sphere. In her dissertation on Zatyuna College, the first Mus- lim institution of higher education in the UnitedStates, Maryam Kashani (2014) shows how the faculty and stu- dent body of Zaytuna—the majority from immigrant Muslim families—often attempt to see past this color- blindness, ensuring that African American Islam is recog- nized as an important elements of American Islam and describing the hard challenges of structural racism as ex- perienced by (and sometimes maintained by) American Muslims (Beydoun, 2018). The university was founded by a white convert, an African American convert, and a Palestinian American (Kashani, 2014, p. 12), and its les- son plans often seek to acknowledge and reconcile real racial differences in American Islam, rather than simply papering them over as so many different colors of skin in the mosque. Yet such work is noteworthy precisely because it is not necessarily common. Indeed, the pop- ularity of the white convert founder Hamza Yusuf (and the growing success of other white converts) can be in- terpreted as an implicit wish for cultural assimilation, as Kashani (2014) describes: “As a symbolic figure for a type of American Islam, Yusuf embodied the possibilities for other Muslims to assimilate, whether they were from Pakistan, Syria, Indonesia, or Afghanistan…signify[ing] aspirations of whiteness and cultural citizenship in an American landscape of racial inequality and subjuga- tion” (Kashani, 2014, pp. 114–115; see also Grewal, 2013, pp. 159–169, 305–313; Tourage, 2013). A second- generation effort to create an “American Islam” that moves beyond ethnic differences between Muslim immi- grant groups can, ironically, reproduce a white colorblind ideology through ignoring or at least downplaying what Sherman Jackson (2009) calls “the problem of black suf- fering”. To be clear, this is not to argue that all immigrant Muslims seek such a colorblind ideology or that an Amer- ican ummah is necessarily colorblind. Indeed, the key ar- gument of this article is that immigrant Muslims’ racial hinges give them access to a variety of racial strategies of action, and the degree to which these are used by any one individual or group—as well as how often they are used—are separate empirical questions.
negative headlines. Despite the fact that Islam is the second largest religion in the world and the third largest religion in the UnitedStates-as well as the fact that American Muslims are an integral part of the American mosaic in the twenty-first century-the acts of terrorists over the last three decades have fed the growth of Islamophobia…” (Lean, x). Esposito goes on to say that “Islam and Muslims have become guilty until proven innocent, a reversal of the classic American legal maxim” (Lean, x). Esposito defines Islamophobia as “an unfounded irrational fear that tends to lead to bias, discrimination, hate speech and hate crimes” (Hinton, “Q&A With Islamic Studies Scholar John L.”). He critiques the American media in promoting Islamophobia because of the rhetoric they use that reaches millions of people, such as describing all Muslims as terrorists, but not doing the same when a white male or non-Muslim commits a similar crime. Esposito states that one of the main problems he sees with American media is the lack of facts or evidence the commentators have when they are presenting stories on Islam. Because of this lack of knowledge, it continues the cycle of ignorance and bigotry that feeds Islamophobia.
When it comes to peace, conflict, and interfaith dialogue, Ayatollah Alavi Boroujerdi argues that people of faith have an obligation to each other and humankind to come together and denounce violence. Particularly during the current societal movements toward materialism, Ayatollah Boroujerdi states that interfaith dialogue is of utmost importance. He continues, saying the common point of all divine religions is that people are responsible for every action they take in this world. Many of the wars and conflict around the world are carried out in the name of religion. As a result of the violation of human ethical values emphasized in religion, millions are suffering. Consequently, people of faith have a responsibility to reflect on the causes for war and suffering in the world, and to determine what to do about them. Ayatollah Boroujerdi questions people of faith asking, “Why are we still seeing so many violations [against people] when we have thousands of mosques, synagogues, and churches?” At the same time, Ayatollah Boroujerdi affirms that, “we should not limit ourselves to condemnation, but come together to find a
31 Islam is practiced differently by natives of different countries; Iran has different cultural and religious practices (Iranians practice Shia Islam, like 10 to 20% of all Muslims). Moreover, the history of diplomatic relations between Iran and the U.S has been unstable and tense and is likely to have had an influence on the author’s personal views and arguments. In the interview cited before, the interviewer says “people need to understand too, you’re speaking from experience, because you were raised in Iran.” However, the author explains that he was born in Iran into a Shia Muslim family, but came to the U.S. at age15. He mentions that his father was a fundamentalist Shia Muslim, saying “I had this example before me, although I didn’t fully practice it myself.” In America, he experienced “the American dream.” He explains that he succeeded in business but there was emptiness in his heart. At age 28, he was born again: a friend of his invited him to go to church and he found what he had missed. He adds later “I had a major encounter face to face with the lord Jesus Christ in my living room.” His story is the reverse of that of the American converts to Islam whose stories we will discuss in Chapter Three. But while American converts to Islam respect Christianity, but see Islam as the reformed, last revelation of the same religion by God, Karimi presents Islam as a negative force and a threat to America and Christianity, presented as the epitome of freedom. 32
considering Israel is the “only democracy in the Middle East,” this line has become increasingly difficult to sustain in the face o f markedly undemocratic Israeli actions, in particular, the continuing occupation o f the West Bank and Gaza Strip. One therefore m ust consider possible alternative explanations for the asymmetric support the UnitedStates bestows on the state. Like Said, Lieven believes the underlying reason for their support has less to do with Israel being a “bastion o f democracy,” than it does with the more insidious, orientalist view shared by many American politicians that Israel is actually “an island o f Western civilization in a sea o f savagery.” Indeed, as he points out, the use o f “democracy” in this context “sometimes seems more a contemporary version o f the nineteenth-century use o f the word “civilization” than a reference to actual behavior.” 115 As an example, Lieven cites a M arch 2001 speech given by Oklahoma Republican Senator James Inhofe in which he quoted a passage from M ark Twain regarding his travels through “a desolate Palestine” to prove the point that Israel truly was, as Golda M eir put it, a “land without a people for a people without a land,” and, in taking this desert land to make it bloom, the Israeli people had much in common with the American pioneers who too had no choice but to sacrifice the lives/livelihoods o f native inhabitants to make way for this great project in “civilization.” 116 Vice President Dick Cheney used more recent events to compare Israel’s civilisational struggle with the Arab/Muslim world with that o f the UnitedStates’ “war against terror.” In remarks to the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) 2006 Policy Conference commending Israel’s “patience,” “moral courage, and decisive action” in the face o f Palestinian “terrorism,” Cheney explained that the UnitedStates and other “civilized nations” must maintain such
Given the multifactorial nature of depression and anxiety, and the ambiguities inherent in psychiatric diagnosis and treatment, some have questioned whether the mass provision of SSRIs is the result of an over- medicalized society. These sentiments were voiced by Lord Warner, United Kingdom Health Minister, at a recent hearing: “…I have some concerns that sometimes we do, as a society, wish to put labels on things which are just part and parcel of the human condition”. He went on to say, “Particularly in the area of depression we did ask the National Institute for Clinical Excellence [an independent health organisation that provides national guidance on treatment and prevention] to look into this particular area and their guideline on depression did advise non-pharmacological treatment for mild depression” . Sentiments such as Lord Warner’s, about over-medicalization, are exactly
Amendment, section 2.) The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the UnitedStates, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five and Georgia three.
Sluggish economic growth and an impover- ished countryside have helped fuel an exodus of Mexicans to the UnitedStates. Today over eleven million people born in Mexico live in the UnitedStates, roughly half without legal documents. Originally most Mexicans who mi- grated to the UnitedStates came from only one hundred or so municipalities, largely concentra- ted in a few states in the north and center-west of the country, and they settled overwhelm- ingly in California, Texas, and Illinois. Today, there is hardly a place in Mexico that does not have a significant number of residents living in the UnitedStates, and they are scattered through- out the fifty U.S. states. It is hard to imagine that migration will ever slow significantly as long as such a large wage gap exists between the two countries and Mexico’s economic growth re- mains as slow as it has been.
Free and unfettered competition is at the heart of the American economy. The UnitedStates Supreme Court has observed, "ultimately, competition will produce not only lower prices but also better goods and services. 'The heart of our national economic policy long has been faith in the value of competition.'" National Society of Professional Engineers v. UnitedStates, 435 U.S. 679, 695 (1978) (citing Standard Oil Co. V. FTC, 340 U.S. 231, 248 (1950)); accord, Federal Trade Commission v. Superior Court Trial Lawyers Association, 493 U.S. 411, 423 (1990). Competition benefits consumers both of traditional manufacturing industries and of services offered by the learned professions. Goldfarb v. Virginia State Bar, 421 U.S. 773, 787 (1975); National Society of Professional Engineers, 435 U.S. at 689. In several states, non-lawyers compete with attorneys in providing real estate closings. Such competition has resulted in lower prices and more choices in how and where closing services are provided. The recently adopted Opinions likely erect an insurmountable barrier against competition from these lay settlement services.
The Accounting Act requires that issuers listed on Oslo Børs with Norway as Home State disclose their policies, compliance and practices regarding issuer’s controls and procedures in the annual report. Oslo Børs may exempt issuers from this requirement where the issuer is subject to (1) an equivalent requirement under US law or listing requirement,(2) ‘a consistency check’ by the issuer’s auditor, and (3) provided it states where such disclosure is otherwise available. Under the ‘consistency check,’ the auditor assesses, among others, whether the annual financial statements are in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. In addition, the issuer must have organized its financial management to ensure that financial reporting is produced with sufficient quality and speed.
The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern UnitedStates in ⬍50 years is considered one of the most spectacular biological invasions yet documented. In the American tropics, it has been shown that during their expansion Africanized honeybees have low levels of introgressed alleles from resident European populations. In the UnitedStates, it has been speculated, but not shown, that Africanized honeybees would hybridize extensively with European honeybees. Here we report a continuous 11-year study investigating temporal changes in the genetic structure of a feral population from the southern UnitedStates undergoing Africanization. Our microsatellite data showed that (1) the process of Africanization involved both maternal and paternal bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honeybees and (2) the panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic mixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes within 5 years after Africanization. The post-Africanization gene pool (1998–2001) was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean 25–37%). Therefore, the resulting feral honeybee population of south Texas was best viewed as a hybrid swarm.
Table 7 presents the differences in growth rates for the Nation and New York City and a decomposition of those differences for the entire 1990–2008 period and three subperiods. (For the entire period and each subperiod, the within effect and the share effect sum to within 0.1 percentage point of the actual difference, indicating that the residual term in equation (6) was generally close to 0.0.) As the table indicates, average growth rates for the 1990–95 period were relatively strong in both the Nation and New York City: . percent per year and .0 percent, respectively. During the 1995–2002 subperiod, when a number of measures previously discussed focused on reducing the growth of spending, particularly in hospitals, the rates of employment growth fell in the UnitedStates and New York City, but the deceleration was sharper in the City, and the difference between the average growth rates widened to 0.6 percentage point. In the last subperiod in the table, the pace of employment growth accelerated in both the Nation and the City, but the difference between the two did not narrow appreciably.
ments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amend- ment which may be made prior to the Year One thou- sand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Sec- tion of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.
UnitedStates plus the District of Columbia. Each expert panel member was assigned to a dyad based on geographic location and time zone. Each dyad reviewed four to five articles and abstracted the infor- mation on to the template table of evidence that was provided. Each dyad needed to reach consensus when entering information on the table of evidence. In the event a dyad could not reach consensus, Sheila Haas or Beth Ann Swan reviewed the article.